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cerebral paragonimiasis.the first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by otani in japan in 1887. this was nine years after kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by baelz and manson. the first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. the patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. the postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the ...19751095292
comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.a white bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (crd) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white bengal tigers, orange bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually im ...19902298663
use of a subunit feline leukemia virus vaccine in exotic cats.three adult bengal tigers, 2 immature white tigers, and 3 adult servals were vaccinated im with three 1-ml doses of a subunit felv vaccine with dosage interval guidelines of the manufacturer. all cats had increased antibody titers to felv gp 70 capsular antigen and feline oncornavirus cell membrane-associated antigen during the vaccination trial. three weeks after the third vaccination, 7 of the 8 cats had gp70 antibody titers greater than 0.2 (optical density), and all 8 cats had feline oncorna ...19882835347
cyclohexanone as an anesthetic for the leopard and the bengal tiger. 19695388174
chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a bengal tiger.a chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed bengal tiger. clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular ...19836685717
dermatophytosis of tiger caused by microsporum canis.microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a bengal tiger in april, 1979. in clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. the skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. the infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were ar ...19817219512
a fatal infection in a bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.a young bengal tiger born and kept in a german zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. this is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger.19968814537
convergent strabismus in a white bengal tiger.a white bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. the tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. a fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically ...199910197239
differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.in our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (mne) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the mne diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. the number of spontaneous mne that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and no ...200111423355
meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. the animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of ...200212088319
big cat scan: magnetic resonance imaging of the tiger.in august 2002, we performed mri scans on a female juvenile bengal tiger. we present the clinical course, imaging and autopsy findings, and some comparative anatomy of the tiger brain and skull. magnetic resonance images of a tiger have not previously been published.200415027932
genotyping faecal samples of bengal tiger panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: a pilot study.bengal tiger panthera tigris tigris the national animal of india, is an endangered species. estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. dna methods based on non-invasive sam ...200617044939
pericardial mesothelioma in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 17-year-old bengal tiger (panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. during attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. at necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. this is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.200818432108
chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male bengal tiger, panthera tigris.the territorial marking fluid of the male bengal tiger, panthera tigris, consists of a mixture of urine and a small quantity of lipid material that may act as a controlled-release carrier for the volatile constituents of the fluid. using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 98 volatile compounds and elemental sulfur were identified in the marking fluid. another 16 volatiles were tentatively identified. the majority of these compounds were alkanols, alkanals, 2-alkanones, ...200818437496
mhc class i and mhc class ii drb gene variability in wild and captive bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris).bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i and mhc class ii drb genes for wild and captive tigers from india. we amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of mhc class i and beta-1 domain of mhc class ii drb genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. we detect ...201020821315
fourteen new di- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the critically endangered indian tiger (panthera tigris tigris).we describe 11 dinucleotide and three tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the critically endangered indian tiger, panthera tigris tigris. all of them were polymorphic with four to nine alleles per locus and an observed heterozygosity between 0.13 and 1.0. all primers also amplify microsatellite loci in leopard, panthera pardus, and 12 primer pairs yielded reproducible results in domestic cat, felis catus. these new microsatellites specifically developed for indian tiger - in combination with ...200821586082
molecular characterization of hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered indian wild felids and canids.hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. the objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of hepatozoon spp. in asiatic lion, indian tiger, indian leopard, indian wild dog, indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18s rrna gene sequences from hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 indian tigers, 2 out of ...201122154254
coloboma of the optic nerve head in bengal tiger kittens (panthera tigris tigris). 20144036750
electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of helicobacter acinonychis strains from a bengal tiger.colonization by helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. these infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel helicobacter spp. from bengal tigers in thailand. morphological investigation (gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16srrna, 23srrna, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, rapd dna fingerprinting and ...201323940723
carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by alpine goats (capra hircus).the efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of alpine goats (capra hircus) was examined. in the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the bengal tiger, siberian tiger, african lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets cont ...199324248787
influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. the objectives of this study were 1) to determin ...201627898922
nanog is an essential factor for induction of pluripotency in somatic cells from endangered felids.nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. to examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from asia (bengal tiger, panthera tigris), africa (serval, leptailurus serval), and the americas (jaguar, panthera onca). dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors oct4, sox2, klf4, and cmyc with or without nanog. both four- and five-factor induction resulte ...201323514873
panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered bengal tiger: a pilot study.in india, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across india as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation an ...201424455462
construction of a full-length enriched cdna library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from bengal tiger panthera tigris tigris.in this study, a full-length enriched cdna library was successfully constructed from bengal tiger, panthera tigris tigris, the most well-known wild animal. total rna was extracted from cultured bengal tiger fibroblasts in vitro. the titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28 × 106 pfu/ml and 1.56 × 109 pfu/ml respectively. the percentage of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.2% and average length of exogenous inserts was 0.98 kb. a total of 212 individual ests with sizes rangi ...201323708105
chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a 19-year-old female bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the t7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. the tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the t7 spinal cord. histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells ...201525766770
tigers of sundarbans in india: is the population a separate conservation unit?the sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. we utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial dna (mtdna) genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demogra ...201425919139
population dynamics of amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik: 1966-2012.in 2010, the world's tiger (panthera tigris) range countries agreed to the goal of doubling tiger numbers over 12 years, but whether such an increase is biologically feasible has not been assessed. long-term monitoring of tigers in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik (sabz), russia provided an opportunity to determine growth rates of a recovering population. a 41-year growth phase was followed by a rapid decline in tiger numbers. annual growth rates during the growth phase averaged 4.6%, beginning ...201526037543
magnetic resonance imaging study in a normal bengal tiger (panthera tigris) stifle joint.the purpose of this study was to describe the normal appearance of the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint of a bengal tiger (panthera tigris) by low-field magnetic resonance imaging (mri), and the use of gross anatomical dissections performed as anatomical reference. a cadaver of a mature female was imaged by mri using specific sequences as the spin-echo (se) t1-weighting and gradient-echo (ge) stir t2-weighting sequences in sagittal, dorsal and transverse planes, with a magnet ...201526260666
planning tiger recovery: understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation.although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. we analyze ...201526601191
fine-scale population genetic structure of the bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) in a human-dominated western terai arc landscape, india.despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. these factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. the terai arc landscape (tal) at the foothills of the himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affec ...201728445499
conservation priorities for endangered indian tigers through a genomic lens.tigers have lost 93% of their historical range worldwide. india plays a vital role in the conservation of tigers since nearly 60% of all wild tigers are currently found here. however, as protected areas are small (<300 km(2) on average), with only a few individuals in each, many of them may not be independently viable. it is thus important to identify and conserve genetically connected populations, as well as to maintain connectivity within them. we collected samples from wild tigers (panthera t ...201728851952
noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an amur tiger population in china.understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. however, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in china. in this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 h ...201626663614
prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in indian zoos.india's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. it is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors ...201728414723
the tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.tigers and their close relatives (panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. here we report the de novo assembly of an amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white bengal tiger, african lion, white african lion and snow leopard. through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. we report a snow leopard-spec ...201324045858
