Publications

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experimental studies on the pathogenicity of nematodirus spathiger, a trichostrongylid parasite of sheep. 195313031012
viability studies on eggs and infective larvae of nematodirus spathiger (railliet, 1896), a trichostrongylid nematode of ruminants. 195313118426
control of pasture-acquired infections of nematodirus spathiger and haemonchus contortus in lambs with phenothiazine-salt mixture. 195413207580
observations on the life cycle of nematodirus spathiger, a nematode parasitic in the intestine of sheep and other ruminants. 195513228876
experimental infections in lambs with nematodirus spathiger. 195813559616
the effect of weather on the development and survival of the free-living stages of nematodirus spathiger (nematoda: trichostrongylidae). 195913673347
the dynamics of the host-parasite relationship. i. nematodirus spathiger infection in sheep. 196414204125
the dynamics of the host-parasite relationship. ii. the response of sheep to primary and secondary infection with nematodirus spathiger. 196514300400
morphology of the free-living stages of nematodirus spathiger with some observations on their development under laboratory conditions. 19724680366
anthelmintic activity of levamisole against nematodirus spathiger and trichostrongylus axei in sheep. 19725036315
the anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole against a mixed nematode infection in sheep.fenbendazole (methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) at dose rates of 5 mg/kg and above was 100 per cent effective in eliminating a naturally acquired dictyocaulus filaria infection in sheep. the drug was 100 per cent effective in eliminating concurrent infections of adult trichostrongylus axei, haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia ostertagii, cooperia oncophora, cooperia mcmasterii, nematodirus spathiger, neumatodirus filcollis, oesophagostomum ...19751153893
the effect of mixed grazing of sheep and cattle on worm burdens in lambs.lambs from ewes grazed without cattle at 4.9, 7.4 and 9.9 ewes and lambs per hectare and from ewes run with steers at an equivalent median stocking rate at four ratios in which sheep comprised 30%, 40%, 50% and 70% of the animal equivalents were killed and examined for worms. when sheep grazed alone, there was no significant increase in the number of worm species normally found in sheep, namely ostertagia circumcincta and nematodirus spathiger, with an increase in stocking rate. when sheep graze ...19751200936
occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in georgia cattle.a survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in georgia cattle was conducted from 1968 through 1973 from actual worm counts from viscera of 145 slaughtered beef cattle or from egg counts made from fecal samples from 3,273 beef and 100 dairy cattle. beef cattle were grouped as calves, yearlings, and cows. dairy cattle were grouped as calves, replacement heifers, and cows. results of fecal examinations positive; 99.5, 99.3, 99.6, and 41.2% of the calves, yearlings, drylot calves, and cows, respectively, ...1975123711
efficacy of albendazole against haemonchus, nematodirus, dictyocaulus, and monieza of sheep.albendazole was highly efficacious in the removal of monospecific and mixed infection of haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger, and dictyocaulus filaria from sheep. a dose level of 5 mg/kg removed nearly all gastrointestinal nematodes, and 10 mg/kg removed all lungworms. tapeworms of the genus moniezia were completely removed by a dose level of 10 hg/kg.1976136914
nematodes parasitizing domestic ruminants in afghanistan.a total of 12 nematode species were determined in the collection recovered from domestic ruminants in afghanistan. ten of them were found for the first time in this region: trichocephalus globulosus, trichostrongylus probolurus, cooperia bisonis, nematodirus spathiger, n. abnormalis, thelazia rhodesi, bunostomum phlebotomum, haemonchus contortus, dictyocaulus filaria and oesophagostomum radiatum. morphological and metrical characteristics of t. globulosus, t. skrjabini and c. bisonis, based on o ...19761034588
effect of dexamethasone on experimental infections of trichostrongylus affinis and nematodirus spathiger in rabbits. 1977915639
cryopreservation of the infective larvae of the common nematodes of ruminants.exsheathed infective larvae (l 3) of 19 species of nematodes were tested for infectivity in either sheep or cattle after they had been frozen in 0,9% nacl solution, stored for a relatively short time in the gas phase of liquid nitrogen and subsequently thawed. in addition, 13 of these species were tested after similar storage for up to 18 months. in sheep, haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger and oesophagostom ...1977566412
[distribution of nematode parasites of the digestive system in sheep (ovis aries) and goats (capra hircus) of the piedmontese and valdostano alpine arc].a survey, carried out on gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of piemonte and of valle d'aosta (87 sheep and 12 goats) has shown the presence of the following species in sheep, bunostomum trigonocephalum, chabertia ovina, cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus abnormalis, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum venulosum, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia lyrata, ostertagia trifurcata, skrjabinema o ...1977572958
anthelmintic efficiency of oxfendazole in california lambs.oxfendazole, methyl 5(6)-phenylsulfinyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate, was given by oral drench (5 mg/kg) to california lambs harboring natural infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. ninety-nine percent of adult ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia trifurcata, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus filicollis, and nematodirus spathiger were removed by the anthelmintic.1977921025
the response of nematodes in vivo and in vitro to some anthelmintics.dietary feeding of drugs for 5 days to mice infected with nematospiroides dubius and hymenolepis nana detected all modern anthelmintics examined except stilbazium. a simple test using eggs of nematodirus spathiger and adult nippostrongylus brasillensis to detect anthelmintics in vitro is reported.1977599274
