TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
studies on the heterophile antibodies associated with helminth infections. iii. heterophile antibody in oesophagostomum dentatum infection in pigs. 195813587704
thiabendazole as an anthelmintic against hyostrongylus rubidus and oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs. 19665232184
in vitro growth of oesophagostomum dentatum (nematoda: strongyloidea) from third-stage larvae to adults with observations on inhibitied larval development. 19665926641
the routine differentiation of the ova and larvae of two parasites of swine, hyostrongylus rubidus (hassall et stiles, 1892) and oesophagostomum dentatum (rud., 1803). 19674880211
the histopathology of oesophagostomum dentatum infections in pigs. 19705492286
infectivity of oesophagostomum dentatum larvae in swine. 19724641209
[control of pre-adult stomach and nodule worm stages in swine using thiabendazole and pyranteltartrate]. 19744605588
anthelimintic efficacy of dichlorvos against hyostrongylus rubidus and oesophagostomum dentatum in swine at timed intervals after exposure to infective larvae. 19751037768
[clinical examination of the blood of wild boars (sus scrofa l.) naturally infested with parasites following administration of anthelminthics].with 24 head of wild boars (sus scrofa l.) of both sexes of the age of one to two years, kept in a game preserve and naturally infected with parasites of the species mestastrongylus pudendotectus, m. elongatus, ascarops strongylina, physocephalus sexalatus, ascaris suum, globocephalus urosubulatus, oesophagostomum dentatum, trichocephalus suis, eimeria debliecki, and e. perminuta, three experiments were performed with feeds premedicated with anthelmintics: pyrantel tartrate + diethylcarbamazine ...1976820035
critical evaluation of oxfendazole as a swine anthelmintic.sixty feeder pigs with mixed naturally acquired nematode infections were medicated with oxfendazole, a new benzimidazolecarbamate compound, at dose levels of 0, 3, 9, and 18 mg/kg of body weight. the dosage of 3.0 mg/kg administered once in the feed proved as efficacious as larger dosages and the same dosage administered 2 or 3 times in the removal of adult ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum, and metastrongylus pudendotectus. trichuris suis adults were less susceptible. anthelmintic efficacy ...1977851278
efficacy of levamisole hydrochloride administered subcutaneously against oesophagostomum dentatum infection in pigs.critical and controlled anthelmintic trials in pigs were carried out with levamisole hydrochloride administered subcutaneously at 7-5 mg per kg against adult, immature and larval infections of oesophagostomum denatum. anthelmintic efficiencies of 79-1-96-3, 83-6-99-4 and 64-7-91-6 respectively were recorded.1977867741
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. viii. helminths in pigs kept under semi-intensive conditions.the seasonal incidence of nematode infestations in pigs raised under semi-intensive conditions was determined by the monthly slaughter of 2--4 tracer pigs exposed to infestation in an earthernfloored pen for periods of 1 or 2 months. although worm burdens were generally small, ascarops strongylina appeared to be more prevalent from november to march than during the other months of the year. once ascaris suum became established in the pen nearly all the pigs became infested. the number of worms n ...1978568231
comparative efficacy of fenbendazole, dichlorvos, and levamisole hci against gastrointestinal nematodes of pigs.forty-two weanling pigs raised under similar management conditions were used to compare the effectiveness of fenbendazole, dichlorvos, and levamisole hcl against oesophagostomum dentatum, o. quadrispinulatum, ascaris suum, trichuris suis, hyostrongylus rubidus, and strongyloides ransomi. all three drugs were given in the feed. eleven pigs served as unmedicated controls; 11 pigs received fenbendazole (3 mg/kg) on days 1, 2, and 3; 10 pigs received dichlorvos (17 mg/kg) on day 3; and 10 pigs recei ...1978739296
[monitoring the helmintological situation in a large-scale reproduction of pigs].in 1976 to 1978, the occurrence of helminths in a large reproduction herd of pigs was studied in different age categories of the animals kept. six helminth species were found in 30.7% of the sows: ascaris suum (6.6%), oesophagostomum dentatum (24.0%), hyostrongylus rubidus (3.3%), trichocephalus suis (1.3%), strongyloides ransomi (0.7%), metastrongylus sp. (0.3%). four- to seven-month-old auction gilts had only the eggs of a. suum (4% of all cases). no helminith eggs were found in fattened pigle ...1979106504
[effects of mebendazole and cambendazole on enterohelminths in pigs].mebendazole, administered at a dose of 30 mg active substance per 1 kg of feed, was found to have 100% effectiveness on ascaris suum and cambendazole, administered at a dose of 1.5 g per 1 kg of liver weight, showed the same effectiveness in the control of ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum. the effectiveness of both drugs on trichocephalus suis and strongyloides ransomi was low. mebendazole and cambendazole can be recommended for mass dehelminthization of pigs in affected stocks. helmint ...1979111399
dose titration of oxfendazole against common nematodes of swine.oxfendazole, a benzimidazole carbamate, was administered as a 0.5% feed additive to 88 pigs naturally infected with two to four nematode species. dose rates of 1.5 mg/kg of body weight, 3.0 mg/kg, 3.75 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, 6.75 mg/kg, or 9.0 mg/kg were 100% efficacious against oesophagostomum dentatum and 99.2% to 100% effective against ascaris suum. dose rates of 4.5 mg/kg, 6.75 mg/kg, and 9.0 mg/kg were 92.7%, 98.9%, and 99.5% effective, respectively, against mixed populations of metastrongylus a ...1979464370
[the dynamics of important helminths in pig husbandry].the growth and seasonal dynamics of three helminth species (ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum, and trichocephalus suis) were studied on a modern pig-fattening farm of the pm-016-agp type. the study of the dynamics of the incidence of the eggs of these helminth species demonstrated that large swine roundworm (ascaris suum) had favourable conditions for further development at average daily temperatures above 12 degrees c. in winter when the average daily temperatures were lower than 10 degree ...19806769208
[the effect of technological and zoo-hygienic factors on the occurrence of helminths in different strains of pigs].seven helminth species were found in 14 different pig stocks in the south bohemian region. these were: ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum, trichocephalus suis, hyostrongylus rubidus, strongyloides ransomi, capillaria sp. and metastrongylus sp. o. dentatum dominates in adult animals. a. suum, t. suis and s. ransomi are more frequently encountered in piglets and gilts. the primiparous sows can be therefore regarded as the main source of invasion for piglets. the composition of the animals' hel ...19806773221