non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis in big cats using the pgfm (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-pgf2α) assay.non-invasive monitoring of hormones using feces has become a vital tool for reproductive management and reliable pregnancy diagnosis in big cats. previous studies described the pgf2α metabolite (pgfm) as an indicator of pregnancy in various feline species. the present study aimed to standardize pregnancy detection in big cats like the tiger (panthera tigris), jaguar (panthera onca) and lion (panthera leo) using fecal samples. high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and liquid chromatograph ...201526633886
the genetic basis of white tigers.the white tiger, an elusive bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of india. many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. however, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. here, ...201323707431
elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (dugong dugong) by hh-xrf analysis and comparison with other species.the elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as asian elephant (elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. a total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld x-ra ...201728387333
a thymic carcinoid in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).an 18-yr-old bengal tiger (panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. the cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.200517312779
density and carrying capacity in the forgotten tigerland: tigers in understudied nepalese churia.while there are numerous wildlife ecology studies in lowland areas of nepal, there are no in-depth studies of the hilly churia habitat even though it comprises 7,642 km(2) of potential wildlife habitat across the terai arc. we investigated tiger, leopard, and prey densities across this understudied habitat. our camera trapping survey covered 536 km(2) of churia and surrounding areas within chitwan national park (cnp). we used 161 trapping locations and accumulated 2,097 trap nights in a 60-day s ...201627734629
gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters other than helicobacter pylori.during the past year, research on non-helicobacter pylori species has intensified. h. valdiviensis was isolated from wild birds, and putative novel species have been isolated from bengal tigers and australian marsupials. various genomes have been sequenced: h. bilis, h. canis, h. macacae, h. fennelliae, h. cetorum, and h. suis. several studies highlighted the virulence of non-h. pylori species including h. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or h. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with i ...201425167947
lethal infection by a novel reassortant h5n1 avian influenza a virus in a zoo-housed tiger.in early 2013, a bengal tiger (panthera tigris) in a zoo died of respiratory distress. all specimens from the tiger were positive for hpai h5n1, which were detected by real-time pcr, including nose swab, throat swab, tracheal swab, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, aquae pericardii and cerebrospinal fluid. one stain of virus, a/tiger/js/1/2013, was isolated from the lung sample. pathogenicity experiments showed that the isolate was able to replicate and cause death in mice. phylogenetic analys ...201525461468
humoral response to calicivirus in captive tigers given a dual-strain vaccine.the current feline vaccine with a single strain of calicivirus has been used for captive tigers, yet it may not protect against virulent systemic calicivirus infections. a cross-institutional study investigated the humoral response to a new dual-strain, killed-virus calicivirus vaccine for nine captive tigers. the subspecies of these tigers were amur (panthera tigris altaica), bengal (panthera tigris tigris), and malayan (panthera tigris jacksoni). serum neutralization titers for virulent feline ...201424712158
human-wildlife conflicts in nepal: patterns of human fatalities and injuries caused by large mammals.injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. although nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. the lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effe ...201627612174
disseminated histoplasmosis in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).disseminated infection with histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female bengal tiger (panthera tigris). clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. h. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine h. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. this report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosi ...201122204071
establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).the bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (btf22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (pdt) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. measurement of ldh and mdh isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. tes ...201020687455
accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) and african lions (panthera leo linnaeus) in china.the accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (pfcs) in the sera of captive wildlife species bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) and african lions (panthera leo linnaeus) from harbin wildlife park, heilongjiang province, in china were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (hplc-ms/ms). perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng ml(-1) in tigers and 2.69 ng ml(-1) in lions. perfluorononanoic ac ...200818789477
disseminated mycobacteriosis due to mycobacterium avium in captive bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 2-year-old captive female bengal tiger (panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the gwangju uchi park zoo, gwangju, republic of korea. necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. periodic acid-schiff stain and gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. ...200616789727
amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a 13-year-old male tiger (panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. also obs ...200616540113
effect of bungee-carcass enrichment on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two species of zoo-housed felids.enrichment can improve animal physiological and psychological well-being. this study sought to promote more natural felid behavior and prevent development or incidence of stereotypies through the use of a feeding enrichment. our objectives are to use fecal glucocorticoid metabolites values and behavioral observations to quantify the effectiveness of the enrichment device for two species of large cats, bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris; n = 2) and cougar (felis concolor; n = 2). the feeding en ...201525492384
unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.this paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. in the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. the autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. the characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. to the best of our knowledge, probably this rare ...201425082732
tetralogy of fallot and atrial septal defect in a white bengal tiger cub (panthera tigris tigris).a 3-week-old female white bengal tiger cub (panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. the cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of tetralogy of fallot with an atrial septal defect (a ...201424594084
withdrawn: complete mitochondrial genome of white bengal tiger, panthera tigris tigris.abstract this article, published online ahead of print on 17 january 2014, has been withdrawn by the authors due to an error identified in the data.201424438241
faecal cortisol metabolites in bengal (panthera tigris tigris) and sumatran tigers (panthera tigris sumatrae).the tiger (panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. to our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. the first aim of this study was to describe and valida ...201324140710
meningioma in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a 17-yr-old female ovariectomized bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) was presented dead on arrival to the mississippi state university college of veterinary medicine. the tiger was a resident of a sanctuary for big cats and had a history of juvenile-onset blindness of unknown cause. the tiger suffered two seizures the morning of presentation and expired shortly after resolution of the second seizure. gross necropsy findings included a meningioma attached to the left frontal bone and associate ...201324063109
fatal tiger attack: a case report with emphasis on typical tiger injuries characterized by partially resembling stab-like wounds.fatalities due to attacks by tigers on humans are uncommon and are rarely described in the medico-legal literature. we herein present a forensic investigation in a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild on a 35 year old female in india by an indian bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris). the attack resulted in two pairs of puncture wounds over the nape area with occult cervical spine injuries resulting from transfixing of spine due to the tiger canines; multiple puncture wounds, numerous ...201323993646
forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central india.understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. tigers (panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. we used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the satpura-m ...201323902910
characterization of degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint of the bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) and siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the articulation of the temporomandibular joint (tmj) is composed of the temporal bone dorsally, the mandibular condyle ventrally and a fibrous articular disc. the tmj disc plays an essential role in distributing load between the two articular surfaces. degeneration of the disc in the presence of joint pathology has been shown in man; however, tmj pathology has not been documented previously in tigers (panthera tigris). the mandibular condyle and tmj disc of a bengal tiger (p. tigris tigris) and ...201323809909
[isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with panthera tigris tigris in yunnan safari park].we studied the isolation methods and diversity of culturable fecal actinobacteria associated with panthera tigris tigris by using culture-dependent approaches.201223115965
meloxicam and surgical denervation of the coxofemoral joint for the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).an adult male white bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) with pronounced atrophy of the pelvic musculature was diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. initial management with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam and a semisynthetic sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in clinical improvement and radiographic stabilization of the arthritic condition over several months. however, because pain was still evident, bilateral denervation of the coxofemoral jo ...200617319147
cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in bengal tiger (panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs.the aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four bengal tiger (panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. the affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed by their dam naturally. after the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, spari ...201728210544
abdominal pythiosis in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).an adult bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. a clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. the tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. a necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagn ...200617312799
computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic chordoma in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a bengal tiger was presented for evaluation of weakness, ataxia and inappetance. computed tomography (ct) and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) revealed a mass extending from the t7-8 vertebral body to the left rib and compressing the spinal cord. on ct, the bone destruction and sequestrum were shown. on mri, the multilobulated mass appeared hypo- to isointense in t1-weighted and hyperintense in t2-weighted images. the tiger died after imaging, most likely from renal failure. chordoma without met ...201525754498
endodontic treatment for a bengal tiger. 19826956557
ferocious fangs. endo on a bengal tiger. 19816939518
