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frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas.with the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. among the felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuate ...200717670835
variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (puma concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis).although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. we tested bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (felis concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (plv), african lion lentivirus (llv), and domestic cat fiv-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzym ...200717984266
canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) of eastern canada.between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (lynx rufus) in the eastern canadian provinces of new brunswick and nova scotia. five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. a second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. the virus was identif ...200919617471
the effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (lynx rufus).understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. the objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods ...201323861963
immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (procyon lotor), 1 bat (myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (vulpes vulpes). all cases had previously been diagnose ...201020484176
diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a bobcat (lynx rufus).an 18-yr-old male bobcat (lynx rufus) presented with chronic moderate weight loss and acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. hypercalcemia and azotemia were present on the serum chemistry panel. abdominal ultrasound revealed hyperechoic renal cortices, but no evidence of neoplasia. ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin d were mildly elevated, intact parathyroid hormone was severely elevated, and parathormone-related protein was undetected, suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism with possible rena ...201122950324
seroprevalence of trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern united states.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in latin america. although rare in humans and domestic animals in the united states, t. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (procyon lotor) and virginia opossums (didelphis virginiana). to increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of t. cruzi (arizo ...201020020815
novel hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern united states.abstract novel hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in north america were compared with documented hepatozoon 18s rrna sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. an approximately 500 base pair fragment of 18s rdna common to hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the souther ...201121506825
wild felids as hosts for human plague, western united states.plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations of pumas and bobcats in the western united states. high levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague in nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.200919961691
epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (lynx rufus) in illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the american midwest.a total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in illinois. infections caused by alaria mustelae, diphyllobothrium latum, and macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. from all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: taenia rileyi, alaria marcianae, and toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, ...201424521984
aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in nova scotia, canada.aleutian mink disease virus (amdv) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging american mink in canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. this paper describes the prevalence of amdv of 12 furbearing species in nova scotia (ns), canada.201323394546
modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (lynx rufus) using verified records.helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. bobcats, lynx rufus (schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in north america. the increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their imp ...201425549497
rabies prophylaxis after an animal attack that caused a ruptured eye and traumatic cataract: a case report.we report on a patient with an animal bite eye injury, his surgical treatment and proper rabies immunoglobulin administration.200920184710
renal lesions of nondomestic felids.to comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. the ...201020876911
increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western kentucky from 2001 to 2011.feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, cytauxzoon felis. the primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (lynx rufus). in this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at murray state university's breathitt veterinary center, a regional diagnostic facility located in hopkinsville, kentucky, between january 2001 and december 2011. center re ...201324035030
isolation of bartonella henselae and two new bartonella subspecies, bartonellakoehlerae subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and bartonella koehlerae subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from free-ranging californian mountain lions and bobcats.domestic cats are the natural reservoir of bartonella henselae, b. clarridgeiae and b. koehlerae. to determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging california mountain lions (puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (lynx rufus). bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. these isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including pc ...201626981874
isolation of bartonella henselae, bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of b. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (panthera leo) from south africa, cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) from namibia and captive cheetahs from california.bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (panthera leo) in south africa and 17 cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) from namibia. blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of them) at the san diego wildlife safari park. bacteria were isolated from the blood of three (5%) lions, one (6%) namibian cheetah and eight (73%) cheetahs from california. the lion ...201627453220
assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay.studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. a number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ...201525867521
pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the united states.understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. the relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. we screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (puma concolor), bobcat (lynx rufus), and domestic ca ...201627209780
detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey.predator-prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. we purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. quantitative hp ...201121690383
frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts.although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. a phylogenetic analysis of vp2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus ("fpv-like") or canine parvovirus ("cpv-like"). cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, rela ...201323221559
feline immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission: implications for emergence of new lentiviral infections.owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. we previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lent ...201728003486
non cat-like ovarian cycle in the eurasian and the iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.the iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. the aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to ...200919754543
effects of management of domestic dogs and recreation on carnivores in protected areas in northern california.in developed countries dogs (canis lupus familiaris) are permitted to accompany human visitors to many protected areas (e.g., >96% of protected lands in california, u.s.a.), and protected-area management often focuses on regulating dogs due to concerns about predation, competition, or transmission of disease and conflicts with human visitors. in 2004 and 2005, we investigated whether carnivore species richness and abundance were associated with management of domestic dogs and recreational visita ...201121309853
helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto-related gastric ulcers: a case report.a spiral bacterium (sh9), morphologically different from helicobacter pylori (h. pylori), was found in a 62-year-old woman's gastric mucosa. gastroscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers near the pyloric ring; mapping gastric biopsy showed mild mononuclear infiltration with large lymphoid follicles in the antrum, without corpus atrophy. urea breath test and h. pylori culture were negative, but giemsa staining of biopsies revealed tightly coiled bacteria that immunostained with anti-h ...201424695914
gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape.urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habit ...201222335296
detection of sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (lynx rufus).the protozoan sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, epm), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the americas. the virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the usa and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from mississippi state, usa in february, 2014 were used for th ...201526138150
experimental transmission of cystoisospora felis-like coccidium from bobcat (lynx rufus) to the domestic cat (felis catus).cystoisospora felis is an ubiquitous coccidian of cats. the domestic cat (felis catus) is its definitive host and several mammalian and avian species are its optional intermediate/transport hosts. nothing is known if it is transmissible to wild felids. in the present study c. felis-like oocysts were found in two naturally infected bobcats (lynx rufus) from pennsylvania. to study transmission of c. felis-like parasite from bobcats to domestic cats, sporulated oocysts of c. felis-like from one bob ...201525964236
concurrent examination of bobcats and ticks reveals high prevalence of cytauxzoon felis in southern illinois.cytauxzoon felis is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan of felids enzootic in the southeastern united states. in domestic cats (felis catus), this parasite can result in the highly fatal disease cytauxzoonosis or bobcat fever. bobcats (lynx rufus) are the wild animal reservoir host. to date, the characterization of prevalence of c. felis in bobcats is mostly based on broad-scale surveys from hunter-harvested specimens collected across large geographic areas, usually consisting of multiple states. ...201728355128
cytauxzoon infections in wild felids from carpathian-danubian-pontic space: further evidence for a different cytauxzoon species in european felids.parasitic protists of the genus cytauxzoon are detected in a wide range of wild and domestic felids. bobcats are a confirmed reservoir of cytauxzoon felis in north america while domestic cats are susceptible hosts suffering from severe or fatal illness. cytauxzoon infections are mainly reported from american felids and, recently, several sub-clinical and clinical findings were reported from european, asian, and african felids. in 2014, the collection of organs of 4 eurasian lynx and 12 wild cats ...201626741977
potential ecological distribution of cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in oklahoma, missouri, and arkansas.the ecological distribution of cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. infection of c. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. the natural vertebrate reservoir of c. felis is the bobcat (lynx rufus). to determine the possible distribution of c. felis in three states where infection is common (oklahoma, missouri, and arkansas), two separate ap ...201323131576
evaluation of cytauxzoon felis infection status in captive-born wild felids housed in an area endemic for the pathogen.to determine whether apparently healthy captive-born wild felids that were not native to north america and were housed in an area endemic for cytauxzoon felis harbored the pathogen.201223039987
comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: proconsul heseloni, epipliopithecus vindobonensis, archaeolemur edwardsi, megaladapis grandidieri, and palaeopropithecus kelyus.this study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (primates, carnivora, rodentia, diprotodontia, pilosa, scandentia; n = 472). phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony s ...201626767965
population and genetic outcomes 20 years after reintroducing bobcats (lynx rufus) to cumberland island, georgia usa.in 1988-1989, 32 bobcats lynx rufus were reintroduced to cumberland island (cuis), georgia, usa, from which they had previously been extirpated. they were monitored intensively for 3 years immediately post-reintroduction, but no estimation of the size or genetic diversity of the population had been conducted in over 20 years since reintroduction. we returned to cuis in 2012 to estimate abundance and effective population size of the present-day population, as well as to quantify genetic diversity ...201526640668
characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in bobcats (lynx rufus).feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific fivs. however, recent studies have detected an fiv strain infecting both bobcats (lynx rufus) and pumas (puma concolor) in california and florida. to further investigate this observation, we evaluated fiv from bobcats in florida (n=25) and colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. partial viral sequences from five florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from florida panth ...201323778629
three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of north america and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. we analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. we examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate m ...201222347471
tracking cats: problems with placing feline carnivores on δo, δd isoscapes.several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. as shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δd(h), δ(18)o(h)) can be used as a tool for provenance determination. however, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δd(h) and δ(18)o(h) requires confirmation from animal tissues ...201121931770
variation in the its-1 and its-2 rrna genomic regions of cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern united states and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the united states. the natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. although not likely important reservoirs, c. felis has also been detected in pumas (puma concolor) in florida and louisiana. recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of c. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clin ...201222776107
diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern california.far northern california forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. the proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. the current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and pe ...201728274808
isolation and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from black bears (ursus americanus), bobcats (lynx rufus), and feral cats (felis catus) from pennsylvania.toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. it has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of t. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. in the present study, we tested black bear (ursus amer ...201525393429
evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (lynx rufus) and mountain lions (puma concolor) in north america.mountain lions (puma concolor) throughout north and south america are infected with puma lentivirus clade b (plvb). a second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, plva, infects mountain lions in southern california and florida. bobcats (lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with plva, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. we sequenced full-length plv genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of plv in bobcats and mountain l ...201424741092
zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes.we analyzed lynx rufus fecal parasites from california and colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. giardia duodenalis, cryptosporidium, ancylostoma, uncinaria, and toxocara cati were shed. toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. giardia and cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. genotyped giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.201222718941
prevalence and potential impact of toxoplasma gondii on the endangered amargosa vole (microtus californicus scirpensis), california, usa.we investigated the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in 2011-15 to assess its potential threat on the endangered amargosa vole ( microtus californicus scirpensis) in california, us. surveillance was simultaneously performed on populations of syntopic rodent species. we detected antibodies to t. gondii in sera from 10.5% of 135 wild-caught amargosa voles; 8% of 95 blood samples were pcr-positive for the t. gondii b1 gene, and 5.0% of 140 sympatric rodent brain samples were pcr-positive. exposure t ...201727690194
high seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in elk (cervus canadensis) of the central appalachians, usa.toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe, little is known about t. gondii impacts on the closely related north american counterpart, the elk (wapiti, cervus canadensis), which has increased in number and expanded in range during the past century. we assessed seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies using a modified agglu ...201728130658
seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (lynx rufus) from mississippi, usa.toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple t. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (lynx rufus). unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from mississippi, usa. toxoplasma gondii antibodies were dete ...201728238868
toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence.environmental transmission of toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. as wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. to assess relative contribu ...201324048652
