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benzimidazole resistance of equine stronygles--critical tests of six compounds against population b.critical tests were conducted on eight horses naturally infected with several species of large and small strongyles from population b. tested were six benzimidazoles, including thiabendazole (2 lots) (44 mg/kg of body weight); mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg); cambendazole (two formulations) (20 mg/kg); fenbendazole (10 mg/kg); oxibendazole (10 mg/kg); and oxfendazole (10 mg/kg). all compounds were administered by stomach tube except one of the two cambendazole formulations which was an intraoral paste. ...1979517836
the prevalence, relative abundance and site distribution of nematodes of the subfamily cyathostominae in horses killed in britain.a total of 21 species of cyathostominae was found in the lumen of the large intestine of 86 mature horses of various ages and breeds killed in south-west england during 1972-1974. cylicostephanus longibursatus, c. goldi, c. calicatus, cyathostomum catinatum, c. coronatum and cylicocyclus nassatus were found in over 80% of the horses, while 12 of the remaining species were detected in less than 30%. quantitative studies on 55 horses showed the adult cyathostome burdens to rise to a sharp peak (av ...1976993579
[parasitic helminths of the cecum and colon of equidae in italy].intestinal helminths from coecum and colon were studied in 93 equidae including 40 horses, 36 donkeys and 17 mules. a total of 38 species, 36 nematodes and 2 cestodes, were identified as follows: 1) triodontophorus serratus, 2) triodontophorus brevicauda, 3) strongylus equinus, 4) strongylus edentatus, 5) strongylus vulgaris, 6) cyathostomum tetracanthum, 7) cyathostomum coronatum, 8) cyathostomum labiatum, 9) cyathostomum labratum, 10) cyathostomum alveatum, 11) cyathostomum pateratum, 12) cyat ...19921339978
resistance of population-b equine strongyles to thiabendazole, oxfendazole, and phenothiazine (1981 to 1987).critical tests were completed on foals (n = 15) naturally infected with benzimidazole (bz)-resistant population-b strongyles during the period between 1981 and 1987. thiabendazole at a dosage of 44 mg/kg was tested in 8 foals, oxfendazole at 10 mg/kg was tested in 4 foals, and phenothiazine at 55 mg/kg, cambendazole at 20 mg/kg, and fenbendazole at 5 mg/kg were tested in 1 foal each. efficacies of thiabendazole, cambendazole, and fenbendazole against the 5 species of bz-resistant small strongyle ...19911928913
identification of thiabendazole-resistant cyathostome species in louisiana.a critical trial was performed with five ponies 6-9 months of age and raised on a horse farm with demonstrated benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomes. eleven species of cyathostomes were recovered, seven of which had resistance to thiabendazole. degrees of resistance varied among ponies and from species to species. resistant species were cyathostomum coronatum, cyathostomum catinatum, cylicostephanus minutus, cylicostephanus calicatus, cylicostephanus longibursatus, cylicostephanus goldi and cylic ...19911957489
prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles (nematoda: strongyloidea) in tropical australia.a postmortem survey of 57 horses in tropical northern queensland revealed 41 (89%) infected with intestinal strongyles. thirty-five strongyle species (8 large strongyles and 27 small strongyles [cyathostominae]) were recorded of which 9 species are reported from australia for the first time. the 14 most prevalent small strongyles were cyathostomum catinatum (in 76% of horses), cyathostomum coronatum (65%), cyathostomum pateratum (33%), cyathostomum labiatum (30%), cylicostephanus calicatus (70%) ...19902380857
internal parasites of horses on mixed grassveld and bushveld in transvaal, republic of south africa.between 1980 and 1982, the gastrointestinal tracts of 17 horses which had been grazing on mixed grassveld at potchefstroom and bushveld at onderstepoort in the province of transvaal, republic of south africa, were examined at necropsy and processed for parasite recovery. the large strongyles and their prevalences were as follows: strongylus vulgaris and associated lesions (88-94%), strongylus edentatus (24%), strongylus equinus (30%), triodontophorus nipponicus (35%) and craterostomum acuticauda ...19892588465
observations on the population dynamics of five cyathostome nematode species of horses in northern usa.monthly variations in the magnitude of adult and larval cyathostome burdens were observed in 55 horses necropsied over a 15-month period in the northern usa. peak numbers of adult cyathostomes occurred in late winter (march) and late summer (september). larval cyathostomes demonstrated peak numbers from february to april and again in october, beginning one month earlier than the spring adult peak and one month after the autumn adult peak, respectively. the reproductive status of individual femal ...19863698949
