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isolations of west nile and bagaza viruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in central senegal (ferlo).during october-november 1990, 31,497 mosquitoes consisting of 25 different species were collected in barkedji, ferlo area (senegal), and tested for virus infection. viruse were isolated from 55 of 407 pools. eighteen pools were found positive for both bagaza virus (bga) and west nile virus (wn). one alphavirus (babanki [bbk] and 72 flaviviruses (19 bga, 53 wn) were isolated from culex poicilipes theobald (29 wn, 8 bga), c. neavei theobald (3 wn, 1 bga), mimomyia hispida theobald (8 wn, 6 bga, an ...19947815413
potential arbovirus emergence and implications for the united kingdom.arboviruses have evolved a number of strategies to survive environmental challenges. this review examines the factors that may determine arbovirus emergence, provides examples of arboviruses that have emerged into new habitats, reviews the arbovirus situation in western europe in detail, discusses potential arthropod vectors, and attempts to predict the risk for arbovirus emergence in the united kingdom. we conclude that climate change is probably the most important requirement for the emergence ...200616704800
full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of bagaza, kedougou, and zika viruses.many members of the genus flavivirus are the agents of important diseases of humans, livestock, and wildlife. currently, no complete genome sequence is available for the three african viruses, bagaza, zika, and kedougou viruses, each representing a distinct virus subgroup according to the latest virus classification. in this study, we obtained a complete genome sequence of each of those three viruses and characterized the open reading frames (orfs) with respect to gene sizes, cleavage sites, pot ...200717195954
detection of rna from a novel west nile-like virus and high prevalence of an insect-specific flavivirus in mosquitoes in the yucatan peninsula of mexico.as part of our ongoing surveillance efforts for west nile virus (wnv) in the yucatan peninsula of mexico, 96,687 mosquitoes collected from january through december 2007 were assayed by virus isolation in mammalian cells. three mosquito pools caused cytopathic effect. two isolates were orthobunyaviruses (cache valley virus and kairi virus) and the identity of the third infectious agent was not determined. a subset of mosquitoes was also tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (r ...200919141845
characterization of a novel flavivirus from mosquitoes in northern europe that is related to mosquito-borne flaviviruses of the tropics.a novel flavivirus was isolated from mosquitoes in finland, representing the first mosquito-borne flavivirus from northern europe. the isolate, designated lammi virus (lamv), was antigenically cross-reactive with other flaviviruses and exhibited typical flavivirus morphology as determined by electron microscopy. the genomic sequence of lamv was highly divergent from the recognized flaviviruses, and yet the polyprotein properties resembled those of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. phylogenetic analys ...200919570865
genetic characterization of bagaza virus (bagv) isolated in india and evidence of anti-bagv antibodies in sera collected from encephalitis patients.during investigations into the outbreak of encephalitis in 1996 in the kerala state in india, an arbovirus was isolated from a culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito pool. it was characterized as a japanese encephalitis and west nile virus cross-reactive arbovirus by complement fixation test. a plaque reduction-neutralization test was performed using hyperimmune sera raised against the plaque-purified arbovirus isolate. the sera did not show reactivity with japanese encephalitis virus and were weakly ...200919570951
structure and functionality in flavivirus ns-proteins: perspectives for drug design.flaviviridae are small enveloped viruses hosting a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome. besides yellow fever virus, a landmark case in the history of virology, members of the flavivirus genus, such as west nile virus and dengue virus, are increasingly gaining attention due to their re-emergence and incidence in different areas of the world. additional environmental and demographic considerations suggest that novel or known flaviviruses will continue to emerge in the future. nevertheless, u ...201019945487
structural and functional analyses of a conserved hydrophobic pocket of flavivirus methyltransferase.the flavivirus methyltransferase (mtase) sequentially methylates the n7 and 2'-o positions of the viral rna cap (gpppa-rna → m(7)gpppa-rna → m(7)gpppam-rna), using s-adenosyl-l-methionine (adomet) as a methyl donor. we report here that sinefungin (sin), an adomet analog, inhibits several flaviviruses through suppression of viral mtase. the crystal structure of west nile virus mtase in complex with sin inhibitor at 2.0-å resolution revealed a flavivirus-conserved hydrophobic pocket located next t ...201020685660
duck egg-drop syndrome caused by byd virus, a new tembusu-related flavivirus.since april 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in china. a new virus, named byd virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. the virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and vero cells, causing the cytopathic effec ...201121455312