thiophanate as a low daily dosage anthelmintic in sheep.thiophanate administered daily at low dosages reduced nematode faecal egg output, egg hatchability and parasitic worm burdens in treated lambs and ewes. six daily doses of 1 or 3 mg per kg thiophanate (approximately 1/25th to 1/75th of the median therapeutic dose), given to lambs experimently infected with trichostrongylus colubriformis, were partially effective in suppressing faecal egg output and egg hatchability. six doses of 5 mg per kg per day were effective in lambs infected with haemonch ...1978695254
recovery of nematodes from ruminants by migration from gastro-intestinal ingesta and mucosa gelled in agar: preliminary report.when gastro-intestinal ingesta and mucosa containing larvae or adult haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta. trichostrongylus colubriformis, strongyloides papillosus, nematodirus spathiger, gaigeria pachyscelis, oesophagostomum columbianum or chabertia ovina were suspended in 0,75--1,00% agar gel and incubated in physiological saline, a mean of 93,6% of the helminths migrated from the agar-ingesta or agar-mucosa into the physiological saline. the lowest suitable concentration of agar was ...1978704042
[effect of freezing, high temperatures and drying on the eggs and larvae of nematodirus spathiger railliet, 1896].a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the effect of freezing (--8 to --10 degrees c), high temperatures (15 to 20 degrees c, 26--28 degrees c, 36--37 degrees c, and 58--60 degrees c) on the eggs and larvae of n. spathiger in water, in a dry state, and in the faces. it was found under freezing the eggs retained their viability in water up to 260 days (5.4%), in a dry state up to 330 days (2.8%), and in the feces up to 373 days (5.3%). embryonated eggs at --8 to --10 degrees ...1978749324
helminth parasites of beef cattle in the east kimberley and victoria river districts of northern australia.an investigation into the helminth species present in cattle in the east kimberley and victoria river districts of northern australia was conducted over a 2-year period based on bi-monthly total and differential worm counts in weaner cattle as well as on a post mortem survey of adult cattle sent for slaughter. the most important species found in young cattle were haemonchus placei and cooperia spp. only small numbers of bunostomum phlebotomum, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum radiatum and ...1978664015
survival and development of larvae of the common nematodes of ruminants after long-term cryopreservation and investigation of different routes of infestation.exsheathed infective larvae (l3) of 16 species of nematodes were tested for infectivity in either sheep or cattle after they had been frozen and stored in 0,09% nacl solution in the gas phase of liquid nitrogen for periods of up to 59 months. a mean of greater than 90% of the l3 of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum columbianum and chabertia ovina of sheep and haemonchus placei, ostertagia o ...19807465164
[nematodirus spathiger (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) in lambs from balmaceda, chile (author's transl)]. 19807213469
influence of plasma a esterase on anthelmintic action of haloxon in sheep.controlled trials were conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic action of haloxon in 2 phenotypes of lambs, 1 having an a esterase in plasma which rapidly hydrolyzes di-(2-chloroethyl)aryl phosphates and the other without this enzyme. a total of 116 lambs, 57 with and 59 without the plasma a esterase, 6 to 9 months old, harboring naturally acquired nematode infections were used in 3 trials. haloxon was administered orally at 20, 25, and 35 mg/kg of body weight. nematodes against which haloxon was ...19807212415
oxfendazole: anthelmintic activity in sheep artificially infected with nematodes. results of trials against nine species including benzimidazole-resistant haemonchus contortus.in a series of 11 trials, in which 281 lambs were artificially infected with 9 species of nematodes, larval anthelmintic tests were carried out to assess the activity of a dose of 5 mg/kg oxfendazole against all 3 parasitic stages of each species. an efficacy of over 99,4% was obtained against all stages of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger, gaigeria pachyscelis, chabertia ovina and oesophagostomum columbianum with the exception ...19807005443
parasites of chamois in new zealand.abstract sir, - andrews'((2)) checklist of helminth parasites of wild ruminants in new zealand recorded the presence of 10 species of gastrointestinal nematodes in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra l.) from "central south island". in october 1978 we examined 28 freshly-shot chamois cadavers from the harper-avoca watershed in the headwaters of the rakaia river. six of the nematode species reported by andrews were found again; viz. ostertagia ostertagi, o. circumcincta, o. trifurcata, nemat ...198122133071
efficacy of ivermectin against naturally acquired and experimentally induced nematode infections in sheep.the activity of ivermectin against common nematode parasites of sheep was examined in 2 experiments. in the 1st experiment, 14 sheep with naturally acquired infections were assigned to 2 groups of 7 sheep each. sheep in 1 group were treated with 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight and the remainder served as nontreated controls. in the 2nd experiment, 15 sheep with experimentally supplemented infections (including a benzimidazole-resistant strain of haemonchus contortus) were assigned ...19827041712
gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep in kashmir.examination at necropsy of the abomasum and intestinal tract of 62 sheep (including both sexes) of karnah breed, aged one to two years over a period of one year was conducted at handwara, situated in the north-west of kashmir valley. the following species of nematodes were found: haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, bunostomum trigonocephalum, chabertia ovina, nematodirus spathiger, skrjabinema ovis and trichuris ovis. infections with trichostrongylus axei ...19826891858
evaluation of albendazole in cattle naturally infected with nematodes.albendazole (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) was given to 10 calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. ten similar calves served as controls. the compound provided 99% to 100% efficacy in removing haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei, t colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger, n helvetianus, n filicollis, cooperia oncophora, c punctata, and oesophagostomum radiatum.19827073074