control of strongylosis in horses by alternate grazing of horses and sheep and some other aspects of the epidemiology of strongylidae infections.alternate grazing of horses and sheep as a control measure for gastrointestinal helminthiasis was studied in three grazing experiments in 1981, 1982 and 1983. each year a group of three mare yearling shetland ponies, which were kept on a small pasture from spring to autumn, were compared with a similar group which grazed a similar or the same pasture until july and were subsequently removed to a similar pasture which had been grazed by sheep from april to july. in addition both groups were treat ...19863962151
anatomic distribution of encysted cyathostome larvae in the horse.the large intestines of 6 horses were divided by length into 12 segments, and each segment was washed and weighed. at least 5% by weight of each segment was examined by mural transillumination, and encysted cyathostome larvae were counted. total numbers of larvae in each segment were calculated. encysted larvae (98%) were present in the proximal 7 segments of the large intestine (cecum and proximal 75% of the ventral colon), and 2% were present in the distal 25% of the ventral colon and entire d ...19863963553
the prevalence and intensity of internal parasites of horses in the u.s.a.fifty-five adult horses were necropsied over a 15-month period, and their worm burdens counted and speciated. twenty-one species of cyathostominae were recovered. ten species: cyathostomum catinatum, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus longibursatus, cyathostomum coronatum, cylicostephanus goldi, c. calicatus, c. minutus, cylicocyclus leptostomus, c. insigne and cyathostomum pateratum, comprised 98.9% of the total cyathostome burdens. these same 10 species also demonstrated high prevalences i ...19846237483
transmission of equine cyathostomes (strongylidae) in central texas.after foaling, 6 mares and their foals were placed on equine parasite-free pastures. observations of fecal nematode eggs and pasture larvae indicated peak cyathostome egg production occurred in late august and early september, with greatest numbers of larvae on the forage appearing during october. two foals were necropsied for parasitologic evaluations at approximately 155 days of age. both had approximately 100,000 adult cyathostomes, mostly cylicostephanus longibursatus, cylicocyclus nassatus ...19836638646
critical tests in equids with fenbendazole alone or combined with piperazine: particular reference to activity on benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles.seven critical tests in equids were conducted with single doses of fenbendazole (5 mg kg-1) alone (panacur--american hoechst, somerville, nj); (2 tests with paste and 1 with suspension formulation) or in combination with piperazine (american hoechst); (40 mg base kg-1); (4 tests with paste formulation). the main purpose of the tests was evaluation of activity against benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (cyathostomum catinatum, cyathostomum coronatum, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus g ...19836683041
benzimidazole resistance of equine strongyles: critical tests of several classes of compounds against population b strongyles from 1977 to 1981.from 1977 to 1981, critical tests were conducted on 10 horses naturally infected with population b strongyles. drugs tested were: oxibendazole (obz), 10 mg/kg of body weight (n = 1); albendazole, 10 mg/kg (n = 1); a mixture of thiabendazole (tbz), 44 mg/kg and trichlorfon, 40 mg/kg (n = 1); a mixture of tbz at 44 mg/kg with piperazine (ppz) at 55 mg of base/kg (n = 1); febantel (fbt), 6 mg/kg (n = 3), 12 mg/kg (n = 1), or 24 mg/kg (n = 1); and pyrantel (prt) pamoate, 6.6 mg of base/kg (n = 1). l ...19846731997
cambendazole for strongyle control in a pony band: selection of a drug-resistant population of small strongyles and teratologic implications.cambendazole (cbz) treatments (20 mg/kg) given at 8-week intervals were used for parasite control in a breeding band of ponies (n = 33 to 43) during the period july 1974 to august 1978. pre- and posttreatment worm egg counts on feces were used to evaluate efficacy of treatments after every 2nd treatment interval by monitoring changes in strongyle egg counts. initially, effective reductions (expressed as 92% to 96% fewer worm eggs) were lessened to 70% by the 9th treatment (18 months) and to 28% ...19836824213
cyathostominae and other strongyles of horses in the federal republic of germany.the faeces of 34 horses of the "bavarian main and state studfarm schwaiganger" (group i) and 10 ponies (group ii) from various regions of the federal republic of germany, were examined and 4 834 small strongyles were identified. three species cyathostomum catinatum, cylicostephanus longibursatus and cylicocylus nassatus, were found to be widely distributed. although various modern anthelmintics with different effective components were used over the past 20 years, no remarkable change has been br ...19827175908
the prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in poland.the digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in poland were examined. thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. the most prevalent small strongyle species were cyathostomum catinatum, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus goldi, cylicostephanus longibursatus, cyathostomum coronatum, cylicostephanus calicatus, cylicocyclus leptostomus and cylicostephanus minutus. thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventr ...19957676606
critical tests of thiabendazole, oxibendazole, and oxfendazole for drug resistance of population-b equine small strongyles (1989 and 1990).critical tests were conducted in horses (n = 11) with naturally acquired infections of benzimidazole (bz)-resistant population-b small strongyles in 1989 and 1990. anthelmintics administered were thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight, n = 4), oxibendazole (10 mg/kg, n = 3), and oxfendazole (ofz, 10 mg/kg; n = 4). all compounds were paste formulations administered orally except for 1 of the ofz treatments, which was a suspension formulation given by stomach tube. aggregate mean efficacy was calc ...19938323061
critical test evaluation (1977-1992) of drug efficacy against endoparasites featuring benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population s) in shetland ponies.several compounds (n = 13 single or combinations; most at therapeutic dosages) were evaluated between 1977 and 1992 in critical tests (n = 91) against benzimidazole (bz) resistant small strongyles (population s) and several other species of internal parasites in shetland ponies, mostly under 1 year old. the closed breeding herd, from which the test ponies were selected, had been treated every 8 weeks with cambendazole (cbz) for 4 years (1974-1978) and oxibendazole (obz) for 14 years (1978-1992). ...19968988557
a study (1977-1992) of population dynamics of endoparasites featuring benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population s) in shetland ponies.critical tests (91) were done between 1977 and 1992 in shetland ponies to evaluate drug susceptibility and population dynamics (present paper) of endoparasites. the test ponies, most less than 1 year old, were from a herd where older animals were treated every 8 weeks initially with cambendazole (cbz) (1974-1978) and then with oxibendazole (obz) (1978-1992). previous field test data (1974-1992) on older ponies in the breeding herd indicated the presence of benzimidazole (bz) resistant small stro ...19968988558
comparative efficacy evaluation of moxidectin gel and ivermectin paste against internal parasites of equines in brazil.a total of 24 male and female equines of mixed breed, 10-20 months of age and naturally infected with internal parasites was utilized in a controlled test to evaluate the efficacy of a moxidectin 2% gel formulation at the dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin per kg of live weight and an ivermectin 1.87% commercial paste formulation at the dosage 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg applied orally. animals were allocated into three groups of eight horses each based on pre-treatment eggs per gram (epg) counts and trea ...19989877068
molecular evidence for cryptic species within cylicostephanus minutus (nematoda: strongylidae).the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal dna were determined for adults of cylicostephanus minutus from different geographical origins. the lengths of first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences ranged from 370 to 372bp and 215 to 216bp, respectively. pairwise sequence comparisons revealed that some individuals of c. minutus had identical first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences, whereas others differed by 3.0% an ...199910221629
a comparison of the bioequivalence of 0.5% fenbendazole top dress pellets or 10% fenbendazole oral suspension against a spectrum of equine parasites.a controlled test was conducted to assess the efficacy bioequivalence of a single dose of 0.5% fenbendazole (fbz) top dress pellets to a 10% fbz suspension formulation (panacur suspension 10%, hoechst roussel vet). thirty horses with naturally-acquired parasite infections, in replicates of three, were used. strongyle egg per gram counts were not significantly different (p>0.1) between groups pretreatment, but fbz treated groups were significantly different from the control group post-treatment. ...199910392771
