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notes on the comparative osteology of the bobcat and the house cat. 194620996666
some notes on the histology of the ovary of the bobcat with special reference to the corpora lutea. 194918108869
troglostrongylus wilsoni (stough, 1953) n. comb. (nematoda: metastrongylidae) from the lungs of the bobcat, lynx rufus rufus. 195613295891
bregmatic bones in north american lynx.anomalous bregmatic fontanelle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. examination of 472 skulls of lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones.195914420785
occurrence of dirofilaria striata in the bobcat (lynx rufus) in louisiana with observations on its larval development. 196414206489
effect of acute gamma radiation on wild opossum, gray fox, raccoon and bobcat. 19655884552
taenia macrocystis (diesing, 1850), its occurrence in eastern canada and maine, u.s.a., and its life cycle in wild felines (lynx rufus and l. canadensis) and hares (lepus americanus). 19705503028
6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase polymorphism in the bobcat (felis rufa schreber). 19725075385
accessory suckers (?) in taenia taeniaeformis from the california bobcat. 19734711672
leptospirosis in selected wild mammals of the florida panhandle and southwestern georgia.a group of 144 wild mammals, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbits, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, raccoons, opossums, a bobcat, and various small rodents was examined for cultural or serologic evidence of leptospiral infection. leptospires were isolated from 1 of 25 rabbits, 1 of 27 fox squirrels, 1 of 26 gray squirrels, 4 of 18 mice and rats, 8 of 21 raccoons, 7 of 17 opossums, and a bobcat. isolations were not made from 6 deer examined. serotypes isolated were leptospira interrogans ...19751176352
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
aspects of aging, growth, and reproduciton of bobcats from wyoming. 19751113039
weight of adrenal glands in the bobcat (lynx rufus). 1976932572
excystation of isospora arctopitheci rodhain, 1933 with notes on a similiar process in isospora begemina (stiles, 1891) lühe, 1906.the in vitro excystation process of sporozoites of isospora arctophitheci rodhain, 1933 from the titi marmoset saguinus geoffroyi and of isospora bigemina (stiles, 1891) lühe, 1906 from the bobcat, lynx rufus is presented. sporocysts of both species lack a stieda body and when exposed to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate (ph 7.4) excysting fluid the walls of both collapse in a similar fashion, along apparently predetermined lines. similarities and differences on excystation between. i. arctopitheci, ...19761258522
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
characteristics of 11 rabies virus isolates in mice: titers and relative invasiveness of virus, incubation period of infection, and survival of mice with sequelae.mice were inoculated intracerebrally or in the footpad with 11 salivary gland suspensions from rabid foxes, skunks, and bobcats. the 11 isolates differed in their ratios of intracerebral titer to footpad titer, a result indicating that the "invasiveness" of different isolates varies markedly. the degree of invasiveness could not be correlated with the species of animal. the inoculation of the less invasive isolates resulted in an appreciable number of permanently paralyzed animals (survivors wit ...1977903672
ectoparasites of the bobcat from west texas. 1977864562
visceral lesions in wild carnivores naturally infected with spirocerca lupi.aortic lesions pathognomonic for spirocerca lupi were found in 123 of 150 (82%) coyotes, canis latrans, 23 of 66 (35%) bobcats, felis rufus, one of five gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus and one of two red foxes, vulpes vulpes, examined in west texas. adult nematodes in the esophagus were recovered from 11 of 150 (7%) coyotes. in the aorta there was initially an acute inflammatory response followed by an eosinophilic granuloma surrounding larval nematodes. the principal lesions was scarring o ...1978685080
rabies antibody prevalence and virus tissue tropism in wild carnivores in virginia.carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus). rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (lynx rufus).1978739588
reproductive biology and population characteristics of bobcats (lynx rufus) in arkansas. 1978659992
ecology of helminth parasitism in the bobcat from west texas. 1978641672
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in florida.blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in florida. each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. the highest prevalences of t gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (didelphis marsupialis). antibody p ...1979521384
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii among bobcats of west virginia and georgia.bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and georgia were examined for toxoplasma gondii serum antibodies and fecal oocysts. of the 150 bobcats, 27 (18%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:16, as detected by the indirect hemagglutination test. oocysts typical of t gondii were not seen in any of the fecal specimens.19807451325