ecology of the free-living stages of nematodirus spathiger.observations were made on the development of eggs and the survival of infective larvae of nematodirus spathiger hatching from eggs placed on grass plots over a period of a year. development took place at all seasons although the period between deposition of eggs and hatching was longer in the colder months than in the summer. survival of the larvae varied from nine months to well over a year.19827089380
anthelmintic efficacy of febantel against gastrointestinal helminths in calves.three dosage levels of febantel were tested for anthelmintic activities in calves under field conditions. a total of 20 feeder calves affected with naturally occurring gastrointestinal parasites were used in the controlled test. the calves were allotted to 4 groups of 5 each on the basis of degree of parasitism, body weight, age, and sex. calves in groups ii through iv were treated with febantel paste formulation at dosage levels of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight; calves in group i were use ...19827165174
helminth and arthropod parasites of blesbok, damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, and of bontebok, damaliscus dorcas dorcas.the helminth burdens of 8 blesbok shot in the north-eastern orange free state, 8 from the eastern cape province, 28 from the eastern transvaal and 3 from the central transvaal were determined. in addition, the arthropod burdens of 11 of these animals were ascertained. twenty-one nematode species, 2 cestode species, 6 ixodid ticks, 2 lice and the larvae of 5 oestrid flies were recovered. three of the nematode species, 2 of the oestrid flies and 4 of the tick species had apparently not previously ...19827177591
oxfendazole resistance in nematodirus spathiger.the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in a field strain of nematodirus spathiger is reported for the first time. in a controlled anthelmintic trial with naturally-acquired infections, oxfendazole at 5 mg/ kg and levamisole at 8 mg/kg were 0 and 86% effective respectively, against this strain.198316030961
antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. all animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), trichuris ovis (98. ...19836689112
anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole suspension against induced helminth infections in south african sheep and cattle.critical controlled tests were performed in 157 sheep (8 experiments) and 34 cattle (2 experiments) to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of mebendazole suspension, administered intraruminally via a stomach tube at a dosage rate of 15 mg of mebendazole/kg of body weight, against induced infections of immature and adult stages of commonly encountered nematode parasites in south africa. in the sheep, the controlled efficacy of mebendazole suspension was good to excellent (90.1% to 100%) against al ...19846375485
efficacy of ivermectin against internal parasites of sheep.ivermectin in an oral formulation was evaluated by the non-parametric method against a wide range of endoparasites of sheep in 15 trials involving a total of 297 sheep. ivermectin at 200 micrograms/kg was more than 80% effective in more than 80% of the treated animals (i.e. class a) against induced infestations of 3rd and 4th stage larvae and adults of chabertia ovina, dictyocaulus filaria, haemonchus contortus (including a benzimidazole-resistant strain), nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum ...19846549472
detection of benzimidazole resistant nematodirus spathiger. 198516031153
the comparative efficacy of oxfendazole administered as bolus and suspension to naturally infected sheep in greece.in a flock of 20 ewes naturally infected with those parasites of sheep most common in greece, and kept indoors during the whole trial, oxfendazole at the dose rate of approximately 2.9 and 2.8 mg/kg body-weight was tested as a 4 g bolus containing 112 mg active ingredient and a 2.265% suspension. the evaluation of its efficacy was based on the necropsy findings which were also supported by faecal egg counts. no differences in efficacy were noticed between the two formulations of the drug. both b ...19863745877
an egg development test for the evaluation of benzimidazole resistance in nematodirus spathiger. 19863827781
parasites in sheep grazing on kikuyu (pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in the winter rainfall region.regular worm counts were done post-mortem on sheep that had grazed on kikuyu pastures at the elsenburg research station near stellenbosch, a winter rainfall region. major species were trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus axei, while ostertagia circumcincta was usually present in large numbers. minor species were haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger, dictyocaulus filaria, oesophagostomum venulosum, trichuris spp., chabertia ovina and larvae of the arthropod oestrus ovis. muelle ...19873587925
the effects of immunization of sheep with trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae on worm burdens acquired during grazing.the effects of immunization of sheep with trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae on worm burdens acquired during grazing. international journal for parasitology 19: 177-181. romney sheep, reared helminth-free in pens to 5 months of age, were immunized against trichostrongylus colubriformis by giving two doses of 200,000 t. colubriformis infective larvae at 15 day intervals to assess protection from natural challenge during grazing. five immunized sheep and five unimmunized sheep were grazed on in ...19892722390
overberg research projects. i. the epidemiology of parasitic nematodes in ewes, suckling lambs and weaners.total differential warm counts were done on sheep slaughtered from 7 may 1987 to 19 may 1988 at boontjieskraal estate in the overberg, republic of south africa. it was found that winter lambs became infested with nematodirus spathiger at 5 to 7 weeks of age. at weaning in october 1987 this species was superseded by teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus rugatus. small numbers of trichuris skrjabini and oesophagostomum venulosum were also present. from july to october, 3rd and 4th stage l ...19892487725
[benzimidazole resistant ostertagia circumcincta in angora goats].angora goat kids from the eastern cape province with natural infestations of ostertagia circumcincta, nematodirus spathiger, and trichostrongylus rugatus were treated with albendazole, fenbendazole or morantel citrate, while a fourth group remained an untreated control group. the benzimidazoles were less than or equal to 50% effective against o. circumcincta, and approximately 50% effective against possibly resistant fourth larval stage n. spathiger. to confirm the diagnosis of anthelmintic resi ...19892607534