species-specific amplification by pcr of ribosomal dna from some equine strongyles.the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of 28 morphologically-defined species of horse strongyle were characterized, and specific oligonucleotide primers were designed for some species based on the nucleotide differences. utilizing these primers, a pcr approach was developed for the specific amplification of ribosomal dna of strongylus vulgaris, cyathostomum catinatum, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus longibursatus or cylicostephanus goldi. the method allowed the species ...199910446706
evaluation of the specificity of five oligoprobes for identification of cyathostomin species from horses.here, we report evaluation of five oligoprobes designed from intergenic spacer (igs) region sequences for identification of cyathostomin species. oligoprobes were designed for identification of cylicocyclus ashworthi, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus longibursatus, cylicostephanus goldi and a fifth probe designed to identify all members of this tribe. pcr amplification of igs dna from 16 cyathostomin species allowed sequence comparison and identification of four putative species-specific p ...200111239940
structure of the community of the strongylidae nematodes in the dorsal colon of equus caballus from rio de janeiro state--brazil.the structure of the community of strongylidae nematodes in the dorsal colon of naturally infected horses from the metropolitan region of rio de janeiro state was evaluated in 33 samples. twenty-three species were found: cylicostephanus longibursatus, cylicostephanus goldi, cylicocyclus nassatus and cyathostomum tetracanthum were the central ones; cylicostephanus minutus, cylicostephanus calicatus, cylicocyclus leptostomus, cylicodontophorus bicoronatus and parapoteriostomum euproctus were secon ...200312581589
expulsion of small strongyle nematodes (cyathostomin spp) following deworming of horses on a stud farm in sweden.this study was conducted on a stud farm in sweden to investigate the species composition of cyathostomins expelled in the faeces of horses after deworming using three different anthelmintic preparations. twenty-seven horses excreting > or = 200 strongyle eggs per gram faeces (epg) were divided into three comparable groups and dewormed on day 0 with either of following compounds: 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg body weight (bw), 19 mg pyrantel pamoate per kg bw or 7.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bw. for each ...200312944042
a pcr-elisa for the identification of cyathostomin fourth-stage larvae from clinical cases of larval cyathostominosis.we report the use of six oligoprobes designed from intergenic spacer region sequences to identify fourth-stage larvae (l4) of the tribe cyathostominae. oligoprobes were designed for identification of the following species: cylicocyclus ashworthi, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicocyclus insigne, cyathostomum catinatum, cylicostephanus goldi, and cylicostephanus longibursatus. a seventh probe was designed as a positive control to identify all these members of the cyathostominae. the intergenic spacer ...200314527525
occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses in metropolitan perth, western australia.to assess the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses in perth. to apply polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the identification of some species of encysted larval cyathostomes.200415088968
beta-tubulin complementary dna sequence variations observed between cyathostomins from benzimidazole-susceptible and -resistant populations.the molecular mechanism of benzimidazole (bz) resistance in cyathostomins of horses is still unclear. previous studies revealed that the ttc or tac polymorphism in codon 200 of the beta-tubulin isotype 1 gene is not as strictly correlated with bz resistance as in trichostrongyles in sheep. to identify further sites of polymorphism within the beta-tubulin gene related to bz resistance, complete complementary dnas (cdnas) encoding beta-tubulin of adult worms of cylicocyclus nassatus, cyathostomum ...200415357086
identification of strongyle eggs from anthelmintic-treated horses using a pcr-elisa based on intergenic dna sequences.the efficacy of five daily fenbendazole (fbz) treatments was tested against benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomins in naturally infected horses (n=13). horses were treated with pyrantel embonate (pyr) to remove adult strongyles followed, 7 days later, by a 5-day course of fbz. the pyr treatment produced an average faecal egg count reduction of 98%. all samples were negative by faecal egg count 7 days after the start of the fbz treatment. positive egg counts were observed from 28 days after the st ...200515682337