bagaza virus in partridges and pheasants, spain, 2010.in september 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in cádiz in southwestern spain. reverse transcription pcr and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-saharan africa and india, as the causative agent.201121801633
West nile Fever outbreak in horses and humans, Spain, 2010.TO THE EDITOR: West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus within the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex. The enzootic virus cycle involves transmission between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquitoes, whereas humans and horses are considered dead-end hosts. Given the recent increase of WNV infection in humans and horses in Europe, concern has been raised regarding public and animal health.201122172565
Tembusu virus in ducks, china.In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%-91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks.201122000358
analysis of the complete genome of tembusu virus, a flavivirus isolated from ducks in china.during investigations into the outbreak of duck viral infection in 2010 in china, with a severe drop in egg production, a flavivirus was isolated from the affected ducks. it was characterized as a tembusu virus (tmuv). in this study, we obtained a complete genome sequence of tembusu virus using rt-pcr and race techniques. tmuv genome is a singled-stranded rna, with 10 990 nucleotides in length, and contains a single open reading frame (3410 amino acids) encoding 11 viral proteins with 5'and 3'no ...201122103739
duck tembusu virus exhibits neurovirulence in balb/c mice.duck tembusu virus is a member of the ntaya group in the genus flavivirus. the virus has been responsible for severe duck egg-drop syndrome in china since 2010. its emergence and rapid spread have caused great economic loss for the poultry industry. the epidemiology of the virus infection and the potential threat to public health is of great concern because of the infective and zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.201323941427
bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice.bagaza virus (bagv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the ntaya serocomplex. in 2010, a disease outbreak was reported in cádiz (southern spain) affecting game birds (red-legged partridges and common pheasants). in this work, red-legged partridges were inoculated experimentally with infectious bagv isolated from this outbreak in order to make a complete clinical and analytical assessment of the disease caused by the pathogen in this species. viral load (by real-time rt-pcr) in blood, or ...201526338714
biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends.among animal viruses, arboviruses are unique in that they depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. field research and laboratory investigations related to the three components of this unique mode of transmission, virus, vector, and vertebrate host, have produced an enormous amount of valuable information that may be found in numerous publications. however, despite many reviews on specific viruses, diseases, or interests, a systematic approach to organizing the available information on all f ...016223950
an updated checklist of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) from madagascar.an updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from madagascar is presented. the number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). this annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. the 235 species belong to 14 genera: aedeomyia (3 species), aedes (35 species), anophel ...201627101839
development of one-step quantitative reverse transcription pcr for the rapid detection of flaviviruses.the genus flavivirus includes several pathogenic agents that cause severe illness in humans. re-emergence of west nile virus in europe and continuous spread of certain flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever and japanese encephalitis viruses represent a global danger to public health. therefore, a rapid and accurate molecular method is required for diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance of flaviviruses.201323410000
bagaza virus inhibits japanese encephalitis & west nile virus replication in culex tritaeniorhynchus & cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.studies have shown that certain flaviviruses influence susceptibility of mosquitoes by inhibiting/enhancing replication of important flaviviruses. hence, a study was designed to determine whether bagaza virus (bagv), a flavivirus isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in india, alters susceptibility of cx. tritaeniorhynchus and cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to japanese encephalitis (jev) and west nile viruses (wnv).026905241
ecuador paraiso escondido virus, a new flavivirus isolated from new world sand flies in ecuador, is the first representative of a novel clade in the genus flavivirus.a new flavivirus, ecuador paraiso escondido virus (epev), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the new world. this represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the new world. epev exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. phylogenetic analysis o ...201526355096