observations on the development and survival of the free-living stages of oesophagostomum dentatum both in their natural environments out-of-doors and under controlled conditions in the laboratory.eggs of oesophagostomum dentatum in faeces deposited on grass plots from may to october developed into infective larvae. warm wet weather facilitated development but weather conditions which caused the faeces to dry out rapidly resulted in a heavy mortality of eggs and pre-infective larvae. during the winter no development took place and the eggs died. in the early spring and late autumn a few eggs survived and developed into 1st-stage larvae but they died without developing further. in the labo ...19807232031
a survey of gastrointestinal parasitism in pigs.over a period of two years 180 pork pigs, 144 baconers and 144 sows from two slaughterhouses in northern england were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. sows showed the highest level and intensity of infection, 85 per cent harbouring the dominant parasites oesophagostomum dentatum and o quadrispinulatum; the highest worm burden recorded was 21,000. hyostrongylus rubidus was present in 28.5 per cent of sows but virtually absent from younger pigs. small numbers of ascaris suum and trichuris ...19807257108
relative efficacies of pyrantel tartrate and pyrantel citrate against oesophagostomum sp in swine.the relative efficacies of pyrantel tartrate and of pyrantel citrate against oesophagostomum sp in swine were evaluated in a controlled-critical study and the efficacy of pyrantel citrate in a field trial. in the controlled-critical study, pigs naturally infected with oesophagostomum dentatum were either not treated or were treated with pyrantel citrate or pyrantel tartrate at a dosage of 510 mg of free pyrantel base/kg of feed. six days later, the pigs were necropsied, adult o dentatum was reco ...19817258809
the relationship between pasture herbage and the development and survival of the free-living stages of oesophagostomum dentatum. 19817264271
experimental infection of pigs with oesophagostomum dentatum: pathogenesis and parasitology of repeated mass infection.pigs receiving a limited ration of 1 kg commercial feed per day were infected daily with 50,000 oesophagostomum dentatum larvae. the animals exhibited serious diarrhoea and anorexia. although there was neither anaemia nor hypoproteinaemia, there was a significant decrease in plasma sodium and an increase in blood urea nitrogen at the end of the experiment. large numbers of third and fourth stage larvae were found in the ileal, caecal and colonic mucosae. only fourth stage larvae, never adults, w ...19817313309
fenbendazole as a therapy for naturally acquired stephanurus dentatus and gastrointestinal nematodes in feral feral swine, naturally infected with kidney worms (stephanurus dentatus) and gastrointestinal nematodes, were divided into two groups of 10 pigs each. one group was treated with fenbendazole (panacur, hoechst ag, frankfurt am. main) mixed in feed at the rate of 3 mg kg-1 body weight for 3 days. the second group received feed only and was designated as non-treated controls. the animals in both groups were necropsied 3 weeks post-treatment and examined for the presence of live and dead adult ...19816211818
observations on the development and survival of the free-living stages of hyostrongylus rubidus both in their natural environments out-of-doors and under controlled conditions in the laboratory.faces containing eggs of hyostrongylus rubidus were deposited on grass plots each month throughout 1980. eggs in faeces deposited on plots from may to october developed into infective larvae but in may development was completed only in artificially moistened faeces, the weather was warm and dry and natural faeces dried out rapidly resulting in the death of eggs and pre-infective larvae. for the remainder of this period the weather was sufficiently warm and wet for development to be completed. mo ...19827122126
flubendazole: dose range and efficacy studies against common internal parasites of swine.the anthelmintic spectrum of activity and efficacy of flubendazole, using pigs naturally infected with helminth parasites, were determined in 4 experiments, using 157 pigs. flubendazole (1.5 mg/kg of body weight) mixed in feed or top-dressed on feed for 5 consecutive days was highly effective as an anthelmintic. this dosage level indicated 100% efficacy against mature ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum, trichuris suis, and metastrongylus apri. there was 88% efficacy against strongyloides ran ...19836881670
[digestibility of nutrients in a feed mixture in certain swine helminthiases].the average digestibility coefficients of feed mixture nutrients in pigs infected medium severely to severely by the helminths ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum were lower in comparison with the post-dehelminthization condition (dry matter by 3.1%, crude protein by 6.7%, fat by 8.9%, nitrogen-free extracts and fibre by 2.2%, organic matter by 3.1%). the content of total digestible nutrients made 679 g in infected pigs and 708 g in dehelminthized pigs. in the period following the experime ...19853931335
preliminary communication on cryptosporidiosis of pigs in viet-nam.feces were collected from 17 pigs (aged 4-8 weeks) in several farms situated within the region of hanoi. by coproscopy of the samples, eggs of ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum were detected as well as oocysts of eimeria scabra, e. debliecki, e. perminuta and e. suis, and in addition to it, cryptosporidia to an extend indicating a considerable incidence of this parasitic protozoan in the country.19863804081
efficacy, safety, and residue evaluation of levamisole gel formulation in sows.anthelmintic efficacy, safety, and residue studies were conducted in sows and gilts with a levamisole gel containing 11.5% levamisole hcl. in 12 sows and 12 gilts, 8 mg of levamisole hcl equivalent/kg of body weight orally was 100% (resinate) and 91.1% (gel) effective against 55-day-old ascaris suum and 100% (gel) and 96.1% (resinate) effective against oesophagostomum dentatum. in 20 sows given levamisole gel (8 mg of levamisole hcl/kg) orally just before breeding, 4 to 6 weeks after breeding, 4 ...19873592389
efficacy of dichlorvos, fenbendazole, and ivermectin in swine with induced intestinal nematode infections.anthelmintic efficacies of dichlorvos, fenbendazole, and ivermectin were compared in specific-pathogen-free crossbred weanling pigs inoculated with ascaris suum, trichuris suis, and oesophagostomum dentatum. on postinoculation day (pid) 50, 24 pigs in each treatment group were treated orally with 43 mg of dichlorvos/kg of body weight, 3 x 3 mg of fenbendazole/kg, or 300 micrograms of ivermectin/kg, sc. twenty-four pigs were not treated. on posttreatment day 7 (pid 57), 12 pigs from each treatmen ...19873631712
efficacy of piperazine dihydrochloride against ascaris suum and oesophagostomum species in naturally infected pigs.a controlled trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of piperazine dihydrochloride in a new granular formulation (ascarex d) against naturally occurring infections with ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum and o quadrispinulatum. treatment effects were estimated on the basis of parasites recoverable from the intestinal contents. given orally at 200 mg per kg body weight the compound showed an efficacy of 99 to 100 per cent against a suum and the nodular worms. egg excretion of the respect ...19883046112