diversity of the infracommunities of strongylid nematodes in the ventral colon of equus caballus from rio de janeiro state, brazil.nematodes from the ventral colon of 31 adult horses, 24 males and 9 females, in the metropolitan region of the state of rio de janeiro were analysed. there were 53,444 (86.4%) adults of the total recovered strongylid nematodes. they belonged to 21 species of cyathostominae and seven of strongylinae. larval forms made up 13.6% (8407) of the total recovered, and 49% of the strongylid nematodes were observed in ventral colon. the most prevalent and abundant species were cyathostomum tetracanthum, c ...200616406328
study (1991 to 2001) of drug-resistant population b small strongyles in critical tests in horses in kentucky at the termination of a 40-year investigation.population b, drug-resistant small strongyles have been studied in naturally infected horses in kentucky for more than 40 years. these parasites first were found to be resistant to phenothiazine (ptz) and thiabendazole (tbz), later to other parasiticides. studies have been on evaluation of antiparasitic efficacy of several compounds, especially the benzimidazoles, against population b small strongyles in clinical (field) tests (1959-1983) on the commercial farm of origin and in clinical and crit ...200717468973
[the communities of cyathostomes (cyathostominae) in year-old and two-year-old pure blood arabian mares].the objective of this study was to evaluate the strongyles species in 34 pure blood arabian horses: one-year-old mares (n = 12) and two-year old mares (n = 22) from the horse stud in 2005, kept under housed-pastured system and dewormed systematically, twice a year using the ivermectin compounds.200718441879
probable reason why small strongyle epg counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in central kentucky.critical tests were carried out in 2008 in four yearling horses (h-2, h-4, h-10, and h-11) born and raised together on a farm (mc) in central kentucky. these horses were treated intraorally with ivermectin paste at the dose rate of 200 microg/kg. the main interest was to try and determine more precisely, from posttreatment (pt) worm count data, the current activity of ivermectin against small strongyles in a horse herd. these horses had been treated repeatedly with this compound and counts of sm ...200918931857
species-specific identification of equine cyathostomes resistant to fenbendazole and susceptible to oxibendazole and moxidectin by macroarray probing.cyathostome populations in horses on two farms located in central italy with a history of fenbendazole (fbz) resistance were investigated with the faecal egg count reduction test to evaluate the susceptibility to oxibendazole and moxidectin. faecal eggs were collected pre- and post-treatment on each farm and molecularly examined with a reverse line blot (rlb) assay able to unequivocally detect and identify 13 cyathostome species. resistance to fbz was confirmed on both farms, while oxibendazole ...200918950625
morphometric identification of equid cyathostome (nematoda: cyathostominae) infective larvae.the prevalence of infection with cyathosthomes of horses is high worldwide. identification of species on infective larvae based on available morphological keys is not fully accurate and the aim of the present study was to provide a reliable identification key of cyathostomes infective larvae. at the abattoir, horse large intestines were examined and the cyathostomes females extracted and identified. the eggs from uteruses of identified cyathostomes females were used for breeding the infective la ...200919359100
in vitro development of cyathostomin larvae from the third stage larvae to the fourth stage: morphologic characterization, effects of refrigeration, and species-specific patterns.a mixed population of equine cyathostomin (nematoda, strongyloidea) infective third stage larvae (l3) was cultured in vitro using a cell-free medium. some l3 were cultured immediately after baermann collection from fecal cultures, while others were kept in water at 4 degrees c for 7 days before initiating the in vitro cultures. cultures were examined daily for viability. at days 2, 7, 14 and 21 larvae were collected for identification of developmental stage and morphological changes, using both ...200919493623
distribution and species-specific occurrence of cyathostomins (nematoda, strongylida) in naturally infected horses from italy, united kingdom and germany.a broad scale study was carried out in 2008 to evaluate the distribution and species-specific occurrence of cyathostomin populations in horse yards from europe. in total 102 properties and 3123 horses were included in italy (60 yards and 1646 animals), united kingdom (22 yards and 737 animals) and germany (20 yards and 740 animals). individual faecal samples were examined with a mcmaster technique while pooled samples were subjected to the microscopic examination of in vitro cultured larvae and ...201019906489