new insights into flavivirus evolution, taxonomy and biogeographic history, extended by analysis of canonical and alternative coding sequences.to generate the most diverse phylogenetic dataset for the flaviviruses to date, we determined the genomic sequences and phylogenetic relationships of 14 flaviviruses, of which 10 are primarily associated with culex spp. mosquitoes. we analyze these data, in conjunction with a comprehensive collection of flavivirus genomes, to characterize flavivirus evolutionary and biogeographic history in unprecedented detail and breadth. based on the presumed introduction of yellow fever virus into the americ ...201525719412
usutu virus: an emerging flavivirus in europe.usutu virus (usuv) is an african mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. usuv is closely related to murray valley encephalitis virus, japanese encephalitis virus, and west nile virus. usuv was discovered in south africa in 1959. in europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of usuv was reported in austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of eurasian blackbirds. in the subsequent years, usuv expanded to neighboring countries, including italy, ...201525606971
characterization of a novel insect-specific flavivirus from brazil: potential for inhibition of infection of arthropod cells with medically important flaviviruses.in the past decade, there has been an upsurge in the number of newly described insect-specific flaviviruses isolated pan-globally. we recently described the isolation of a novel flavivirus (tentatively designated 'nhumirim virus'; nhuv) that represents an example of a unique subset of apparently insect-specific viruses that phylogenetically affiliate with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses despite appearing to be limited to replication in mosquito cells. we characterized the in vitro growth p ...201425146007
advanced uracil dna glycosylase-supplemented real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (udg-rrt-lamp) method for universal and specific detection of tembusu virus.tembusu virus (tmuv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which threatens both poultry production and public health. in this study we developed a complete open reading frame alignment-based rrt-lamp method for the universal detection of tumv. to prevent false-positive results, the reaction was supplemented with uracil dna glycosylase (udg) to eliminate carryover contamination. the detection limit of the newly developed udg-rrt-lamp for tmuv was as low as 100 copies/reaction of viral rna and 1 × 10(0.8 ...201627270462
recovery of west nile virus envelope protein domain iii chimeras with altered antigenicity and mouse virulence.flaviviruses are positive-sense, single-stranded rna viruses responsible for millions of human infections annually. the envelope (e) protein of flaviviruses comprises three structural domains, of which domain iii (eiii) represents a discrete subunit. the eiii gene sequence typically encodes epitopes recognized by virus-specific, potently neutralizing antibodies, and eiii is believed to play a major role in receptor binding. in order to assess potential interactions between eiii and the remainder ...201626912625
factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.slave trading of africans to the americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the new world of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent ...201526038768
rapid evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder as a potential driving force for biological divergence in flaviviruses.protein structure is commonly regarded to be conserved and to dictate function. most proteins rely on conformational flexibility to some degree. are regions that convey conformational flexibility conserved over evolutionary time? can changes in conformational flexibility alter protein function? here, the evolutionary dynamics of structurally ordered and disordered (flexible) regions are investigated genome-wide in flaviviruses, revealing that the amount and location of structural disorder fluctu ...023418179
structural, antigenic, and evolutionary characterizations of the envelope protein of newly emerging duck tembusu virus.since the first reported cases of ducks infected with a previously unknown flavivirus in eastern china in april 2010, the virus, provisionally designated duck tembusu virus (dtmuv), has spread widely in domestic ducks in china and caused significant economic losses to poultry industry. in this study, we examined in detail structural, antigenic, and evolutionary properties of envelope (e) proteins of six dtmuv isolates spanning 2010-2012, each being isolated from individual farms with different g ...201323990944
preliminary findings on bagaza virus (flavivirus: flaviviridae) growth kinetics, transmission potential & transovarial transmission in three species of mosquitoes.bagaza virus (bagv), a flavivirus synonymous with israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in india. bagv has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in spain. a study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit bagv experimentally.024056604