endoparasites and selected infectious agents in bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and georgia.a total of 143 bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and 10 bobcats from georgia was examined for parasites and selected infectious agents. a total of 31 species of parasites was recovered including 1 protozoan, 1 trematode, 4 cestodes, 1 acanthocephalan and 24 nematodes. results indicate bobcats are important definitive hosts for sarcocystis sp. and toxoplasma gondii. thirteen species (paragonimus kellicotti, spirometra mansonoides, taenia macrocystis, t. rileyi, capillaria putorii, toxascar ...19816802988
sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from montana.sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (gulo gulo), 4 mink (mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (procyon lotor). sarcocystis muris and toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions.19826816776
interspecies transmission of cytauxzoon felis.the causative agent of feline cytauxzoonosis was experimentally inoculated into 4 species of domestic farm animals, 9 species of laboratory animals, and 17 wildlife species. the inoculum consisted of freshly collected or deep-frozen blood and/or tissue homogenates from domestic cats euthanatized in extremis with experimentally transmitted feline cytauxzoonosis. a bobcat, lynx rufus floridanus (florida bobcat), developed cytauxzoonosis typical of the disease observed in domestic cats and died of ...19826807139
experimental transmission of cytauxzoon felis from bobcats (lynx rufus) to domestic cats (felis domesticus).freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected florida bobcat (lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. all inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. all inoculated cat ...19826807145
sarcocystis of deer in south dakota.the prevalence of sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (o. hemionus) in south dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. the percentage of sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the missouri river, west of the missouri river, and black hills of western south dakota. sixteen percent (n = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from east river, 69% (n = 42) from west river, and 74% (n = 23) fr ...19826808161
notoedric mange in the bobcat, felis rufus, from south texas.a fatal case of notoedric mange is described in an adult male bobcat, felis rufus, from south texas. this cat was extremely weak and emaciated. skin lesions consisted of greatly thickened, gray encrustations and alopecia of the muzzle, eyes, crown, ears and parietal scalp extending down the neck to the midscapular region of the shoulders. histologically, there was partial to complete excoriation of the stratum corneum with erosions into the stratum germinativum to the level of the dermis in some ...19827097869
cytauxzoon-like piroplasms in erythrocytes of wild-trapped bobcats in oklahoma.stained blood smears from 26 bobcats wildtrapped in 4 oklahoma counties were examined for protozoan parasites. a cytauxzoon-like piroplasm was observed in erythrocytes from 13 of 21 bobcats trapped in 2 counties. organisms were not observed in the 5 bobcats trapped in 2 other counties. the degree of parasitemia varied from less than 0.5% to 5% infected erythrocytes but commonly ranged from 1% to 3%. responding anemia was apparent in 1 of the 13 infected bobcats but other ill effects possibly att ...19827174437
cytauxzoonosis in bobcats.blood from 4 wild-trapped bobcats (lynx rufus rufus) with naturally occurring infection by an intraerythrocytic piroplasm morphologically indistinguishable from the piroplasm form of cytauxzoon felis was inoculated parenterally into domestic cats. none of the bobcats had signs of disease at the time of capture or subsequently, but all remained parasitemic. erythroparasitemia developed in all 4 of the domestic cats inoculated with parasitemic bobcat blood. one of the domestic cats later died and ...19836417088
hepatozoon sp infection in bobcats. 19836643261
transmission of cytauxzoon felis kier, 1979 from bobcats, felis rufus (schreber), to domestic cats by dermacentor variabilis (say). 19846492329
hematologic and serum chemical values for free-ranging bobcats, felis rufus (schreber), with reference to animals with natural infections of cytauxzoon felis kier, 1979. 19853999257
hematology and serum chemistry of bobcats in northcentral minnesota.hematology and serum chemistry values were determined for 27 (18 male, 9 female) wild-caught bobcats (felis rufus schreber) greater than or equal to 1.0 yr old from northcentral minnesota. most blood parameters were similar to normal values for both captive bobcats and domestic cats. deviations from these normals were likely the result of capture stress, nutritional status, and/or reproductive condition.19853981740
helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, lynx rufus (schreber), from nebraska.cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, lynx rufus (schreber), in nebraska from 1977 to 1979. of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: south dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; kansas, 3/2; and wyoming, 1/1. helminths recovered included: mesocestoides corti hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), taenia rileyi loewen, 1929 (67%), taenia pisiformis (bloch, 1780) gmelin, 1790 (27%), taenia macrocystis (diesing, 1850) lühe, 1910 (19%), phy ...19853998960