efficacy of flubendazole against gastrointestinal and lung nematodes in pigs.three trials were carried out on landrace pigs of various ages to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of flubendazole. the pigs were either artificially infected with metastrongylus apri or naturally or artificially infected with the gastrointestinal nematodes ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum or hyostrongylus rubidus. for mass medication of young pigs and fatteners a dose regimen of 30 ppm flubendazole in the feed for 10 consecutive days was 100 per cent effective against the four nematode sp ...19883195017
interactions between the predacious fungus arthrobotrys oligospora and third-stage larvae of a series of animal-parasitic nematodes.interactions between the predacious hyphomycete arthrobotrys oligospora and third-stage larvae of nine animal-parasitic nematodes were tested in vitro. the trap-inducing capabilities of the ruminant trichostrongylus cooperia oncophora, c. curticei, haemonchus contortus and ostertagia ostertagi and of equine cyathostomes were almost comparable to those of free-living soil nematodes, and significantly higher than those of the porcine oesophagostomum dentatum and oe. quadrispinulatum and of the mur ...19883347992
a dose-response investigation on the level of resistance to pyrantel citrate in nodular worms of pigs.this study was undertaken to determine the level of resistance against pyrantel citrate in strains of oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum and oesophagostomum dentatum which have previously been found resistant to this anthelmintic. groups of pigs were artificially infected with batches of infective larvae which were previously found either susceptible or resistant to pyrantel citrate. after treatment with 1, 2 and 4 times the recommended dose (14 mg kg-1) of pyrantel citrate, the resistant o. quadr ...19892527434
nematode parasite infections of domestic pigs in a sub-tropical and high-rainfall area of india.fourteen hundred and ninety-six domestic pigs, sus scrofa domestica l., from a sub-tropical and high-rainfall area of india were examined over a period of 18 months to ascertain their nematode parasite spectrum. the eleven species recovered, arranged in descending order of prevalence, are as follows: ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum, bourgelatia diducta, stephanurus dentatus, globocephalus connorfilii, physocephalus sexalutus, ascarops dentata, a. strongylina, pseudocruzia orientalis, seta ...19892787072
a survey of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs of the plateau and rivers states, nigeria.faecal samples were collected from a total of 1,000 pigs from the port harcourt and jos areas of the rivers and plateau states, respectively, between january 1987 and march 1988. in the jos area the parasite incidence was: ascaris suum 53.1%, trichuris suis 8.5%, hyostrongylus rubidus 13.1%, metastrongylus salmi 3.7%, strongyloides ransomi 87.7%, oesophagostomum dentatum 35.1% and eimeria spp. 2.4% while in port harcourt the incidence rate was ascaris suum 10.4%, trichuris suis 47.2%, oesophagos ...19902092354
long-term cryopreservation, infectivity and characterisation of oesophagostomum dentatum.the successful cryopreservation for 6 years of infective larvae of a pure strain of oesophagostomum dentatum is described. changes in the characteristics of the isolate in comparison with the original strain could not be demonstrated.19902144937
resistance to levamisole and cross-resistance between pyrantel and levamisole in oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum and oesophagostomum dentatum of pigs.two strains of oesophagostomum spp., consisting of both o. quadrispinulatum and o. dentatum, were subjected to a controlled in vivo assay for resistance to levamisole and pyrantel by comparison with susceptible isolates. one strain (lem) was recently isolated from a commercial herd, where sows showed high numbers of strongyle eggs in faeces within 2 weeks of farrowing and following treatment with levamisole at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate 1 week before farrowing. levamisole had been ...19902146796
[helminth infections in wild boars in enclosures in southern germany: species spectrum and infection frequency].to determine the helminth fauna of wild boars, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in southern germany were examined. the evaluation of the species composition revealed at least 13 species: metastrongylus apri, m. salmi, m. pudendotectus, physocephalus sexalatus, hyostrongylus rubidus, globocephalus longemucronatus, ascaris suum, trichuris suis, oesophagostomum dentatum, o. quadrispinulatum, fasciola hepatica, c. tenuicollis and capillaria. the ...19902264058
[helminth infections in wild boars kept in enclosures in southern germany: severity of infections and fecal intensity].to determine the intensity of helminth infection and egg output with regard to age and sex of wild boar, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in southern germany were examined. the evaluation of the intensity of infection showed 579.4 worms per animal for hyostrongylus rubidus, 510.4 for globocephalus longemucronatus, 476.9 for oesophagostomum dentatum, 476.9 for o. quadrispinulatum, 254.2 for metastrongylus pudendotectus, 176.9 for m. salmi, 14 ...19911796467
[dissemination and survival of endoparasite embryos in the environment].pig farms with the annual capacity from five to 20 thousand head represent one of the crucial fields of agriculture influencing the environment in the csfr. daily production of large amounts of liquid excrements (150-300 m3), as a result of high concentrations of animals, poses not only technical but also sanitary problems closely related to the animal and man's health. in a long-term (267 days) field study the authors followed the development and survival of eggs of the model helminth ascaris s ...19911841477
efficacy of an in-feed preparation of ivermectin against endoparasites and scabies mites in 2 trials, the efficacy of an in-feed preparation of ivermectin was evaluated in 40 pigs naturally infected with endoparasites and sarcoptes scabiei var suis. treated pigs (n = 10 in each trial) were fed a ration containing 2 ppm ivermectin for 7 days, followed by consumption of a nonmedicated ration for the remainder of the trial. control pigs (n = 10 in each trial) were fed a complete, nonmedicated ration for the duration of the trial. pigs in trial a were monitored for 14 days after treatme ...19921586019
a study on the transmission of oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus rubidus among outdoor reared pigs in denmark.this study was carried out to obtain basic information on the transmission of oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus rubidus in outdoor reared pigs in denmark. eighteen 10 weeks old worm-free pigs were allocated into 3 groups of 6 pigs each. in may, all pigs were turned out on the same parasitologically naive pasture, and after 2 weeks the pigs in groups 2 and 3 were experimentally infected with 10,800 o. dentatum and 8,700 h. rubidus infective larvae, respectively. pigs in group 1 served as ...19947676925