ilheus virus isolation in the pantanal, west-central brazil.the wetlands of the brazilian pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. a recent study from the nhecolândia sub-region of pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including west nile virus and ilheus virus (ilhv). according to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ilhv, circulated in the brazilian pantanal between 2005 and 2009. ...201323875051
flaviviruses in europe: complex circulation patterns and their consequences for the diagnosis and control of west nile disease.in europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (west nile, usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the flavivirus genus. indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are ...201324225644
circulation of a meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western mediterranean basin.in recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. in this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird sp ...201424625959
experimental infections of wild birds with west nile virus.avian models of west nile virus (wnv) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (bsl3) facilities. this review summarizes the main achievements of wnv experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are ana ...201424531334
complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china.duck tembusu virus (dtmuv) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. we report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains yy5, zj-407, and gh-2, isolated from shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in china. the genomes of yy5, zj-407, and gh-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. it is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (ncr) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. knowle ...022354945
spatio-temporal trends and risk factors affecting west nile virus and related flavivirus exposure in spanish wild ruminants.during the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (genus flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. to further study utility of wild ruminant samples in west nile virus (wnv) surveillance, we assessed spatio-temporal trends and factors associated with wnv and cross-reacting flaviviruses exposure, particularly usutu virus (usuv) and meaban virus (mbv), in wild ruminants in spain. serum samples from 4693 wild ruminants, including 3073 fre ...201627829427
flavidb: a data mining system for knowledge discovery in flaviviruses with direct applications in immunology and vaccinology.the flavivirus genus is unusually large, comprising more than 70 species, of which more than half are known human pathogens. it includes a set of clinically relevant infectious agents such as dengue, west nile, yellow fever, and japanese encephalitis viruses. although these pathogens have been studied extensively, safe and efficient vaccines lack for the majority of the flaviviruses.025544857
flaviviruses in game birds, southern spain, 2011-2012. 023735195
zikv - cdb: a collaborative database to guide research linking sncrnas and zika virus disease symptoms.in early 2015, a zika virus (zikv) infection outbreak was recognized in northeast brazil, where concerns over its possible links with infant microcephaly have been discussed. providing a causal link between zikv infection and birth defects is still a challenge. micrornas (mirnas) are small noncoding rnas (sncrnas) that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by translational repression, and play important roles in viral pathogenesis and brain development. the potential for flavivirus-media ...201627332714
complete genome sequence of goose tembusu virus, isolated from jiangnan white geese in jiangsu, china.avian tembusu virus (tmuv), which was first identified in eastern china, is an emerging virus causing serious economic losses in the chinese poultry industry. here, we report the complete genome sequence of goose tembusu virus strain js804, isolated from jiangnan white geese with severe neurological signs. the genome of js804 is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids. research of the whole sequence of tembus ...201323516233
complete genome sequence of avian tembusu-related virus strain wr isolated from white kaiya ducks in fujian, china.avian tembusu-related virus, which was first identified in china, is an emerging virus causing serious economic loss to the chinese poultry industry. we report here the complete genome sequences of avian tembusu-related virus strain wr, isolated from a white kaiya duck with disease characterized by an abrupt decrease in egg laying with ovarian hemorrhage, which will help in further understanding the molecular and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenesis of avian tembusu-related virus, the n ...022966199
full-length genome sequence of ntaya virus.presentation of pyrosequencing data and phylogenetic analysis for the full genome of ntaya virus, type virus of the ntaya virus group of the flaviviridae isolated in cameroon in 1966.201222996737