the use of diazepam and methocarbamol in the treatment of toxaphene poisoning in a bangal tiger.a 12-year-old female bengal tiger was presented with clinical signs of acute chlorinated hydrocarbon poisoning and a history of recent consumption of food contaminated with toxaphene. hyperreflexia and periodic convulsions were controlled by initial intramuscular injections of 30 mg diazepam and 2 g methocarbamol, followed at 6-hour intervals with intramuscular injections of 30 mg diazepam each, for 2 additional treatments. following the initial treatment, hyperreflexia and convulsions did not r ...19751176351
coccidioidomycosis accompanying hepatic disease in two bengal tigers. 19724626774
hepatoma in a bengal tiger. 19714328441
disseminated leiomyosarcoma in a bengal tiger. 19846511592
inflammatory myopathy in a captive bengal tiger.a 9-year-old female bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) was presented with a history of progressive hindlimb weakness and muscle atrophy. serum muscle enzyme activities were high, and electrophysiologic examination suggested an underlying myopathic process. muscle biopsy revealed an inflammatory myopathy, with multifocal collections of inflammatory cells. there was severe muscle fiber necrosis with some evidence of regeneration. the cellular infiltrate consisted predominantly of macrophages, w ...19827174435
phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (panthera tigris).eight traditional subspecies of tiger (panthera tigris),of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. to investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular mark ...200415583716
survey of transport environments of circus tigers (panthera tigris).the type of equipment used to transport circus tigers, environmental factors experienced during transport, and resultant body temperatures of tigers transported were surveyed during hot and cold weather conditions with six different circus tiger acts. dataloggers recorded interior and exterior temperatures, relative humidity, and radiant heat at 5-min intervals during each trip. microdataloggers fed to the tigers recorded body temperature and were recovered from eight bengal (panthera tigris tig ...200415305511
persistent right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery in a white bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 3-mo-old male white bengal tiger (panthera tigris) presented with the chief complaint of regurgitation of solid food since weaning at 2 mo of age. compared with its littermates, the tiger was in poor body condition and weighed only 10.3 kg when its littermates were estimated at 20-25 kg. thoracic radiographs showed a megaesophagus cranial to the heart base. a contrast esophagram more clearly outlined the megaesophagus, and fluoroscopy demonstrated normal motility of the caudal esophagus. endos ...200112790433
combination therapy for footpad lesions in a captive bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a captive adult male bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) was treated for chronic footpad ulcers associated with pacing on concrete cage surfaces. combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and acepromazine administration to diminate pacing behavior, daily application of moisturizing ointment, and oral vitamin e supplementation resulted in complete resolution of all footpad lesions. subsequent clinical episodes completely resolved with similar treatments.200212564540
nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).an 18- to 25-yr-old intact female bengal tiger (panthera tigris) was diagnosed antemortem and postmortem with nasopharyngeal myxosarcoma metastatic to the lung, chronic lymphoplasmacytic otitis media, and lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic stomatitis. myxosarcomas are rare in domestic animals and seldom metastasize; this tumor has not been previously reported in an exotic felid. computed tomography of the skull was used during the diagnoses.200212564536
caudal cervical disc protrusion in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a young adult male white bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) presented with hindlimb ataxia. cervical and lumbar myelography revealed a compressive lesion of the cord at c(6-7). corticosteroid therapy and confinement failed to provide lasting remission of signs. a modified, inverted cone ventral slot decompression was used to remove the fibrous material causing cord compression at c(6-7). temporary horner's syndrome and laryngeal paresis developed postsurgically because of excessive tissue ret ...200011237151
immunohistochemical study of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in panthera tigris tigris.the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor are described in a 14-yr-old female bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) housed at the new biblical zoo of jerusalem, jerusalem, israel, 1994. the neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically negative for insulin and glucagon, slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase, moderately positive for serotonin and somatostatin, and markedly positive for chromogranine a and gastrin. this is the first ...19968827685
meniscal ossification. ii. the normal pattern in the tiger knee.examination of knee menisci of bengal tigers revealed ossicles within the cartilaginous anterior horn of each medial meniscus. this ossification was not evident in the neonatal animal, but was present in animals aged 20 months or older. the ossicle appeared prior to the completion of skeletal maturation at the knee, and was composed of normal remodeling trabecular bone. while most animals had a single, variably sized ossicle, multiple ossicles also occurred. the meniscal cartilage apposed to the ...19947517071
yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride immobilization of bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries.six bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) were immobilized five times at 2-wk intervals with ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (xylazine) mixtures at different dose levels. hematology and serum chemistry analyses on blood samples collected at each immobilization remained normal during the study. there were acute changes in hematocrit, chloride, potassium, glucose, and bilirubin as a function of xylazine dose level. the effect of yohimbine hydrochloride (yohimbine) on ...19873586208
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