oesophagostomum dentatum: population dynamics and synthesis of prostanoids by histotropic stages cultured in vitro.the dynamics of production and excretion of prostanoids by histotropic larvae of oesophagostomum dentatum and the role of prostanoids for the development of o. dentatum were studied under in vitro conditions. in control cultures fourth stage larvae (l4) were first seen on day 7 of in vitro cultivation. their numbers steadily increased until day 21 of in vitro cultivation. thereafter, the numbers of l4 no further increased. the continuous presence of inhibitors of prostanoid synthesis such as ace ...19958542999
experimental transfer of adult oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.this study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. the following methods were each tested in five pigs: a. transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; b. transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and ome ...19958583123
experimental oesophagostomum dentatum infection in the pig: worm populations resulting from single infections with three doses of larvae.this report describes the effect of different dose levels of infection upon worm burdens and development and fecundity of the parasites. three groups each of 40, 9-week-old, helminth naive pigs were inoculated once with either 2000 (group a), 20,000 (group b), or 200,000 (group c) infective third stage larvae of oesophagostomum dentatum. subgroups of 5 pigs from each major group were killed 3, 6, 11, 14, 18, 25, 34 and 47 days post inoculation (p.i.) and the large intestinal worm burdens were de ...19958719962
the effect of two types of diet on populations of ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally infected pigs.this investigation compared the effect of two common types of diet on worm burdens and faecal egg counts of pigs inoculated with ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum. the diets were both considered nutritionally sufficient for pigs of this age, and gave high and comparable growth rates. pigs were inoculated with both worm species at 14 weeks of age and slaughtered 3 or 12 weeks later. at 3 weeks, a. suum larvae were numerous in the small intestine of pigs fed ground barley plus protein supp ...19957567107
investigations into the production and function of leukotrienes during histotropic development of oesophagostomum dentatum.the dynamics of production and excretion of leukotrienes by parasitic larvae of oesophagostomum dentatum and their role for the development of the larvae were studied. larvae were cultured in vitro to the fourth stage (l4). leukotriene b4 (ltb4) was detected in homogenates and in supernatant of larvae, with the homogenate-protein-based values steadily decreasing during development. the homogenate-protein-based values of peptidyl leukotrienes (peplt) remained fairly stable in both homogenates and ...19968738280
growth and fecundity of oesophagostomum dentatum in high-level infections and after transplantation into naive pigs.this experiment was designed to examine the growth, proportion of stages, and fecundity of an oesophagostomum dentatum population by transplantation of a known small number of worms from a high-density population into helminth-naive recipient pigs. approximately 1,500 4-week-old worms [69% fourth-stage larvae (l4), 31% adult worms] were transplanted into each of 5 recipient pigs (group b), and these pigs, along with a group of 5 high-level-infection control pigs (group c), were killed at 4 weeks ...19968740554
the efficacy of ivermectin against nodular worms of pigs: the response to treatment using three different dose levels against oesophagostomum dentatum and oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum.anthelmintic efficacies of 3 different doses of ivermectin (ivm) were evaluated in 3 isolates of nodular worms in pigs. an isolate of oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum (oq) was recently obtained from a commercial farm where poor efficacy of ivm at the recommended dose (300 body weight) was detected. on this farm, ivm had been used for treatment of sows twice yearly for 6 years. two other isolates, an o. dentatum (od) and a mixed oesophagostomum dentatum and oesophagostomum quadris ...19968773524
experimental oesophagostomum dentatum infections in the pig: worm populations resulting from trickle infections with three dose levels of larvae.this paper describes the worm populations in pigs experimentally infected by trickle infections with different dose levels of the nodular worm, oesophagostomum dentatum. four groups each of 20 helminth naïve pigs, 10-12 weeks old, were inoculated with 0 (group 1), 100 (group 2), 1000 (group 3), or 10,000 (group 4) infective larvae twice weekly, and the pigs were killed after 10-13 weeks. no overt clinical signs were observed, and only group 4 had slightly lower food conversion rate (p < 0.05) th ...19968773527
control of oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus rubidus in outdoor-reared pigs by daily feeding with the microfungus duddingtonia investigation of pasture-reared pigs experimentally infected with oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus rubidus showed that daily doses in the feed with the microfungus duddingtonia flagrans over a 2-month period led to lowered herbage larval infectivity of both species. this was further substantiated by low worm recoveries in initially parasite-naive tracer pigs that were later introduced to the pasture plot. the control setup comprised the release of similarly infected but nondosed pig ...19968875563
ultrastructure and development of the body cuticle of oesophagostomum dentatum (strongylida, nematoda).the ultrastructure, development, and morphogenesis of the body cuticle of adult and juvenile oesophagostomum dentatum (strongylida, nematoda) were investigated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. the cuticle of the first 3 juvenile stages consists of a trilaminate epicuticle, an amorphous layer, and a radially striated layer. in the last juvenile stage and the adult worm, the radially striated layer is replaced by a fibrous layer with 3 sublay ...19968885894
in vitro characterization of anthelmintic susceptibility of field isolates of the pig nodular worm oesophagostomum spp., susceptible or resistant to various anthelmintics.a larval development assay (lda) and an egg hatch paralysis assay (ehpa) were used to measure the sensitivity to anthelmintics of eggs and larvae of nodular worms (oesophagostomum spp.) in pigs. the tests were carried out using in vivo defined resistant and susceptible isolates of oesophagostomum dentatum, o. quadrispinulatum and oesophagostomum spp. for measurement of pyrantel/morantel and levamisole sensitivity the lda was found able to distinguish between susceptible or resistant isolates of ...19968894764