natural bagaza virus infection in game birds in southern spain.in late summer 2010 a mosquito born flavivirus not previously reported in europe called bagaza virus (bagv) caused high mortality in red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa) and ring-necked pheasants (phasianus colchicus). we studied clinical findings, lesions and viral antigen distribution in naturally bagv infected game birds in order to understand the apparently higher impact on red-legged partridges. the disease induced neurologic signs in the two galliform species and, to a lesser extent, in ...201222966904
complete genomic sequence of duck flavivirus from china.we report here the complete genomic sequence of the chinese duck flavivirus ta strain. this work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence of this previously unknown duck flavivirus strain. the sequence will help further relevant epidemiological studies and extend our general knowledge of flaviviruses.022354941
bagaza virus and israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus are a single virus species.bagaza virus (bagv) and israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (itv) are classified in the genus flavivirus of the family flaviviridae. serologically, they are closely related, belonging to the ntaya serocomplex. nucleotide sequences available to date consist of several complete sequences of bagv isolates, but only partial sequences of itv isolates. sequence comparisons of partial envelope (e) and ns5 regions reveal a close genetic relationship between these viruses. despite this, bagv and ...201424457974
oculopathologic findings in flavivirus-infected gallinaceous birds.using eye samples of nine 9-week-old experimentally west nile virus (wnv)-infected red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa), time course of lesions and wnv antigen appearance in ocular structures were examined. in addition, eye samples of 6 red-legged partridges and 3 common pheasants (phasianus colchicus) naturally infected with bagaza virus (bagv) were used to study lesions and flavivirus antigen distribution in relation to apparent blindness in the former. the rapid onset of microscopic lesions ...201424395913
simultaneous detection of west nile and japanese encephalitis virus rna by duplex taqman rt-pcr.west nile virus (wnv) and japanese encephalitis virus (jev) are important mosquito-borne viruses of the flaviviridae family, associated with encephalitis, mainly in humans and horses. wnv is also pathogen for many bird species. the incidence of human and animal wnv infections in europe has risen, mostly in recent years, and jev was detected in 2011 in mosquitoes collected in italy and may emerge in europe in the same way as other flaviviruses had emerged recently (usutu and bagaza virus) and sho ...201323892127
[when some flaviviruses are throwing our certainties].during the past two decades, a number of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, mainly of african origin, have invaded new geographical areas where they have never been active. this was the case for the japanese encephalitis virus which reached the northeastern part of australia (1995) and, above all, for the west nile virus which, since 1999, entirely colonized the american continent. then, the usutu virus invaded a large part of the western europe (2001) while the zika virus caused a large epidemic in a ...201222923343
real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of bagaza virus.in september 2010, an outbreak of disease in 2 wild bird species (red-legged partridge, alectoris rufa; ring-necked pheasant, phasianus colchicus) occurred in southern spain. bagaza virus (bagv) was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak. bagv had only been reported before in western africa (central african republic, senegal) and in india. the first occurrence of bagv in spain stimulated a demand for rapid, reliable, and efficacious diagnostic methods to facilitate the surveillance ...201222807508
monitoring of the bagaza virus epidemic in wild bird species in spain, 2010.by the end of august 2010, high mortalities in red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa) and pheasants (phasianus colchicus) were detected in several hunting states in the province of cádiz (southern spain). retrospective epidemiological studies revealed that the first clinical signs had been observed in late july-early august. the most common clinical signs were incoordination, disorientation and ataxia. the estimated mean morbidity rates were 37% in partridges and 11% in pheasants. the estimated ...201322486922
assessing the zoonotic potential of arboviruses of african origin.several african arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including west nile virus, chikungunya virus and zika virus. this raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in africa and their potential to emerge internationally. syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. rift valley fever and wesselsbronvi ...201729216533
a single mutation at position 156 in the envelope protein of tembusu virus is responsible for virus tissue tropism and transmissibility in ducks.duck tembusu virus (tmuv), like other mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as japanese encephalitis virus, west nile virus, and bagaza virus, is able to transmit vector-independently. to date, why these flaviviruses can be transmitted without mosquito vectors remains poorly understood. to explore the key molecular basis of flavivirus transmissibility, we compared virus replication and transmissibility of an early and a recent tmuv in ducks. the recent tmuv strain fx2010 replicated systemically and ...201829899104