use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : ii. black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus).the effectiveness of predator odors (fecal and urine) in suppressing feeding damage by black-tailed deer was investigated in pen bioassays at the university of british columbia research forest, maple ridge, british columbia, canada. a total of eight bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on deer consumption of salal leaves and coniferous seedlings. cougar, coyote,and wolf feces as well as coyote, wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, and bobcat urines provided the most effective suppression of ...198524310276
use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : i. snowshoe hares (lepus americanus).the effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the university of british columbia research forest, maple ridge, british columbia, canada. a total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in th ...198524310275
evidence of a limited schizogonous cycle for cytauxzoon felis in bobcats following exposure to infected ticks.schizogonous tissue stages of cytauxzoon felis (apicomplexa: theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (lynx rufus) from oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 11 days postexposure to infected dermacentor variabilis, but not at 30 days following tick feeding. the schizogonous cycle of this parasite a ...19873114505
relationships between cytauxzoon felis and african piroplasmids.a cat which had recovered from cytauxzoon felis infection following treatment with the anti-theilerial drug, parvaquone, showed an increase in piroplasm parasitemia after splenectomy and its blood was suitable for the preparation of antigen smears for the indirect fluorescent antibody test. high levels of antibodies were found in this cat after recovery, in two other cats sub-lethally infected with piroplasms and in sera of naturally infected bobcats. cats recovered from piroplasm infection died ...19873125663
fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (lynx rufus).toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. although infection is common in wild felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. in this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired.19873586212
detection of anticytauxzoon antibodies in cats infected with a cytauxzoon organism from bobcats.a microfluorometric immunoassay was developed for the detection of antibodies to a cytauxzoon organism of bobcat origin. a homogenated antigen of rbc-parasite lysate was used to measure antibody levels in sera from cats experimentally infected with the non-pathogenic erythrocyte form of the bobcat cytauxzoon organism. antibody levels in sera collected at weekly intervals, expressed as fiax values, were correlated with parasitemia levels and erythrocyte packed cell volume (pcv). the antibody leve ...19883388735
hematology, intestinal parasites, and selected disease antibodies from a population of bobcats (felis rufus) in central arkansas.eight bobcats with adjoining or overlapping home ranges were examined. hematological values were within previously reported ranges. six bobcats demonstrated antibody titers to toxoplasma gondii. isospora spp., taenia taeniaeformis, spirometra mansoides, physoloptera rara, toxocara cati, strongyloides spp., trichurus spp., capillaria spp., and ancyclostoma spp. were found also in the animals examined. the mean number of parasite species per host was 4.1. all bobcats tested negative for serum anti ...19883352091
sylvatic trichinosis in canada.pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western arctic and extended down into the rocky mountain and foothills regions of western canada. infections were demonstrated in arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.19883196978
hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in texas.twelve coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus) and six ocelots (felis pardalis) from the gulf coast of texas were infected with hepatozoon sp. the geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.19883411720
[clinical trial of bobcat: 1st report on the reliability and validity of computerized pure-tone audiometry].computerized diagnostic audiometry is quickly emerging as a viable productivity tool in the audiology clinic. to date, there has been little reported on its reliability and validity with the hearing-impaired. the 'battery of basic computerized audiometric tests' (bobcat) is a computer program which puts a wide variety of clinical hearing tests under computer control. the purpose of the present study was to ascertain the reliability and validity of bobcat in the measurement of hearing sensitivity ...19883056359
modifying scent-marking behavior to reduce woodchuck damage to fruit trees.woodchucks (marmota monax) damage fruit trees by gnawing on main stems during scent marking, a behavior unrelated to feeding. i tested whether damage could be reduced by providing alternative sites for scent marking or by applying predator odor to trees. nearly all hardwood stakes supplied as alternative sites for scent marking were used, and the elapsed time from activation of a burrow until onset of damage to an adjacent tree was significantly greater for sites with stakes. however, the mean l ...199127755676
identification of volatile components of bobcat (lynx rufus) urine.bobcat (lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (lepus americanus) and deer (odocoileus virginianus, o. hemionus). in order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by gc-ms. among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutanol. compounds for which spectrosco ...199124258737