efficacies of different doses of ivermectin against male, female and l4 oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs.efficacies of ivermectin against larval stages and adult males and females of oesophagostomum dentatum were investigated in two slaughter assays. in experiment a, 20 pigs were each infected with 6000 third-stage larvae on day 0 and day 24. pigs were ivermectin treated on day 28 at dose rates of 0, 75, 150, and 300 micrograms kg-1 bodyweight (bw) and slaughtered 6 days after treatment. in experiment b, 20 pigs each received 6000 third-stage larvae and were treated 35 days after infection at dose ...19968916400
non-surgical transplantation of oesophagostomum dentatum to recipient pigs via rectal intubation.this experimental was designed to evaluate a new transplantation method, which employs a non-invasive rather than a surgical technique for transplanting oesophagostomum dentatum worms to recipient pigs. four groups of pigs were used. group a (four pigs) served as a donor group, and these pigs were each inoculated with 6000 l3 of o. dentatum. groups b, c, and d (five pigs each) served as helminth naive recipient pigs. on day 28 post inoculation, the donor pigs were slaughtered, and the worms reco ...19968916408
recovery of oesophagostomum dentatum from pigs by isolation of parasites migrating from large intestinal contents embedded in agar-gel.four groups with three pigs in each group were inoculated with oesophagostomum dentatum larvae (l3 larvae). groups 1 and 3 were inoculated with 20,000 larvae, and groups 2 and 4 with 200,000 larvae. on days 11 and 34, respectively, groups 1 and 2 and groups 3 and 4 were slaughtered, and the contents from the large intestines collected. subsamples of intestinal contents were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and allowed to set. the worms were allowed to migrate from the agar-gel ...19968966990
activity of doramectin against nematode and arthropod parasites of swine.the efficacy of doramectin, a novel avermectin, was assessed against both naturally-acquired and experimentally-induced infections of gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, kidneyworms, lice and mites in studies conducted across north america and europe. twenty-two studies evaluated efficacy against fourth larval and adult stages of the following nematode species: hyostrongylus rubidus, ascaris suum, strongyloides ransomi, oesophagostomum dentatum, oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum, trichuris su ...19968988559
the kinetic disposition of pyrantel citrate and pamoate and their efficacy against pyrantel-resistant oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs.the pharmacokinetic disposition of pyrantel after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration as the citrate and p.o. administration as the pamoate salt was determined in pigs. following i.v. administration pyrantel was quickly cleared from the bloodstream, exhibiting a terminal half-life of 1.75 +/- 0.19 h and a residence time (mrt) of 2.54 +/- 0.27 h. after p.o. administration as the citrate salt, the absorption time (mat) of pyrantel was 2.38 +/- 0.25 h and although significant quantiti ...19969024887
a trichuris specific diagnostic antigen from culture fluids of trichuris suis adult worms.trichuris suis is a nematode parasite of swine which can cause serious pathology in infected pigs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, anemia, and death in heavy infections, especially in young animals. infection with trichuris suis is difficult to diagnose because much of the pathology occurs when only larval stages are present, and because of sporadic egg production by adult female worms. we have isolated a 20 kda excretory/secretory (e/s) glycoprotein from culture fluids of adult worms by column chro ...19979066055
efficacy of doramectin against intestinal nematodes and sarcoptic manage mites in naturally infected swine.endectocidal efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly at a dosage of 300 micrograms/kg was evaluated in 464 pigs naturally infected with intestinal nematodes or mange mites on 14 commercial farms in japan. by doramectin treatment, fecal egg counts were reduced > 99% for ascaris suum, strongyloides ransomi, oesophagostomum dentatum, and trichuris suis; worm counts of t. suis and mite counts of sarcoptes scabiei reduced 90.1% on day 21 and 99.5% on day 28 following treatment, respective ...19979070986
the effect of concurrent or sequential oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum infections on the worm burdens of the two species in pigs.the interaction between the 2 nodular worm species in the pig, oesophagostomum dentatum (o.d.) and oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum (o.q.), was studied by comparing the development and distribution of the species following single or mixed infections. the faecal egg excretion levels were assessed at regular intervals from week 3 post-inoculation, and indicated a strong negative impact of the introduction of o.q. on the continued egg excretion of o.d. all pigs were killed 9 weeks after the first i ...19979075346
in vitro characterization of lines of oesophagostomum dentatum selected or not selected for resistance to pyrantel, levamisole and ivermectin.lines of oesophagostomum dentatum artificially selected or not selected for resistance to pyrantel, levamisole and ivermectin were used in this study. from the 10th generation of selection eggs were collected from each line and subjected to an in vitro larval development assay (lda) and an egg hatch assay (ehpa). significant differences were observed between an unselected line of o. dentatum and the lines selected for resistance to levamisole or pyrantel in both assays. the lda was more sensitiv ...19979076532
heterogeneous levamisole receptors: a single-channel study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from oesophagostomum dentatum.a muscle vesicle preparation from oesophagostomum dentatum, a 5 mm parasitic nematode, was developed for single-channel recording. properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activated by the anthelmintic levamisole (10 microm) were investigated using cell-attached and isolated inside-out patches. the current-voltage relationships of the single-channel currents were linear with conductances in the range 24.6-57.7 ps (mean 39.5 ps). the distributions of open times were fitted with a single ex ...19979098695
rapid pcr-based delineation of the porcine nodular worms, oesophagostomum dentatum and o. some stages of development, it is impossible to identify the porcine nodular worms oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum to the species level using morphological parameters. a molecular approach utilizing genetic markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of ribosomal (r) dna was developed to overcome this limitation. the its-2 sequence of each species was determined, and specific oligonucleotide primers were designed to regions of greatest sequence difference betwee ...19979160330
the impact of diets varying in carbohydrates resistant to endogenous enzymes and lignin on populations of ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs.the impact of diets varying in type and level of carbohydrates resistant to endogenous enzymes and lignin on the establishment and location of ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum was investigated experimentally. fifty worm-free pigs, from a specific pathogen-free farm were used. the animals were assigned randomly to 5 diets and infected with 600 infective a. suum eggs and 6000 infective larvae of o. dentatum per pig. the diets consisted of a traditional ground barley plus protein feed (die ...19979172427