home range scaling: intraspecific and comparative trends.intraspecific and intrasexual variation in home range size, body mass and ecological productivity is examined in three selected species of carnivora (felis rufus: canis latrans; ursus americanus), reflecting different diets. we then compare the intraspecific results with prior cross-species studies. home range size and body mass infelis rufus are positively and significantly correlated, similar to other comparative studies. for both intraspecific and intrasexual analyses of all three species, ho ...199128313260
using molecular epidemiology to track toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: implications for public health and conservation.environmental transmission of the zoonotic parasite toxoplasma gondii, which is shed only by felids, poses risks to human and animal health in temperate and tropical ecosystems. atypical t. gondii genotypes have been linked to severe disease in people and the threatened population of california sea otters. to investigate land-to-sea parasite transmission, we screened 373 carnivores (feral domestic cats, mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, and coyotes) for t. gondii infection and examined the distrib ...201424874796
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico.antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico, using the modified agglutination test (mat). overall, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (leopardus par ...201324063119
aversive responses of white-tailed deer,odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.we tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). urine from bobcats (lyra rufus) and coyotes (canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of japanese yews (taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. urine of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or ...199124258921
impacts of mesopredator control on conservation of mesopredators and their prey.declining large carnivore populations, increased habitat fragmentation, declining interests in fur trapping, and other anthropogenic factors can all lead to increased mesopredator populations and these may negatively impact biodiversity. lethal mesopredator control potentially mitigates some of these effects but can be controversial, largely because impacts on mesopredator populations have not been evaluated. estimating these impacts may reduce controversies while increasing our understanding of ...201526361211
chronic toxoplasma gondii in nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.latent infection with toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. since prevalence of t. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. to test this concept in an animal model, nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field ...201525855987
neoplasia in felids at the knoxville zoological gardens, 1979-2003.a review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (acinonyx jub ...200819110704
toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.the protozoan toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. this is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. females on average show similar changes as males. however, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. in this study, we replicated behavioral ...201424907696
high trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence associated with minimal cardiac pathology among wild carnivores in central texas.infection with the zoonotic vector-borne protozoal parasite trypanosoma cruzi causes chagas disease in humans and dogs throughout the americas. despite the recognized importance of various wildlife species for perpetuating trypanosoma cruzi in nature, relatively little is known about the development of cardiac disease in infected wildlife. using a cross-sectional study design, we collected cardiac tissue and blood from hunter-donated wildlife carcasses- including raccoon (procyon lotor), coyote ...201627330982
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from alabama, usa.the genetic diversity of toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. in the present study, we genetically characterized five t. gondii isolates from different wild animals including two isolates from a bobcat (lynx rufus), one from a red-shouldered hawk (buteo lineatus), one from a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and one from a bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus). genotyping of these samples using 11 p ...201323160892
isotopic investigation of niche partitioning among native carnivores and the non-native coyote (canis latrans).we employed stable carbon (δ(13)c) and nitrogen (δ(15)n) isotopes within a hypothetico-deductive framework to explore potential resource partitioning among terrestrial mammalian carnivores. isotope values were acquired using guard hair samples from bobcat (lynx rufus), coyote (canis latrans), gray fox (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the adirondack park, ny, usa. enrichment along the δ(13)c axis was expected to reflect the use of human sources of food (reflecting a corn ...201424666214
anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the appalachian trail corridor.anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the appalachian trail (at), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern united states. ...201222880038
prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey.intraguild (ig) predation is an important factor influencing community structure, yet factors allowing coexistence of ig predator and ig prey are not well understood. the existence of spatial refuges for ig prey has recently been noted for their importance in allowing coexistence. however, reduction in basal prey availability might lead ig prey to leave spatial refuges for greater access to prey, leading to increased ig predation and fewer opportunities for coexistence. we determined how the ava ...201020953798
competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores.we examined the relative roles of dominance in agonistic interactions and energetic constraints related to body size in determining local abundances of coyotes (canis latrans, 8-20 kg), gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus, 3-5 kg) and bobcats (felis rufus, 5-15 kg) at three study sites (hereafter referred to as np, cp, and sp) in the santa monica mountains of california. we hypothesized that the largest and behaviorally dominant species, the coyote, would exploit a wider range of resources (i.e ...200024595837