exposure of wild ungulates to the usutu and tick-borne encephalitis viruses in france in 2009-2014: evidence of undetected flavivirus circulation a decade ago.abstract: flaviviruses have become increasingly important pathogens in europe over the past few decades. a better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of flaviviruses in france is needed to better define risk areas and to gain knowledge of the dynamics of virus transmission cycles. serum samples from 1014 wild boar and 758 roe deer from 16 departments (administrative units) in france collected from 2009 to 2014 were screened for flavivirus antibodies using a competitive elisa (celisa ...201931861683
influence of flavivirus co-circulation in serological diagnostics and surveillance: a model of study using west nile, usutu and bagaza viruses.this study aims at assessing the serological cross-reactions existing between three mosquito-borne flaviviruses with avian reservoirs co-circulating in europe: west nile (wnv), usutu (usuv) and bagaza (bagv). the study is useful for a better interpretation of serological results in diagnostics and surveillance. serum samples obtained from a natural host, the red-legged partridge (alectoris rufa), experimentally infected with wnv, usuv or bagv were analysed using two commercially available wnv co ...201931150146
mosquito-borne epornitic flaviviruses: an update and review.west nile virus, usutu virus, bagaza virus, israel turkey encephalitis virus and tembusu virus currently constitute the five flaviviruses transmitted by mosquito bites with a marked pathogenicity for birds. they have been identified as the causative agents of severe neurological symptoms, drop in egg production and/or mortalities among avian hosts. they have also recently shown an expansion of their geographic distribution and/or a rise in cases of human infection. this paper is the first up-to- ...201930628886
arboviruses isolated from the barkedji mosquito-based surveillance system, 2012-2013.a mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at barkedji, senegal after the first outbreak of rift valley fever in west africa in 1988. this system was recently updated using more sampling methods and collecting in greater number of ponds and villages sites.201830541472
bagaza virus in himalayan monal pheasants, south africa, 2016-2017.bagaza virus (bagv) has not been reported in birds in south africa since 1978. we used phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy to identify bagv as the likely etiology in neurologic disease and death in himalayan monal pheasants in pretoria, south africa. our results suggest circulation of bagv in south africa.201931742517
mosquito biodiversity and mosquito-borne viruses in the united arab emirates.in the last 50 years, the united arab emirates (uae) has experienced rapid population growth and urbanization. urbanization is known to influence biodiversity, and there appears to be a link between the emergence of arboviruses and urban growth. very little is known about the uae mosquito species richness and dominant vectors. we performed a mosquito survey comparing peri-urban sites in dubai and al ain to a protected, natural site in fujairah emirate. we measured mosquito biodiversity and speci ...201930944019
experimental infection of grey partridges with bagaza virus: pathogenicity evaluation and potential role as a competent host.bagaza virus (bagv; synonymous to israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, itv) is a relevant arthropod-borne epornitic flavivirus. in its first emergence in europe (southern spain, 2010) bagv caused an outbreak, severely affecting red-legged partridges and common pheasants. the effects (pathogenicity, role as reservoir host) of bagv in other european phasianids are unknown. to fill this gap, grey partridges were experimentally infected with bagv. the clinical course of the disease was seve ...201829739470
full-genome characterization and genetic evolution of west african isolates of bagaza virus.bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in central african republic. it has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in west and central africa. emergence in wild birds in europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in india raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in africa. to better understand genetic diversity and evolution of bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization ...201829652824
west nile and usutu virus infections in wild birds admitted to rehabilitation centres in extremadura, western spain, 2017-2019.west nile virus (wnv) is an emerging flavivirus transmitted generally by mosquitoes of culex genus. it is maintained in an enzootic life cycle where birds act as reservoir hosts. humans and horses are also susceptible to infection, and occasionally, they suffer from neurological complications. however, they do not transmit the virus to other vectors, behaving as dead-end hosts. sporadic wnv outbreaks observed in horses and wild birds from extremadura (western spain) during 2016 and 2017 seasons ...202133677369
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