an in vivo dose-response study of fenbendazole against oesophagostomum dentatum and oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum in pigs.a dose-response study using fenbendazole (fbz) was carried out in pigs infected with o. dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum to determine the minimum effective dose rate of the drug. thirty pigs were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 pigs and infected with 5000 infective larvae each. the animals were re-infected 5 days before treatment (day 30 after the first infection) with the same number of larvae. on day 35 the pigs in groups 1-5 were treated with fbz at the following dose rates: 2.5 mg kg-1 ( ...19979184932
transmission dynamics of helminth parasites of pigs on continuous pasture: oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus increase in alternative outdoor pig production systems is occurring in denmark, and this study was designed to elucidate the transmission patterns of oesophagostomum dentatum and hyostrongylus rubidus in pigs allowed to graze continuously on a pasture. a group of pigs was turned out in may 1993 (year 1 of the study) and subsequently inoculated with low numbers of both helminths. these pigs were followed parasitologically until october by serial necropsy and sampling of faeces, grass and soil. ...19979193949
transmission dynamics of helminth parasites of pigs on continuous pasture: ascaris suum and trichuris denmark, alternative outdoor production systems for pigs are becoming more frequent, and information on the transmission of ascaris suum and trichuris suis under continuously grazed pasture conditions is needed. a group of pigs was turned out on a pasture in may 1993 (year 1 of the study), inoculated with 200 eggs of a. suum and 1000 eggs of t. suis, and followed parasitologically. a non-experimentally infected group of pigs was similarly turned out on the same pasture the following year (yea ...19979193950
endectocidal efficacies of doramectin in naturally parasitized pigs.the studies reported here were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of doramectin, given intramuscularly at the rate of 300 micrograms kg-1 of bodyweight, in the treatment of naturally acquired porcine nematodosis and acariasis. twenty pigs demonstrated to be naturally infected with pulmonary and gastrointestinal nematodes were used in one control study, and 22 pigs demonstrated to be naturally parasitized with sarcoptes scabiei var. suis were used in a second study. in both studies, anima ...19979195716
the effect of three distinct sex ratios at two oesophagostomum dentatum worm population densities.helminth-free donor pigs were inoculated with infective larvae of oesophagostomum dentatum. five weeks later, the donor pigs were killed to recover the adult worms. by nonsurgical rectal transplantation, 6 groups of helminth-free recipient pigs were then given different female-to-male ratios (fmr) of o. dentatum worms (10% females [f], 50% f, 90% f) at either high (300 worms) or low (30 worms) doses. fecal egg excretions were measured once weekly following transplantation until the pigs were kil ...19979267404
dose related mucosal hyperplasia induced by oesophagostomum dentatum infection in pigs.the present work was undertaken to examine the effects of 3 different population densities of oesophagostomum dentatum upon the development of worm induced mucosal changes in the colon following single infections. groups of pigs were infected with single doses of 2000 (low dose), 20,000 (medium dose) or 200,000 (high dose) infective larvae, respectively. a total of 18 infected pigs (6 from each group) were examined for histopathological changes together with 3 helminth-free control pigs. there w ...19979342459
electro- and transportphysiological changes in pig proximal colon during parasitic infection.oesophagostomum dentatum, one of the most common nematodes in pigs, causes the formation of subepithelial granuloma in the large intestine. to investigate possible changes in epithelial function or response during the infection we incubated epithelia of pig proximal colon in ussing chambers at different days post infectionem (p.i.). transepithelial conductance, gt, and the cl flux from serosal to mucosal, jsmcl, were increased on day 2 p.i., when the nematodes penetrate the epithelium of the lar ...19979366067
experimental oesophagostomum dentatum infections in the pig: worm populations at regular intervals during trickle infections with three dose levels of larvae.a trickle infection experiment was undertaken to study in detail the population dynamics of oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs. three groups of 32 pigs were inoculated via the feed twice weekly with 100 (group a), 1000 (group b) or 10,000 (group c) o. dentatum infective larvae (l3). five pigs from each group were killed 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the first inoculation (p.i.) to determine their worm burdens. weekly faecal egg counts were determined. at slaughter, worms were counted, differ ...19979368906
serological assays for the identification of oesophagostomum dentatum infections in pigs.oesophagostomum dentatum antigen preparations of third (l3) or fourth (l4) stage larvae were characterised by western blotting. panels of sera obtained from pigs infected with o dentatum and ascaris suum, respectively, reacted with the same bands of l3 antigen. in contrast high specificity against a characteristic band, was observed when l4 extract was employed as antigen. to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), a panel of homologous and heterologous sera was tested against o ...19979368949
a new in vitro assay of benzimidazole activity against adult oesophagostomum dentatum.a new in vitro assay of benzimidazole activity against adult oesophagostomum dentatum is described. the method is based on the ability of o. dentatum to migrate through polyamide nets after exposure to various concentrations of benzimidazole. to determine an appropriate mesh size, control worms and worms exposed to 10 microm oxfendazole for 24 h were allowed to migrate through nets with various mesh sizes (300-500 microns) for up to 1 h. a mesh size of 350 microns and migration periods of 10, 20 ...19979421720
the influence of high- and low-fibre diets on the activity of piperazine against oesophagostomum spp. in in vivo study evaluated the effect of diet on the efficacy of piperazine against nodular worms of pigs. twenty pigs, later allocated into five groups, were each infected (and 37 days later re-infected) with 3000 infective larvae of a mixed isolate of oesophagostomum dentatum and oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum. beginning on day 23 post infection (p.i.), pigs in groups 1 and 2 were fed a low-fibre diet consisting of 70% barley flour and 30% protein concentrate, while pigs in groups 3, 4 and 5 ...19979467737