serologic survey of trichinellosis in wild mammals kept in a mexico city zoo.a serologic survey of trichinella infection was carried out to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis among wild mammals kept in captivity at the chapultepec zoo. this was prompted by the necropsy finding of a heavy trichinella infection in a canadian polar bear (ursus maritimus) that had been kept at the zoo for more than 11 years. the parasites recovered were identified as t. nativa (t2). a serologic study based on elisa and western blot analysis was performed in serum samples from two p ...19969017871
data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.these data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "landscape fuel reduction, forest fire, and biophysical linkages to local habitat use and local persistence of fishers (pekania pennanti) in sierra nevada mixed-conifer forests" [10]. the data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [lynx rufus ...201626937448
genetic characterization of canine parvovirus in sympatric free-ranging wild carnivores in portugal.since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (cpv) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. here, we aim to better understand cpv circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing cpv dna or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from portugal. collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by pcr and sequence analysis. the canine parvovirus dna was detected in 4 (2%) animals o ...201728657857
antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (lynx rufus), domestic cats (felis catus), and wildlife from minnesota, usa.little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in minnesota. here, we evaluated toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. antibodies to t. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutination test (mat, cut-off 1:25). twenty nine of 50 bobcats and 15 of 41 wildlife trapped on the vicinity of 10 farms and nine of 16 adult domestic cats (felis catus) and six of 14 domestic dogs resident on farms we ...201626824935
novel gammaherpesviruses in north american domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas: identification, prevalence, and risk factors.gammaherpesviruses (ghvs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. to identify felid ghvs, we screened domestic cat (felis catus), bobcat (lynx rufus), and puma (puma concolor) blood cell dna samples from california, colorado, and florida using a degenerate pan-ghv pcr. additional pan-ghv and long-distance pcrs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glyco ...201424453374
nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics are different among captive exotic felids fed a beef-based raw diet.nutrient digestibility has not been well characterized in exotic felids. the objective of this experiment was to evaluate differences in nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics in five large exotic captive felid species, including bobcats, jaguars, cheetahs, indochinese tigers, and siberian tigers. all animals were individually housed and adapted to a beef-based raw diet (nebraska brand((r)) special beef feline, north platte, ne) for 16 d. total fecal collections were conducted from day ...200819360610
irregular s-cone mosaics in felid retinas. spatial interaction with axonless horizontal cells, revealed by cross correlation.in most mammals short-wavelength-sensitive (s) cones are arranged in irregular patterns with widely variable intercell distances. consequently, mosaics of connected interneurons either may show some type of correlation to photoreceptor placement or may establish an independent lattice with compensatory dendritic organization. since axonless horizontal cells (a-hc's) are supposed to direct all dendrites to overlying cones, we studied their spatial interaction with chromatic cone subclasses. in th ...200010708039
the influence of nasal airflow on respiratory and olfactory epithelial distribution in felids.the surface area of the maxilloturbinals and fronto-ethmoturbinals is commonly used as an osteological proxy for the respiratory and the olfactory epithelium, respectively. however, this assumption does not fully account for animals with short snouts in which these two turbinal structures significantly overlap, potentially placing fronto-ethmoturbinals in the path of respiratory airflow. in these species, it is possible that anterior fronto-ethmoturbinals are covered with non-sensory (respirator ...201627045093
identification of novel gammaherpesviruses in ocelots (leopardus pardalis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) in panama and colorado, usa.gammaherpesviruses (ghvs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. recently, we characterized three novel felid ghvs in domestic cats (felis catus), bobcats (lynx rufus), and pumas (puma concolor). we investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional ghvs. we screened dna samples from ocelots on barro colorado island, panama, and bobcats in western colorado, us, by using a degenerate nested pcr that targets ...201526280877
development and validation of a fecal pcr assay for notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (lynx rufus) in northern california, usa.notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite notoedres cati. the burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods a ...201323568905
an approach toward understanding wildlife-vehicle collisions.among the most conspicuous environmental effects of roads are vehicle-related mortalities of wildlife. research to understand the factors that contribute to wildlife-vehicle collisions can be partitioned into several major themes, including (i) characteristics associated with roadkill hot spots, (ii) identification of road-density thresholds that limit wildlife populations, and (iii) species-specific models of vehicle collision rates that incorporate information on roads (e.g., proximity, width, ...200818427884
metal accumulation in bobcats in the southeastern usa.bobcats (lynx rufus) are wide-ranging mammals found throughout the continental usa. as carnivores near the top of their food chain, bobcats would seem to be a useful bioindicator of metal pollution in terrestrial environments. however, there is very limited research on bobcats in toxicology studies. here, we offer the first analysis of metal (copper, selenium, silver, and zinc) contaminants in the livers of wild bobcats. liver tissues from 120 adult bobcats (i.e., estimated to be ≥1 year old) we ...201627629555
estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.habitat suitability (hs) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. although hs maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. we used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how hs maps for territorial species can be used to estima ...201223387124
comparative morphology and histology of the nasal fossa in four mammals: gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer.although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. in this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of ...201627090617
weather and prey predict mammals' visitation to water.throughout many arid lands of africa, australia and the united states, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. in part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species ...201526560518
ultrastructural characterization of male and female physaloptera rara (spirurida: physalopteridae): feline stomach worms.physaloptera rara (spirurida: physalopteridae) has been found in dogs, coyotes, raccoons, wolves, foxes, cats, and bobcats in north america. the parasites' developmental cycles involve insects, including beetles, cockroaches, and crickets, as intermediate hosts. the nematodes firmly attach to the wall of the stomach and duodenum, where they feed on the mucosa and suck blood. frequent movement of these nematodes results in erosions and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. the present study repor ...201323455940
a southern california freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores.roads present formidable barriers to dispersal. we examine movements of two highly mobile carnivores across the ventura freeway near los angeles, one of the busiest highways in the united states. the two species, bobcats and coyotes, can disappear from habitats isolated and fragmented by roads, and their ability to disperse across the ventura freeway tests the limits of vertebrates to overcome anthropogenic obstacles. we combine radio-telemetry data and genetically based assignments to identify ...200616689893
communication ecology of webbing clothes moth: 1. semiochemical-mediated location and suitability of larval habitat.we tested two hypotheses: 1) that there is semiochemical-mediated attraction of male and female webbing clothes moth (wcm), tineola bisselliella (hum.) (lepidoptera: tineidae) to suitable larval habitat; and 2) that selection of optimal larval habitat has fitness consequences. in binary or ternary choice arena bioassay experiments that prevented wcm from contacting test stimuli, males and females were attracted to dried but untanned animal pelts (red squirrel, muskrat, beaver, coyote, red fox an ...200111521394
winter bait stations as a multispecies survey tool.winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. our 22,975 km(2) mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern idaho and including portions of washington, montana, and british columbia. from 2010-14, we conducted 563 sampling sessions at 497 bait statio ...201728904763
traumatic uterine rupture in three felids.to describe 3 near-full-term, young-adult felids (2 domestic shorthair cats, and 1 bobcat [lynx rufus]) that experienced uterine rupture following trauma.201627385046
bioaccumulation of pcbs in a wild north american felid.organohalogenated compounds (ohcs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. we investigated the concentrations of pcbs in the liver tissues of bobcats (lynx rufus) sampled in illinois during 2013. concentrations of ∑pcbs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of pcbs than females (p = 0.04). o ...201727743039
prevalence of healed long-bone fractures in wild carnivores from the northeastern united states.museum specimens representing 12 species of terrestrial carnivores from the northeastern united states were inspected for evidence of healed long-bone fractures. of 413 individuals, 18 (4.4%) exhibited healed fractures. thirteen (72.2%) occurred in hind limbs; five (27.8%) occurred in forelimbs. mustelids had the highest prevalence of healed long-bone fractures (38.8%) of all observed fractures. within family, 5.6% of canidae and 2.8% of mustelidae exhibited healed fractures. bobcats had the hig ...201627691945
use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : ii. black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus).the effectiveness of predator odors (fecal and urine) in suppressing feeding damage by black-tailed deer was investigated in pen bioassays at the university of british columbia research forest, maple ridge, british columbia, canada. a total of eight bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on deer consumption of salal leaves and coniferous seedlings. cougar, coyote,and wolf feces as well as coyote, wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, and bobcat urines provided the most effective suppression of ...198524310276
use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : i. snowshoe hares (lepus americanus).the effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the university of british columbia research forest, maple ridge, british columbia, canada. a total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in th ...198524310275
the diversity and impact of hookworm infections in wildlife.hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the alimentary system of mammals. despite their high pathogenic potential, little is known about their diversity and impact in wildlife populations. we conducted a systematic review of the literature on hookworm infections of wildlife and analyzed 218 studies qualitative and quantitatively. at least 68 hookworm species have been described in 9 orders, 24 families, and 111 species of wild mammals. black bears, red foxes, and bobcats harbored t ...201728765810
progressive syringohydromyelia and degenerative axonopathy in a bobcat (lynx rufus) following surgical correction of a chiari-like malformation.a 3-yr-old male captive bobcat (lynx rufus) presented with chronic ataxia and right-sided head tilt. magnetic resonance imaging (mri) revealed cerebellar crowding and compression consistent with chiari-like malformation. the clinical signs did not improve after surgical occipital craniectomy, and 2 mo postoperatively a second mri showed hydromyelia and continued cerebellar compression. the bobcat was euthanized, and necropsy showed chronic focal cerebellar herniation and chronic multifocal atlan ...201627010296