home range scaling: intraspecific and comparative trends.intraspecific and intrasexual variation in home range size, body mass and ecological productivity is examined in three selected species of carnivora (felis rufus: canis latrans; ursus americanus), reflecting different diets. we then compare the intraspecific results with prior cross-species studies. home range size and body mass infelis rufus are positively and significantly correlated, similar to other comparative studies. for both intraspecific and intrasexual analyses of all three species, ho ...199128313260
aversive responses of white-tailed deer,odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.we tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). urine from bobcats (lyra rufus) and coyotes (canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of japanese yews (taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. urine of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or ...199124258921
iatrogenic transmission of cytauxzoon felis from a florida panther (felix concolor coryi) to a domestic cat.a laboratory cat died 12 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a 1 ml suspension containing 1.5 x 10(6) blood mononuclear cells from a florida panther (felis concolor coryi). gross, histologic and ultrastructural investigations revealed the cause of death to be infection by cytauxzoon felis, a protozoal parasite known to cause a rapidly fatal disease (cytauxzoonosis) in domestic cats. the bobcat (felis rufus) has been identified as a natural host for c. felis. this report implicates the flor ...19912067059
lesions associated with pulmonary parasites in bobcats (felis rufus) from arkansas.two of five bobcats (felis rufus) from southwestern arkansas had natural pulmonary infections of paragonimus kellicotti and filaroides rostratus. pairs of p. kellicotti were found in spherical cyst-like structures approximately 1 cm in diameter. filaroides rostratus were seen as serpentine pale white areas on the pleural surface and also firmly embedded in fibrous capsules in the pulmonary parenchyma. histologic lesions associated with the presence of these parasites consisted primarily of a ver ...19912023320
sarcocysts in the florida bobcat (felis rufus floridanus).sarcocysts were found in the tongue, diaphragm, heart, intestinal tunica muscularis, and skeletal muscle of bobcats (felis rufus floridanus) collected in florida (usa). the tongue was found to be the best indicator tissue for sarcocysts (p less than 0.005). thirty of 60 bobcats screened were found to contain sarcocysts in at least one of the muscle tissues examined. of the positive bobcats, 28 of 28 tongues contained sarcocysts, while only 10 of 27 (37%), and 8 of 26 (31%) contained sarcocysts i ...19921548790
clinical use of bobcat: testing reliability and validity of computerized pure-tone audiometry with noise-exposed workers, children and the aged.an investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of implementing computerized audiometry in various clinical groups, using the battery of basic computerized audiometry tests (bobcat). reliability, validity and speed of execution were assessed as a function of hearing loss in a group of noise-exposed workers. children and the aged were also included to represent potentially 'more-difficult-to-test' patients due to fluctuating attention, motivation and/or response behavior. children wer ...19938447762
cytauxzoonosis in cats: eight cases (1985-1992).cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly and highly fatal disease in cats that is caused by the protozoan cytauxzoon felis, which may be transmitted by ixodid ticks (dermacentor variabilis) from parasitemic bobcats (lynx rufus). during an 8-year period, cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in 8 cats, 7 cats within 14 months. risk factors for these cats were warm weather, access to a wooded environment, and exposure to ticks. the most consistent clinical signs were acute lethargy, anorexia, decreased response to exte ...19947961073
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas mammals.seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
notoedric mange in an ocelot (felis pardalis) from southern texas.notoedric mange was diagnosed in a free-ranging adult male ocelot (felis pardalis) found dead in april 1994 in southern texas (usa). the emaciated carcass had no body fat. the heart was enlarged and flaccid. there was a nonpurulent serosanguineous pericardial and peritoneal exudate. severe encrusted skin lesions and alopecia extended from the head posteriorly to the shoulders. the forelegs and feet were less severely affected. we observed a massive infection of notoedres cati in skin scrapings. ...19958592392
ixodid ticks from panthers and bobcats in florida.ixodid ticks were present in all 189 samples examined from 53 florida panthers (felis concolor coryi, 104 collections) and 85 bobcats (felis rufus floridana) in florida (usa) between 1974 and 1991. we identified 3,251 ticks from panthers and 918 from bobcats. specimens of dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, i. affinis, amblyomma maculatum, and a. americanum were present on 49, 39, 17, seven, and two of the 53 florida panthers, respectively, and comprised 36%, 55%, 7%, 1%, and < 1% of the ...19958592378
toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (felis rufus).a bobcat (felis rufus) estimated to be 6-mo old exhibited head pressing, stupor, intermittent seizures, and vocalization. based on gross and histopathologic features, it was diagnosed to have severe focally extensive protozoal meningoencephalitis. toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent by an avidin-biotin immunohistochemical test. this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a free-ranging bobcat.19958592391
immobilization of ocelots and bobcats with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride.we immobilized 10 ocelots (felis pardalis), and 21 bobcats (f. rufus) in south texas (usa) during march to november 1991 with a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride (kh) and xylazine hydrochloride (xh); two ocelots were immobilized twice. species were immobilized with (mean +/- se) 14.7 +/- 1.6 mg kh/kg body mass for ocelots, 13.3 +/- 1.8 mg kh/kg for bobcats, and 1.1 +/- 0.1 mg xh/kg and 1.2 +/- 0.1 mg xh/kg for ocelots and bobcats, respectively. immobilization times in bobcats were longer (p = 0. ...19957563423
serologic survey of trichinellosis in wild mammals kept in a mexico city zoo.a serologic survey of trichinella infection was carried out to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis among wild mammals kept in captivity at the chapultepec zoo. this was prompted by the necropsy finding of a heavy trichinella infection in a canadian polar bear (ursus maritimus) that had been kept at the zoo for more than 11 years. the parasites recovered were identified as t. nativa (t2). a serologic study based on elisa and western blot analysis was performed in serum samples from two p ...19969017871
environmental influences on the sexual dimorphism in body size of western bobcats.sexual size dimorphism might be influenced by environmental constraints on sexual selection or by intraspecific competition between males and females. we studied bobcats (lynx rufus) in collections of museum specimens from western north america to examine these hypotheses. structural body size was estimated from several measurements of the skull, ln-transformed and indexed through principal components analysis. sexual dimorphism in body size was estimated from the difference in size index of mal ...199628307792
patterns of postnatal development in skulls of lynxes, genus lynx (mammalia: carnivora).studies on ossification patterns and other ontogenetic events associated with postnatal cranial growth of wild felids are scarce. an analysis of developmental processes undergone by several cranial structures (presphenoidal and sphenooccipital synchondroses, temporal and sagittal crests, and deciduous and permanent teeth) during postnatal growth has been conducted on a sample of 336 specimens belonging to the four recent species of lynxes (lynx pardinus, lynx lynx, lynx rufus, and lynx canadensi ...19968765807
presence of echinococcus oligarthrus (diesing, 1863) lühe, 1910 in lynx rufus texensis allen, 1895 from san fernando, tamaulipas state, in north-east mexico.a bobcat was found recently killed on "highway 101" near the town of san fernando, tamaulipas state, mexico (100 km south of brownsville, tx, u.s.a.). the cat (lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, echinococcus oligarthrus. the diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. e. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in north america. this is the first time that the strobilar stage has been rec ...19968894772
fatal cytauxzoonosis in a captive-reared white tiger (panthera tigris).fatal (panthera tigris) cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old female white tiger. the tiger presented with a 2-day history of anorexia and lethargy. she was mildly dehydrated, with a temperature of 105.2 f and a hematocrit of 26%. over the next day, icterus developed, and her physical condition progressed to recumbency, coma, and death. hematologic findings obtained shortly before death included icteric plasma, severe thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, hematuria, and parasites consistent with ...19968826011
trichinella spiralis (t1) and trichinella t5: a comparison using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques.we compared trichinella t5 of bobcat (lynx rufus) origin with trichinella spiralis (t1) by using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques. swine, sd rats, and cf1 mice were highly resistant to infection with trichinella t5 but sensitive to t. spiralis, whereas deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) had similar sensitivity to both parasites. the fecundity of trichinella t5 in deer mice was 10-35-fold higher in comparison to the fecundity in laboratory rodents (sd rats and cf1 mice). fecund ...19979057702
a complementary dna encoding an antigen from trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and its analog from trichinella t5 of bobcat origin: sequence, cloning and expressions.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was employed to amplify a cdna encoding an excretory-secretory (es) antigen with mol. wt 45-50 kda by sds-page from t. spiralis muscle larvae. the pcr product was purified by electrophoresis and sequenced by thermal cycle sequencing with primer walking. the cdna is 890 bp long and encodes a polypeptide of 255 amino acid (aa) residues. using the same methods, we also recovered a corresponding cdna from trichinella t5, which is 891 bp long a ...19979184935