population dynamics of the parasitic stages of oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs in single and trickle infections.a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of the parasitic stages of oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs. an immigration-death model with constant establishment, development and death rates was fitted to l3, l4 and adult worm burdens observed in a single-infection experiment. female worm length was modelled by a function of worm age and total worm burden, while worm egg production (eggs per gram faeces per female worm) was modelled by a function of worm age and worm length. the mo ...19979467747
experimental hybridization between oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum in investigate eventual hybridization between two nodular worm species of pigs, oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum, we used either mature, adult worms or 10-day-old fourth-stage larvae (l4) as starting material, employing a nonsurgical transplantation technique. following the transfer of adult worms the ensuing first generation of larvae gave rise to adult worms that were found by morphological examination to be purely o. dentatum. therefore, we decided to use the immature l4 as st ...19989491418
genetic diversity in porcine oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum and their delineation by isoenzyme analysis.the genetic diversity in eight strains of oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum was investigated by the electrophoresis study of ten enzyme systems. the loci idh-2, fbp, sdh, and pgm were found to be diagnostic between the species examined. both the proportion of fixed allelic differences (26.3%) and the genetic distance coefficient (d = 0.54) are well above the range for differentiation of valid species. isoenzyme patterns of susceptible and resistant lines of o. dentatum showed at p ...19989493209
modulation of migration of oesophagostomum dentatum larvae by inhibitors and products of eicosanoid metabolism.the effects of eicosanoids and of inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis on the migration of third-stage larvae (l3) of oesophagostomum dentatum were studied in an in vitro migration assay procedure. the l3 were incubated with diethylcarbamazine (dec), indomethacin (indo) or acetylsalicylic acid (asa). incubation with these inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism resulted in a dose-dependent reversible inhibition of migration. the antimigratory effect of dec could be completely reversed by treatment of ...19989513001
effect of time on migration of oesophagostomum spp. and hyostrongylus rubidus out of agar-gel.the agar-gel migration technique has previously been described, however, aspects regarding the effect of timing on worm migration needed further scrutiny. in the first experiment, pigs inoculated with oesophagostomum dentatum were slaughtered simultaneously and their intestines stored at 21-23 degrees c until processed pairwise 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 18 h after slaughter. more than 95% of the worms migrated out of the agar if processed within 6 h. in the second experiment, intestines were treated im ...19989569100
a study on the establishment of oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs following percutaneous exposure to third-stage larvae.we examined the possibility of establishment of patent infections after percutaneous exposure of parasite-naive pigs to 10,000 oesophagostomum dentatum infective larvae (l3). at 5 weeks after percutaneous exposure the pigs were slaughtered and low numbers of adult o. dentatum were recovered from the large intestine. in addition, exsheathed l3 were intravenously injected into pigs, which resulted in the recovery of fourth-stage larvae (l4) from nodules in the lungs as well as of l4 and adult worm ...19989797059
systematic relationships of some members of the genera oesophagostomum and chabertia (nematoda: chabertiidae) based on ribosomal dna sequence data.the present study characterised seven species of the chabertiidae (nematoda: strongyloidea) belonging to either the subfamily oesophagostominae (oesophagostomum radiatum, oesophagostomum venulosum, oesophagostomum dentatum, oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum, oesophagostomum columbianum, oesophagostomum bifurcum) or to the subfamily chabertiinae (chabertia ovina) by their second internal transcribed spacer rdna sequence, assessed the extent of intraspecific variation and interspecific differences ...19989846616
glucose uptake in oesophagostomum dentatum and the effect of oxfendazole.the uptake of 14c-glucose by adult oesophagostomum dentatum was characterised. the uptake was a non-linear function of external glucose concentration. the maximum velocity of uptake (vmax) was 0.964 nmol/100 mg dry weight (dw)/5 min, and the transport constant (kt) was 10.02 microm. when phlorizin, phloretin and 3-o-methylglucose were tested for their effects on the uptake of 14c-glucose, phloretin and 3-o-methylglucose produced significant inhibitions, indicating that the uptake was mediated an ...19989870368
changes in antigen and glycoprotein patterns during the development of oesophagostomum dentatum.during its development from free-living infectious third-stage larvae to the adult worms in the large intestines of pigs, oesophagostomum dentatum experiences several environmental changes. differences in protein patterns can reflect such changes. somatic and es antigens and glycoproteins of pre-parasitic, histotropic and intestinal stages were compared by single-dimension sds-page and stage-specific proteins were defined. furthermore, fourth-stage larvae derived from different sources--in-vitro ...19989925263
distinguishing oesophagostomum dentatum from oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum developmental stages by a single-strand conformation polymorphism some life-cycle stages, it is impossible to distinguish between the two species of porcine nodular worm, oesophagostomum dentatum and oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum, using morphological features. a pcr-based single-strand conformation polymorphism technique was established to overcome this limitation. the rdna region spanning the second internal transcribed spacer was amplified by pcr from genomic dna from morphologically well-defined adult worms. the pcr products were then denatured and su ...19989925271
development and infectivity of eggs and larvae derived from pigs trickle-infected with oesophagostomum dentatum at different dose levels.we examined the impact of different oesophagostomum dentatum dose levels and durations of infection on the development and infectivity of the following generation. pigs were trickle-infected with 200, 2,000 or 20,000 l3/week over 20 weeks. egg hatch assays were performed at monthly intervals; however, no consistent differences were found between any of the dose groups in the development of eggs into first-stage larvae. to compare larval infectivity, larvae were derived from faecal cultures set u ...19999934954