helminth parasites of grysbok, common duikers and angora and boer goats in the valley bushveld in the eastern cape province.helminth parasites were collected from 13 grysbok, raphicerus melanotis, 12 common duikers, sylvicapra grimmia, 24 angora goats and 24 boer goats killed on a farm in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province. nematodes belonging to 9 species and a further 2 genera and cestodes belonging to 1 species and a further genus were recovered from the grysbok. of these, worms of the genus skrjabinema, trichostrongylus rugatus, trichostrongylus pietersei and nematodirus spathiger were the most prevalen ...19892812700
availability of infective larvae of parasitic nematodes of sheep grazing on kikuyu (pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in the winter rainfall area.thirteen groups of 4 south african mutton merinos grazed for 4 weeks with the flock on kikuyu pastures and were slaughtered for total and differential worm counts at necropsy. subsequently 12 groups of 8 week tracers grazed on the pastures and were killed for worm counts post mortem. the following were present in most sheep: teladorsagia (syn. ostertagia) circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, dictyocaulus filaria and oesophagostomum venulosum. haemonchus contortus, ...19892626260
cryopreservation of some common nematodes of ruminants for up to 11,3 years.infective larvae of selected batched of the following nematode species from sheep and cattle were examined for survival and infectivity (by injection into either the abomasum, the duodenum, or the jugular vein) after having been stored in liquid nitrogen for 103-136 months: haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia ostertagi, marshallagia marshalli, cooperia spp., trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus falculatus, nematodirus sp ...19902338992
interaction of ostertagia and nematodirus species in sheep and the potential of serum fructosamine determination in monitoring gastrointestinal parasitism.serum fructosamine concentration falls with an increase in plasma protein turnover. since this increase is a feature of gastrointestinal parasite infection at all sites, a falling serum fructosamine level may be of general application in the interpretation of parasite-related events. the circulating fructosamine level was investigated in the lamb as an indicator of protein-losing gastroenteropathy associated with two parasites at different sites, ostertagia circumcincta (abomasum) and nematodiru ...19911780589
experimental infections with nematodirus spathiger in rabbits.the feasibility of infecting laboratory rabbits experimentally with the ovine nematode nematodirus spathiger was examined. eight-week-old rabbits were dosed either with 5000 or with 17,000 third-stage larvae and killed on days 10, 21 or 42 post-infection. with the lower dose, 20 to 40% of the inoculum were recovered at necropsy. similar values were observed with the 17,000 dose on days 10 and 21 post-infection, but on day 42 the worm population was residual (0.6%). with both dose levels, during ...19921452997
an evaluation of an oral formulation of moxidectin against selected anthelmintic-resistant and -susceptible strains of nematodes in lambs.the efficacy of an oral formulation of the newly developed parasiticide, moxidectin, was tested against benzimidazole-resistant haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, and nematodirus spathiger, levamisole-resistant ostertagia circumcincta, and susceptible cooperia curticei infections in weaned lambs. thirty-two lambs were experimentally infected with mixed doses of the above strains of nematodes. they were allocated into four treatment groups by stratified randomisation using live ...199216031668
parasites of south african wildlife. xiii. helminths of grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, and of bontebok, damaliscus dorcas dorcas, in the bontebok national park.a total of 25 grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, and 16 bontebok, damaliscus dorcas dorcas, were shot for parasite recovery at bi-monthly intervals in the bontebok national park, south-western cape province, from february 1983 to december 1983 and february 1983 to february 1984, respectively. the grey rhebuck and the bontebok each harboured 9 nematode species and the latter animals 1 cestode species. ostertagia hamata was most abundant and most prevalent in the grey rhebuck and longistrongylus curvi ...19921437019
activity of doramectin against nematode endoparasites of cattle.a series of 28 controlled anthelmintic studies, involving 634 cattle, was conducted throughout north america and europe to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against a broad range of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species and lungworms in naturally and experimentally infected animals. within each study, one or two groups were treated with doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 and another group received no drug treatment. worm burdens were estimated by standardised techniques, and efficacy asse ...19938236735
histopathology of the small intestinal mucosa in nematodirus spathiger infection in rabbits.rabbits were experimentally infected with two levels (5000 and 17,000) infective larvae of nematodirus spathiger. histological (villus length, mucosa to serosa ratio, crypt surface) and biochemical (protein content, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities) measurements relating to the small intestinal mucosa were examined along the entire length of the organ. in the proximal intestine, the presence of worms was associated with villus abrasion, increased crypt surface and decre ...19938354859
efficacy of moxidectin against internal parasites of sheep.the efficacy of injectable and oral formulations of moxidectin, at a dosage of 0.2 mg kg -1 live mass was evaluated by the non-parametric method (npm) against the most common internal parasites of sheep in 9 trials involving a total of 201 sheep. both formulations obtained an a classification (more than 80% effective in more than 80% of the treated animals) against the third (l3) and fourth (l4) larval and adult stages of haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcineta, trichostrongylus colubrif ...19938496891