sex linkage of minisatellite bands in bobcats (felis rufus).minisatellite dna profiles using the multilocus human probe 33.6 are presented for 27 captive bobcats (felis rufus) of documented geographic and genetic origins. the results show that 30% of the finger-printing bands present in males are sex linked. the effect of sex on band sharing was attributed to the presence of male-specific hemizygotic bands belonging to a minisatellite cluster located in the nonrecombinant region of the y chromosome. a combination of mechanisms might drive the dynamics of ...19979419895
gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.nine small cats, including one bobcat (felis rufus), one pallas cat (f. manul), one canada lynx (f. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (f. viverrina), two margays (f. wiedii), and two sand cats (f. margarita), necropsied between june 1995 and march 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one african lion (panthera leo), two snow leopards (p. uncia), one siberian tiger (p. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (p. onca), necropsied during the same period ha ...19989732040
bartonella henselae antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive wild felids from california.in order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of bartonella spp. infection, 136 nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (felis concolor) and bobcats (felis rufus) captured in california (usa) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for b. henselae antibodies (titer > or = 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. similarly, 124 serum samples from 114 captive wild cats representing 26 species or subspecies collected between 1991 and 1995 were retrieved fr ...19989476226
mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from michigan.during a survey for tuberculosis in wild carnivores and omnivores, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from pooled lymph nodes of three adult female coyotes (canis latrans) harvested by hunters in michigan (usa). no gross or histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were seen in these animals. one coyote was taken from montmorency county and two coyotes from alcona county located in the north-eastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula where free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginia ...19989706576
deficiency of cytosolic arylamine n-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single nat1-like gene.the purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine n-acetyltransferase (nat), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, nat1 and nat2. n-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean km = 2.1 microm) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an nat1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean km > 10 mm) f ...199810022754
administration of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate for treatment of cytauxzoonosis in cats.bobcats (lynx rufus) are the reservoir hosts for cytauxzoon felis, the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis. cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal tickborne blood protozoal disease of domestic and exotic cats. treatment of clinically affected cats has generally been unrewarding. in our report, 6 of 7 cats had signs of illness and laboratory findings indicative of cytauxzoonosis and were successfully treated with 2 i.m. injections of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb] of ...199910461632
rabies in skunks from mexico.an enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in mexico is described. fifty three wild animals including two badgers (taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (lynx rufus), two coatis (nasua narica) three foxes (urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of san luis potosi state, mexico. rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and o ...199910479094
anti-trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera.constitutive anti-trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei s 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. the sera fell into 5 categories. sera from cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. their antitrypanoso ...199910207362
molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from mexico: implications for transmission dynamics and human risk.twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. the variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from mexico and the rest of the americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and outbreaks and to increase the understanding of rabies epidemiology in the western he ...199910548293
the ab blood group system in wild felids.the blood type of 131 non-domesticated felids belonging to 26 felid species was surveyed in this study. based upon a tube hemagglutination assay established for domestic cats, 80% of felids had type-a, 18% type-b, and 2% type-ab blood. felids in the puma group and african and asian golden cats had blood type b, whereas all other species were found to have blood type a. two cheetahs and one bobcat had type-ab blood. red cell glycolipids analysed by high performance thin layer chromatography revea ...199910376305