oxygen isotope composition of north american bobcat (lynx rufus) and puma (puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. the oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form ...201627002600
mandibular squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat (lynx rufus).a 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. on examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. the bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of t ...201627010306
the importance of motivation, weapons, and foul odors in driving encounter competition in carnivores.encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (rhp), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. the difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. we studied the outcome of encounter competition conte ...201627859193
bregmatic bones in north american lynx.anomalous bregmatic fontanelle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. examination of 472 skulls of lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones.195914420785
interspecific interactions between wild felids vary across scales and levels of urbanization.ongoing global landscape change resulting from urbanization is increasingly linked to changes in species distributions and community interactions. however, relatively little is known about how urbanization influences competitive interactions among mammalian carnivores, particularly related to wild felids. we evaluated interspecific interactions between medium- and large-sized carnivores across a gradient of urbanization and multiple scales. specifically, we investigated spatial and temporal inte ...201526811767
developing cost-effective seismic mineral exploration methods using a landstreamer and a drophammer.to be fully embraced into mineral exploration, seismic data require to be acquired fast, cheaper and with minimum environmental impacts addressing also the often brown-field highly noisy environment where these surveys are employed. since 2013 and through a number of case studies, we have been testing a newly developed for urban environment, digital-based 240 m long, seismic landstreamer for mine planning and mineral exploration purposes. here, we present a pilot study examining the potential of ...201728871161
camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset.camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. we investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. study design components were evaluated for their infl ...201728422973
past, present and future of barrett's oesophagus.barrett's oesophagus is a condition which predisposes towards development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a highly lethal tumour which has been increasing in incidence in the western world over the past three decades. there have been tremendous advances in the field of barrett's oesophagus, not only in diagnostic modalities, but also in therapeutic strategies available to treat this premalignant disease. in this review, we discuss the past, present and future of barrett's oesophagus. we describe ...201728256346
halogenated flame retardants in bobcats from the midwestern united states.in response to the restrictions of polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants in various consumer products, alternative halogenated flame retardants have been subjected to increased use. compared to aquatic ecosystems, relatively little information is available on the contamination of alternative flame retardants in terrestrial ecosystems, especially with regards to mammalian wildlife. in this study we used a top terrestrial carnivore, the bobcat (lynx rufus), as a unique biomonitorin ...201727989386
focused assessment with sonography as an aid for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation in a bobcat ( felis rufus ).a 10-yr-old female spayed bobcat (felis rufus) presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and two episodes of vomiting. an emergency field visit was scheduled to perform abdominal radiography and ultrasonography. the bobcat was assessed to be approximately 5-10% dehydrated, on the basis of decreased skin turgor and tacky mucous membranes. free peritoneal gas, reduced abdominal serosal detail, and an abnormal-appearing right-sided intestinal segment were identified in the abdominal rad ...201526667552
excystation of isospora arctopitheci rodhain, 1933 with notes on a similiar process in isospora begemina (stiles, 1891) lühe, 1906.the in vitro excystation process of sporozoites of isospora arctophitheci rodhain, 1933 from the titi marmoset saguinus geoffroyi and of isospora bigemina (stiles, 1891) lühe, 1906 from the bobcat, lynx rufus is presented. sporocysts of both species lack a stieda body and when exposed to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate (ph 7.4) excysting fluid the walls of both collapse in a similar fashion, along apparently predetermined lines. similarities and differences on excystation between. i. arctopitheci, ...19761258522
a comparison of two field chemical immobilization techniques for bobcats (lynx rufus).anesthetic protocols that allow quick induction, short processing time, and rapid reversal are necessary for researchers performing minimally invasive procedures (including morphometric measurements or attachment of radiocollars). the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of medetomidine and butorphanol as a substitute for xylazine in ketamine-based field immobilization protocols for bobcats (lynx rufus) to reduce recovery and total field times. during 2008 and 2009, 11 bobca ...201122204051
two tales of cytauxzoon felis infections in domestic cats.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus cytauxzoon. cytauxzoonfelis is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. however, increasing e ...201728637681
evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in canada lynx and bobcat.determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. however, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. the effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluat ...201324174116
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