rejection of heterologous nematodes by sheep immunized with larval or adult trichostrongylus colubriformis.sheep immunized by truncated larval infections or by the adoptive transfer of adult trichostrongylus colubriformis were subsequently challenged with single infections of t. colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger, haemonchus contortus or ostertagia circumcincta or combinations of the parasites. sheep vaccinated with larval infections were > 90% protected by 4 days after challenge (dac) against t. colubriformis l3 given in a single or combined infection, whereas no significant protection was exhibit ...19938314366
comparative ultrastructure of the cuticle of trichostrongyle nematodes.the ultrastructure of the cuticle was examined in austrostrongylus victoriensis, patricialina birdi and woolleya monodelphis (herpetostrongylidae) from marsupials, paraustrostrongylus ratti (herpetostrongylidae) from rodents, nippostrongylus magnus and odilia bainae (heligmonellidae) from rodents, cooperia oncophora and camelostrongylus mentulatus (trichostrongylidae) from ruminants, and nematodirus spathiger (molineidae) from ruminants. the principal cuticular layers described previously were p ...19947982751
the effects of anthelmintics on ovine larval nematode parasite migration in vitro.the anthelmintics ivermectin, levamisole, morantel tartrate and thiabendazole all inhibited, in vitro, the motility of third stage larvae (l3) of trichostrongylus colubriformis. the bioassay, based on the inhibition of l3 migration from agar gels, yielded sigmoid dose-response curves for ivermectin, levamisole and morantel tartrate, but not thiabendazole. the concentration of levamisole giving 50% inhibition of migration (ec50) was determined for cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, nematodi ...19948070948
efficacy of ivermectin against benzimidazole-resistant nematodirus spathiger in sheep.eighteen helminth-free lambs were randomly allocated to six groups of three. each lamb was dosed with 3300 infective larvae pooled from two isolates of nematodirus spathiger known to be benzimidazole resistant. one lamb from each group was treated with oral ivermectin, one with oral oxfendazole and one left untreated 21 days after infection. all lambs were humanely killed 14 days later and small intestine worm counts performed. no nematodirus were found in the ivermectin-treated lambs. nematodir ...199516031822
nematode burdens and immunological responses following natural challenge in romney lambs selectively bred for low or high faecal worm egg count.breeding lines of romney sheep, selected as lambs for consistently low or high faecal nematode egg count (fec) following periods of natural challenge, have been maintained at wallaceville for some years. in order to determine the extent to which fecs in low and high genotypes reflected their ability to resist the establishment of gastro-intestinal nematode burdens, we investigated the infection status and immune responses in 8- to 9-month-old progeny of selected rams from low and high fec breedi ...19968720563
[genetic differentiation of helminths on the basis of data of polymerase chain reaction using random primers].the genetic variability of helminths belonging to the three classes cestoda, nematoda and trematoda was analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction with randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd-pcr). dendrograms of genetic relationships between some representatives of the genus trichinella, fasciola hepatica, cysticerus ovis, echinococcus granulosus, and nematodirus spathiger were constructed on the basis of dna amplification patterns. the formation of ecological and genetic adaptations in th ...19968713628
cryopreservation of sheathed third-stage larvae of nematodirus spathiger.a technique for the cryopreservation of sheathed third-stage larvae nematodirus spathiger is described. it consists of incubating larvae in 5% (v/v) ethylene glycol for 20 min at room temperature, followed by 1 min of incubation in 40% (v/v) ethylene glycol at 0 degrees c. the average recovery of adult worms was 28.5% for two adult sheep infected with these larvae.19968848305
characterization of acetylcholinesterase secreted by the trichostrongyle nematode parasites of ruminants.acetylcholinesterase (ache) secreted by seven different ruminant trichostrongyles was studied in vitro. ache activity was particularly high (84 and 160 x 10(-3) m.g-1.min-1) in the excretion products of nematodirus spathiger and n battus, moderate (3 and 5 x 10(-3) m.g-1.min-1) for trichostrongylus colubriformis and t vitrinus and low (0.9 x 10(-3) m.g-1.min-1) for teladorsagia circumcincta. no activity was observed with haemonchus contortus and cooperia curticei. at 4 degrees c, 80% of ache act ...19979208448
isoelectric focusing of soluble proteins in the characterization of species and isolates of nematodirus (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea).isoelectric focusing was performed on extracts from nematodirus spathiger, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus, and 3 geographic isolates of nematodirus battus. gender-specific differences were noted within species; however, the overall protein profile of each species and isolate was distinct and reproducible and allowed unequivocal differentiation. a coefficient of similarity (sm) for males of each species and isolate was calculated, and a dendrogram, based on evaluation of sm by th ...19979379295
differences in the second internal transcribed spacer of four species of nematodirus (nematoda: molineidae).genetic differences among nematodirus spathiger, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus and nematodirus battus in the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of ribosomal dna ranged from 3.9 to 24.7%. pairwise comparisons of their its-2 sequences indicated that the most genetically similar species were n. spathiger and n. helvetianus. n. battus was the most genetically distinct species, with differences ranging from 22.8 to 24.7% with respect to the other t ...19989512998
efficacy of topically administered doramectin against eyeworms, lungworms, and gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.to evaluate efficacy of topically administered doramectin against eyeworms, lungworms, and gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.199910376888