blood parameters of clinically normal captive bobcats (felis rufus).data on blood parameters were obtained from 56 (32 female, 24 male) clinically healthy, captive bobcats (felis rufus). the animals were housed under ambient conditions at the mississippi state university captive bobcat facility. samples were collected opportunistically between 1982 and 1995. differences (p < or = 0.05) in blood parameters existed between sexes, among age classes (kitten, subadult, adult, and geriatric), and among stages in the reproductive cycle (breeding, parturition, recycling ...199910484139
a multigene locus containing the manx and bobcat genes is required for development of chordate features in the ascidian tadpole larva.the manx gene is required for the development of the tail and other chordate features in the ascidian tadpole larva. to determine the structure of the manx gene, we isolated and sequenced genomic clones from the tailed ascidian molgula oculata. the manx gene contains 9 exons and encodes both major and minor manx mrnas, which differ in the length of their 5' untranslated regions. the coding region of the single-copy bobcat gene, which encodes a dead-box rna helicase, is embedded within the first ...199910079227
seroprevalence of leptospirosis in lynx and bobcats from quebec. 200010769773
competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores.we examined the relative roles of dominance in agonistic interactions and energetic constraints related to body size in determining local abundances of coyotes (canis latrans, 8-20 kg), gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus, 3-5 kg) and bobcats (felis rufus, 5-15 kg) at three study sites (hereafter referred to as np, cp, and sp) in the santa monica mountains of california. we hypothesized that the largest and behaviorally dominant species, the coyote, would exploit a wider range of resources (i.e ...200024595837
irregular s-cone mosaics in felid retinas. spatial interaction with axonless horizontal cells, revealed by cross correlation.in most mammals short-wavelength-sensitive (s) cones are arranged in irregular patterns with widely variable intercell distances. consequently, mosaics of connected interneurons either may show some type of correlation to photoreceptor placement or may establish an independent lattice with compensatory dendritic organization. since axonless horizontal cells (a-hc's) are supposed to direct all dendrites to overlying cones, we studied their spatial interaction with chromatic cone subclasses. in th ...200010708039
molecular tracking of mountain lions in the yosemite valley region in california: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal dna.twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in california mountain lions (puma concolor) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal dna matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. dna from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces were reliably distinguished from mountain lions using this microsatellite panel. in a f ...200010736046
feline papillomas and papillomaviruses.papillomaviruses (pvs) are highly species- and site-specific pathogens of stratified squamous epithelium. although pv infections in the various felidae are rarely reported, we identified productive infections in six cat species. pv-induced proliferative skin or mucous membrane lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemical screening for papillomavirus-specific capsid antigens. seven monoclonal antibodies, each of which reacts with an immunodominant antigenic determinant of the bovine papillomavir ...200010643975
p68, a dead-box rna helicase, is expressed in chordate embryo neural and mesodermal tissues.the p68 dead-box rna helicases have been identified in diverse organisms, including yeast, invertebrates, and mammals. dead-box rna helicases are thought to unwind duplexed rnas, and the p68 family may participate in initiating nucleolar assembly. recent evidence also suggests that they are developmentally regulated in chordate embryos. bobcat, a newly described member of this gene family, has been found in eggs and developing embryos of the ascidian urochordate, molgula oculata. antisense rna e ...200011069138
sylvatic trichinellosis in texas.there are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in texas. the aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern texas. in 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern texas: 154 coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus), 32 racoons (procyon lotor), 13 opossum (didelphis marsupialis), four ocelots (leopardus pardalis) and five wild boars ( ...200111484391
irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at brookfield zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. fifteen cats, two african lions (panthera leo), two amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), one amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (felis caracal), one bobcat (felis rufus), and five fishin ...200112785680
bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from michigan.during a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in michigan (usa) since 1996, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (ursus americanus). one adult, male bobcat (felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for ...200111272505