use of a reverse line blot assay to survey small strongyle (strongylida: cyathostominae) populations in horses before and after treatment with ivermectin.a sensitive and specific pcr hybridization assay was applied for species-specific monitoring of the small strongyle (strongylida: cyathostominae) populations in horses in a herd before and after treatment with the anthelmintic drug ivermectin. fecal samples were collected pre- and post-treatment weekly from eight individual horses (four foals and four yearlings) for 6 weeks to determine counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (epgs). additionally, one foal and one yearling were nontreated con ...201020045254
in vitro selection and differentiation of ivermectin resistant cyathostomin larvae.cyathostomins are considered to be the primary helminth pathogen of horses and macrocyclic lactones (ml) are the most frequently used anthelmintics. therefore, ml resistance is a serious threat for the control of these parasites. in the present study ivermectin resistant cyathostomin l3 were in vitro selected, using a reiterative larval migration inhibition assay (rlmia) and differentiated by reverse line blot (rlb). larvae were obtained from two populations, one from a never treated, free-roami ...201020850222
β-tubulin genotypes in six species of cyathostomins from anthelmintic-naive przewalski and benzimidazole-resistant brood horses in ukraine.resistance to benzimidazoles (bz) in the gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock is characterised by the presence of specific polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 protein, a component of microtubules. the most prevalent polymorphism associated with resistance in nematodes infecting cattle, sheep, and goats is found at codon 200, with minor occurrences of polymorphisms at codons 167 and 198. in the cyathostomins that infect horses, however, a polymorphism at codon 167 appears to be more commo ...201121553015
observations on development of natural infection and species composition of small strongyles in young equids in kentucky.early development and maturation of species of small strongyles have not been studied extensively. most information is on the first appearance of strongyle eggs in feces of foals. however, species cannot be determined in this manner because of similarity of the morphological features of the eggs. to determine more definitive knowledge on development and species composition of natural infections of small strongyles, eight equid foals were necropsied and examined at various ages (31 to 92 days of ...201121614543
field study on the efficacy of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation in horses.twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg(-1). horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control) groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (epg). stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. clinical evaluations and epg counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. ni ...201121722495
fecundity of various species of strongylids (nematoda: strongylidae)--parasites of domestic horses.the aims of the study were to determine fecundity of several strongylid species parasitizing domestic horses and analyze possible relations between numbers of eggs in female uteri and size of both the eggs and the nematodes as well as the influence of fecundity on proportion of species in the strongylid community. twenty-five specimens from each of 15 strongylid species (strongylus vulgaris, strongylus edentatus, triodontophorus serratus, triodontophorus brevicauda, triodontophorus tenuicollis, ...201222903448
development of a recombinant protein-based elisa for diagnosis of larval cyathostomin infection.cyathostomins are ubiquitous nematodes of horses. once ingested, they can spend a substantial time as encysted larvae in the intestinal wall. the larvae can comprise up to 90% of the total burden, with up to several million worms reported in individuals. these stages can emerge in large numbers to cause life-threatening colitis. direct methods for detection of encysted larval burdens in live horses do not exist. previously, two antigen complexes were identified as promising markers for infection ...201627174468
species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature cylicocyclus species in horses.for the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (mls), moxidectin (mox) and ivermectin (ivm) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. however, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (erp) has been described. shortening of the erp may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for mls. alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ml treatments. the species composition of the ...201627523942
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