parenterally administered gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae viable after more than 15 years in liquid nitrogen.after cryopreservation for 13.3-15.8 years, the viability of the infective larvae (l3) of trichostrongylus axei, t. colubriformis, oesophagostomum columbianum, haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, t. falculatus, nematodirus spathiger, chabertia ovina and dictyocaulus filaria was assessed in sheep, by being deposited at their predilection sites. d. filaria was, however, an exception, in that the l3 were injected into the jugular vein. the mean development of all the species was 22.8%, b ...200010714461
parasites of south african wildlife. xvi. helminths of some antelope species from the eastern and western cape provinces.the numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, three eland, taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, aicelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the karoo national park, western cape province; two bontebok, damaliscus pygargus dorca ...200010843320
relationships of nematodirus species and nematodirus battus isolates (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) based on nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.nuclear ribosomal sequence data from the internal transcribed spacers (its-1 and its-2), 5.8s subunit, and regions of the 18s and 28s genes were used to investigate sequence diversity among geographic samples of nematodirus battus, and to infer phylogenetic relationships among nematodirus species. phylogenetic analysis of these data yielded strong support for relationships among species, depicting nematodirus helvetianus and nematodirus spathiger as sister-taxa and a clade of these 2 species and ...200010864259
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxix. helminth and arthropod parasites of angora goats in the southern karoo.parasites were collected from 160 angora goats and kids on the jansenville experimental farm, eastern cape province. six nematodes were identified to species level and three to generic level. nematodirus spathiger was the most numerous of the economically important nematodes recovered. it was always present, and fourth stage larvae were collected from untreated goats from august to march, while animals used as tracers also picked up most infection from august to march. kids born on the farm duri ...200111403427
abomasal and small intestinal nematodes from captive gazelles in spain.the abomasal and small intestinal helminth fauna of three species of captive gazelles (gazella dama mhorr, g. cuvieri and g. dorcas neglecta) kept in captivity in almería (southeast spain) have been studied, and the following species were identified: nematodirus spathiger, n. filicollis, n. helvetianus, camelostrongylus mentulatus, trichostrongylus vitrinus, t. probolurus, t. colubriformis, ostertagia ostertagi, o. harrisi, teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, and t. (ostertagia) davtiani. ca ...200111818055
intestinal infusion of soluble larval antigen stimulates rejection of heterologous nematode larvae by immune sheep.sheep immunised by multiple truncated infections with trichostronglyus colubriformis were highly resistant to subsequent challenge with homologous exsheathed larvae, administered via a surgically implanted duodenal cannula. the duration of immunity after truncated infections was 12-14 weeks against challenge with t. colubriformis or cooperia curticei, but there was little cross-protection against challenge with nematodirus spathiger. when immune sheep were given booster doses of t. colubriformis ...200212049466
use of lectin binding characteristics to identify gastrointestinal parasite eggs in faeces.identification of the presence and abundance of species is important when choosing therapies and control strategies for internal parasitism of livestock. here we examine lectin binding characteristics of eggs isolated from sheep faeces as a means for identifying the parasite genera contributing to infection. the intensity of lectin staining varied with incubation time, incubation volume, concentration of lectin and concentration of eggs. formalin fixed eggs had greater autofluorescence but exhib ...200211934462
immune rejection of trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep; a possible role for intestinal mucus antibody against an l3-specific surface antigen.sheep that have been immunized by multiple truncated infections with the parasitic nematode trichostrongylus colubriformis contain anti-larval activity in their intestinal mucus and high-speed mucus supernatants. this activity induces t. colubriformis l3 to clump in vitro and causes a significant reduction in larval establishment in naive sheep after infusion of larvae and mucus into the intestinal lumen via a duodenal cannula. in this report, we provide evidence that one factor contributing to ...200312753437
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlii. helminths of sheep on four farms in the eastern cape province.at monthly intervals for periods ranging from 9 to 25 consecutive months between three and four merino yearling-sheep and two merino lambs on three farms in eastern cape thornveld, and two dorper yearling-sheep on a farm in valley bushveld were slaughtered and examined for helminths. the merino sheep were infected with 15 nematode species, of which haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger and trichostrongylus spp. were the most numerous, and with four cestode species. the dorper sheep were in ...200314621313
copro-antigen capture elisa for the detection of teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta in sheep: improvement of specificity by heat treatment.a copro-antigen capture elisa for the detection of teladorsagia circumcincta infection in sheep was developed and evaluated. experiments with faeces from worm-free sheep, that had been spiked with known concentrations of excretory-secretory (e-s) antigen indicated that a positive signal was generated with 180 ng of e-s/ml. a nested design, based on 8 infected and 8 worm-free sheep, was employed to assess the stages during sample preparation contributing to variation in signal from the assay. thi ...200415267118
development of nematodirus spathiger (nematoda, molineoidea) in the rabbit and comparison with other nematodirus spp parasites of ruminants.the morphogenesis and chronology of the life cycle of nematodirus spathiger (railliet, 1896), a parasite of ruminants, were studied in detail in an experimental host. twenty-four worm-free rabbits were each infected per os with n. spathiger larvae and were killed at 12 h after infection (12 hai) and every day from 1 dai to 23 dai. by 12 hai, all the larvae were exsheathed and present in the small intestine. the third moult occurred between 4 dai and 5 dai. the last moult occurred between 13 dai ...200415316773