feline leukemia virus in a captive bobcat.an 11-mo-old captive-bred male neutered bobcat (felis rufus) presented with lethargy, anorexia, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. the animal was diagnosed as feline leukemia virus (felv) positive by immunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) testing. it died despite supportive care. pathologic examination revealed multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, non-suppurati ...200111272497
trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern united states.several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of trichinella were examined from texas, new mexico, and arizona. during 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (ursus americanus) in arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (canis latrans), and a mountain lion (felis concolor) in new mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (procyon lotor), 13 opossums (didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (sus scrofa) in southern tex ...200111695403
seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) from québec, canada.the seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated in trapped lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) from québec, canada. forty-seven of 106 (44%) lynx and 4 of 10 (40%) bobcats had positive titers for t. gondii (> or = 25) by means of the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed tachyzoites. seroprevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in adult lynx than in juvenile lynx. the presence of antibodies to t. gondii in lynx and ...200111695397
communication ecology of webbing clothes moth: 1. semiochemical-mediated location and suitability of larval habitat.we tested two hypotheses: 1) that there is semiochemical-mediated attraction of male and female webbing clothes moth (wcm), tineola bisselliella (hum.) (lepidoptera: tineidae) to suitable larval habitat; and 2) that selection of optimal larval habitat has fitness consequences. in binary or ternary choice arena bioassay experiments that prevented wcm from contacting test stimuli, males and females were attracted to dried but untanned animal pelts (red squirrel, muskrat, beaver, coyote, red fox an ...200111521394
embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (lynx rufus).bobcats (lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (pic). translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days pic and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. one embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plu ...200212047248
fatal cytauxzoonosis in a free-ranging bobcat (lynx rufus).in september 2000, a free-ranging bobcat (lynx rufus) cub was presented to the kansas state university veterinary teaching hospital (manhattan, kansas, usa) in a moribund state with signs of severe anemia and respiratory difficulty. the cub was euthanized. gross necropsy findings included multifocal atelectasis, splenomegaly, and pericardial effusion. microscopic examination revealed subacute pulmonary thrombosis, mild vasculitis in the brain, and large schizont-filled macrophages within blood v ...200212238380
distribution and prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in wild predators in nebraska, kansas, and wyoming.to further determine the distribution and prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in the central united states, 245 wild canids (125 red foxes, 120 coyotes) and 33 bobcats were collected from nebraska, kansas, and wyoming and examined for this parasite. animals examined included 11 red foxes from the western panhandle of nebraska; 5 red foxes and 30 coyotes from southern nebraska; 56 red foxes and 1 coyote from northeastern nebraska; 20 red foxes, 63 coyotes, and 13 bobcats from northern kansa ...200212054030
meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. the animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of ...200212088319
hookworms of feral cats in florida.thirty feral cats (felis catus) from alachua county (northern florida) and 30 from palm beach county (southern florida) were examined for hookworms. two species, ancylostoma tubaeforme and ancylostoma braziliense, were identified. forty-five cats (75%) were infected with a. tubaeforme, with a mean intensity of 48 hookworms per cat. twenty cats (33%) were infected with a. braziliense, with a mean intensity of 28 worms per cat. the prevalence of a. tubaeforme was greater than that of a. braziliens ...200312860064
rabies among infrequently reported mammalian carnivores in the united states, 1960-2000.most cases of rabies reported annually in the united states occur among three groups of carnivores--raccoons (procyon lotor), skunks (mephitis, spilogale, and putorius), foxes (vulpes, urocyon, and alopex)--and among bats (numerous species). however, between 1960 and 2000, a total of 2,851 cases of rabies in 17 other carnivore taxa were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, georgia (usa), from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico. three species of t ...200312910751
raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats.in the present study, we evaluated both the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. rcn is an orthopoxvirus that was isolated from healthy raccoons and has been used experimentally as a vaccine vector for rabies and other antigens in a variety of species, including raccoons, skunks, foxes, bobcats, rabbits, domestic cats, piglets, sheep and non-human primates. we evaluated the antibody response induced by a recombinant rcn va ...200315203914
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