in vitro development of histotropic larvae of oesophagostomum dentatum under various conditions of cultivation.we performed a total of 14 trials to evaluate the culture conditions suited best for the in vitro production of fourth-stage larvae (l4) of oesophagostomum dentatum. chicken embryo extract was shown to be redundant, whereas pig blood serum, trypticase, liver extract, and yeast extract proved to be important medium ingredients. development to l4 could be moderately accelerated by increases of temperature (40 degrees c) and of co2 concentration (20% in air), but the total yield of l4 could not be ...19999934968
resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level.levamisole is commonly used to treat nematode parasite infections but therapy is limited by resistance. the purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance to this selective nicotinic drug. levamisole receptor channel currents in muscle patches from levamisole-sensitive and levamisole-resistant isolates of the parasitic nematode oesophagostomum dentatum were compared. the number of channels present in patches of sensitive and resistant isolates was similar at 10 microm levamis ...199910094935
identification, isolation, and characterization of a species-specific 30-kda antigen of oesophagostomum the search for a serology tool for the diagnosis of nonpatent as well as patent infections with oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs a water-soluble, unglycosilated antigen of about 30 kda specific for the third-stage larvae of the parasite was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. in western blots, the antigen was first detected by antibodies at day 7 postinfection. cross-reactivity with o. quadrispinulatum, ascaris suum, or trichuris suis was not detected. it is suggested that this protein i ...199910099013
the effect of increasing levels of insoluble dietary fibre on the establishment and persistence of oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs.this investigation compared the effect of diets with increasing content of insoluble dietary fibre (df) on the establishment and persistence of oesophagostomum dentatum in growing pigs. twenty-eight worm-free pigs, from a specific pathogen-free farm were randomly divided to four groups of seven animals. the animals were assigned to the following diets: diet a, barley flour plus protein mixture (70%:30%); diet b, barley flour, oat husk meal plus protein mixture (65%:7%:28%); diet c, barley flour, ...199910229933
concurrent ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum infections in pigs.the aim of this study was to examine interactions between ascaris suum and oesophagostomum dentatum infections in pigs with regard to population dynamics of the worms such as recovery, location and length; and host reactions such as weight gain, pathological changes in the liver and immune response. seventy-two helminth-naïve pigs were allocated into four groups. group a was inoculated twice weekly with 10000 o. dentatum larvae for 8 weeks and subsequently challenge-infected with 1000 a. suum eg ...199910348102
changing surface antigen and carbohydrate patterns during the development of oesophagostomum and fixed specimen of oesophagostomum dentatum were labelled in situ with serum antibodies or a panel of biotin-labelled lectins. specific binding of antibodies was observed in all parasitic stages--freshly exsheathed 3rd-stage larvae (l3), 3rd- and 4th-stage (l4) larvae cultured in vitro and l3 and l4 and adults isolated from pig intestines. the shedding of the stained layer by motile larvae was inhibited by levamisole-induced paralysis. larvae cultured in vitro exposed serum-derived pro ...199910599081
efficacy of moxidectin 0.5% pour-on against swine nematodes.forty pigs with induced infections of ascaris suum, trichuris suis, metastrongylus spp., oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum were assigned to five-dose groups of moxidectin 0.5% pour-on with eight pigs per dose group. the doses were: moxidectin, 0 (vehicle control), 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50 mg/kg(-1) body weight. worm egg counts (epg) were made from fecal samples collected on day 2 pretreatment and on day 14 or 15 post-treatment. animals were ranked according to the descending ord ...199910628698
parasites in cross-bred pigs in the upper east region of ghana.a cross-sectional study was carried out in the upper east region (uer) of ghana in order to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infections in local cross-bred pigs. out of 60 villages with a human population of 200-1000 inhabitants, 10 villages were randomly selected for the study. the number of pigs varied from 50 to 200 pigs per village. in total 259 faecal samples from growers were collected and examined. ninety-one percent of the animals excreted parasite eggs. among these the prevalence of ...199910628701
differentiation of two oesophagostomum spp. from pigs, o. dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum, by computer-assisted image analysis of fourth-stage larvae.a method was developed to differentiate between fourth-stage larvae (l4) of two species of porcine nodular worms, oesophagostomum dentatum and o. quadrispinulatum, by computer-assisted analysis of digitised microphotographs of l4 grown in vitro for various time periods and of l4 ex vivo. the overall lengths of the larvae and the lengths of the oesophagus as well as parameters describing the shape of the oesophagus and buccal capsule were measured and a formula based on these parameters was devel ...199911269327
pcr assay for the specific amplification of oesophagostomum bifurcum dna from human faeces.oesophagostomiasis in humans due to infection with oesophagostomum bifurcum (nodule worm) is of major human health significance in northern togo and ghana where the human hookworm, necator americanus, also exists at high prevalence. accurate diagnosis of o. bifurcum infection in humans is central to studying the epidemiology and controlling the parasite. to overcome limitations of current copro-diagnostic methods, we have developed an alternative, molecular approach. utilising genetic markers in ...200010704596
efficacy of doramectin against naturally acquired nematode infection in iberian swine.studies were carried out to determine the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin, administered intramuscularly at a dose of 300 microg/kg live weight, against naturally acquired helminths of extensively farmed iberian pigs. the first study (slaughter study) evaluated, through necropsy of the study animals, the product's efficacy against gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes (ascaris suum, oesophagostomum dentatum and metastrongylus sp.) whilst the second, faecal egg count reduction study, (fecr s ...200010729654
pyrantel resistance alters nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor single-channel properties.resistance to the anthelmintics pyrantel ((e)-1,4,5, 6-tetrahydro-1-methyl-2-[2-(2thienyl)ethenyl]pyrimidine) and levamisole ((s)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) is an increasingly widespread problem in gastro-intestinal nematode infestations. both compounds act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of nematode somatic muscle. the patch-clamp technique was used to measure nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor properties at 75, 50, -50 and -75 mv in a pyra ...200010771027
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