helminths in sympatric populations of mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvorufula) and gray rhebok (pelea capreolus) in south africa.helminths of mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvorufula fulvorufula) and gray rhebok (pelea capreolus) were investigated in south africa between june 1999 and february 2002. forty-one mountain reedbuck were culled at sterkfontein dam nature reserve over 8 different periods, and 25 mountain reedbuck were culled at tussen die riviere nature reserve over 3 different periods. a total of 17 kinds of helminths were found at the 2 sites, including 15 nematodes, 1 trematode, and 1 cestode. at sterkfontein, ...200517089756
incidence of nematodirus species and their differentiation through the infective third stage larvae among egyptian camels.coprological examination on camels (camelus dromedarius) from different localities in egypt revealed the presence of nematodirus eggs in 38 out of 312 (12.18%). the faecal samples positive to nematodirus eggs were cultured for collection of infective third stage larvae (l3). details of the general and differential categories of each sample were given. the recovered species were nematodirus battus, nematodirus filicollis and nematodirus spathiger.200516083058
helminth parasites of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the klein karoo.the number and species of helminth parasites from three gemsbok (oryx gazella) were recorded, and their faecal nematode egg counts and the level of pasture contamination determined. six nematode genera were recovered and four species identified, of which trichostrongylus rugatus was the most prevalent. other nematode species recovered were cooperia sp., agriostomum sp., haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger and ostertagia ostertagi. none of the worms were present in all animals studied, an ...200617283732
output of gastrointestinal nematode eggs in the feces of captive gazelles (gazella dama mhorr, gazella cuvieri and gazella dorcas neglecta) in a semiarid region of southeastern spain.feces from 62 captive african gazelles, including mhorr gazelles (gazella dama mhorr), cuvier's gazelles (gazella cuvieri), and dorcas gazelles (gazella dorcas neglecta), were examined over the course of a year to quantitate nematode egg excretion patterns. strongyloides sp. eggs appeared only in g. dama during the rainy season. trichostrongylidae egg excretion showed a marked seasonal variation, with very low levels during the dry and hot period, a finding that is probably attributable to hypob ...200617319122
the efficacy of ivermectin and levamisole against natural nematodirus spathiger infection in the arabian sand gazelle (gazella subgutturosa marica) and the arabian mountain gazelle (gazella gazella) in saudi arabia.the efficacy of two broad spectrum anthelmintics (ivermectin and levamisole) against the nematode nematodirus spathiger in the reem (arabian sand gazelle) and idmi (arabian mountain gazelle) at king khalid wildlife research centre (kkwrc) was determined. gazelles of both species naturally infected with n. spathiger were each divided into 3 groups. one group was treated with ivermectin, the other group with levamisole and the last group was left as untreated control. faecal egg counts were employ ...200717951010
epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep managed under traditional husbandry system in kashmir valley.the present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (git) nematodes in different age groups, sexes and breeds (genotypes) of sheep through necropsy and faecal analysis over a period of 2 years in kashmir valley, india. a total of 1533 sheep were examined [faecal examination: 1035 (year 1: 561, year 2: 474); necropsy: 498 (year 1: 232, year 2: 266)]. out of these, 945 (61.64%) were found infected [faecal examination: ...200818838225
dose determination studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (aad) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. three dose determination studies were conducted in australia and switzerland to identify the minimum therapeutic dose of monepantel when formulated for the oral treatment of sheep to control fourth stage (l4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae. in each study, sheep infected with the target nematodes (selected from haemonchus contortus, teladors ...200818760536
[the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats of the sanliurfa region].the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats in sanliurfa region between november 2005 and november 2006. during this period, the alimentary canal from 1 or 2 goats was obtained from the municipal slaughterhouse each week. these were brought into the laboratory and examined for the presence of nematodes. gastro-intestinal tracts of 100 hair goats were examined. of these, 83 (83%) were found infected with nematodes. twenty nematode species wer ...200919367541
effect of fasting sheep for a short period on the efficacy and safety of monepantel.eighteen, six- to seven-month-old lambs were infected experimentally with larvae of haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia curticei and nematodirus spathiger, and allocated to three equal groups. the infections were timed to ensure that fourth-stage larvae were present when groups 1 and 2 were treated orally with monepantel. group 1 was not fed for 24 hours before the treatment, group 2 was fed two hours before the treatme ...200919596676
the efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in three countries of southern latin america.the efficacy of the novel anthelmintic, monepantel (an amino-acetonitrile derivative), was investigated in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in five studies in argentina, brazil, and uruguay. monepantel, administered at 2.5 mg/kg liveweight, was highly effective (>99.7%) against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia curticei, cooperia mcmasteri, cooperia oncophora, cooperia pectinata, c ...200919789895
efficacy of the amino-acetonitrile derivative, monepantel, against experimental and natural adult stage gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep.multiple drug resistance by nematodes, against anthelmintics has become an important economic problem in sheep farming worldwide. here we describe the efficacy of monepantel, a developmental molecule from the recently discovered anthelmintic class, the amino-acetonitrile derivatives (aads). efficacy was tested against adult stage gastro-intestinal nematodes (gins) in experimentally and naturally infected sheep at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight when administered as an oral solution. some of the i ...200919019553
availability of gastro-intestinal nematode larvae to sheep following winter contamination of pasture with six nematode species on the northern tablelands of new south wales.this experiment was designed to determine the infective consequences of winter pasture contamination by sheep infected with 6 species of trichostrongylid gastro-intestinal nematode (gin) at armidale in the new england region of nsw. ten helminthologically inert pasture plots were contaminated using 'donor' sheep harbouring artificial infections of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus axei, nematodirus spathiger and teladorsagia circumc ...200919070435
dose confirmation studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (aad) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. nine dose confirmation studies were conducted in australia, new zealand and switzerland to confirm the minimum therapeutic oral dose of monepantel to control fourth stage (l4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae in sheep (target species were haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, teladorsagia trifurcata, trichostrongylus a ...200919135310
gastro-intestinal nematode infections in goats relative to season, host sex and age from the kashmir valley, india.the present study aimed to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes (gins) of goats with respect to sex and age of the host in the kashmir valley from 1 february 2005 to 31 january 2007. a total of 1267 goats were examined [faecal examination: 938 (year 1: 470; year 2: 468); gastro-intestinal (git) examination: 329 (year 1: 175; year 2: 154)]. the overall prevalence of gin infection in these animals was 54.3% (year 1: 54.8%; year 2: 53.8%; p = 0.842). th ...201019627625
efficacy of an energy block containing duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30-ádays. during that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, t1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of d. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, ...201121380576
the efficacy of trichlorphon and naphthalophos against multiple anthelmintic-resistant nematodes of naturally infected sheep in argentina.an anthelmintic efficacy trial was conducted in sheep harbouring anthelmintic-resistant worms in argentina. seventy lambs were selected from a flock that had been grazed on pastures infected with trichostrongyles previously shown to be resistant to the main anthelmintic groups. lambs were allocated to comparable groups of ten animals each and treated with trichlorphon (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) orally); naphthalophos (50 mg/kg b.w. orally); ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.w. subcutaneously); fenbendaz ...201121739383
efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against the adult and larval stages of nematodes in sheep, including anthelmintic-resistant strains.derquantel (dql), a semi-synthetic member of a novel anthelmintic class, the spiroindoles, in combination with abamectin (aba) [as the combination product startect(-«)] is a new entry for the treatment and control of parasites in sheep. the 19 studies reported herein were conducted in australia, new zealand, south africa and the united kingdom to demonstrate the efficacy of derquantel-abamectin (dql-aba) against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and respiratory nematodes of sheep, and to supp ...201121684691
gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (capreolus capreolus) from the nw of the iberian peninsula: assessment of some risk factors.intestinal contents of 218 roe deer hunted in the northwest (nw) of the iberian peninsula during the 2008-2009 hunting seasons were examined in order to provide information on the gastrointestinal (gi) nematode prevalence and intensity of infection and the possible influence of some environmental and intrinsic factors such as climatic conditions, age and sex. all the animals studied harboured gi nematodes, and a total of 20 different species belonging to ten genera were identified. spiculopterag ...201323433640
first description of gastrointestinal nematodes of barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia): the case of camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 barbary sheep or aoudad (ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the parque de rescate de la fauna sahariana (prfs, csic, almeria, spain) was analyzed. most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. the following species were identified: camelostrongylus mentulatus, teladorsagia circumcincta, marshallagia marshalli, ostertagia ostertagi, o. leptospicularis, o. lyrata, haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia trifurcat ...201323616093
characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of nematodirus oiratianus and nematodirus spathiger of small ruminants.nematodirus spp. are among the most common nematodes of ruminants worldwide. n. oiratianus and n. spathiger are distributed worldwide as highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematodes, which cause emerging health problems and economic losses. accurate identification of nematodirus species is essential to develop effective control strategies for nematodirus infection in ruminants. mitochondrial dna (mtdna) could provide powerful genetic markers for identifying these closely related species and resol ...201425015379
a survey of the prevalence of nematodirus spathiger and n. filicollis on farms in the north and south islands of new zealand.to compare the prevalence of nematodirus spathiger and n. filicollis on a sample of farms in the lower south island with the lower and central north island of new zealand by way of a presence/absence survey.201424916540
a multiplex pcr-based method to identify strongylid parasite larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures and/or pasture samples.a multiplex pcr-based method was developed to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination as a means of identifying individual infective larvae from the wide range of strongylid parasite species commonly encountered in sheep in mixed sheep-cattle grazing situations in new zealand. the strategy employed targets unique species-specific sequence markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) region of ribosomal dna of the nematodes and utilises individual larval lysates as reacti ...201424373513
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