growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for comprehensive indexing of east african ixodid tick species.the tick population of africa includes several important genera belonging to the family ixodidae. many of these ticks are vectors of protozoan and rickettsial pathogens including theileria parva that causes east coast fever, a debilitating cattle disease endemic to eastern, central and southern africa. effective surveillance of tick-borne pathogens depends on accurate identification and mapping of their tick vectors. a simple and reproducible technique for rapid and reliable differentiation of l ...201626979606
anaplasma, ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western oromia, ethiopia.although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. this study was conducted to determine the presence of anaplasma spp., ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. in rhipicephalus evertsi and rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at bako, western oromia, ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. anaplasma ovis and anaplasma spp., ehrlichia ruminantium and ehrlichia spp. were dete ...201627411938
protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in south africa.a total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 south african provinces (free state, mpumalanga, and limpopo). the geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for haemaphysalis silacea. from each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the saliva ...201424378080
molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western oromia, ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. during the study period from october 2010 to april 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in bako district, western oromia, ethiopia. the study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4  ...201423846769
relapsing fever borreliae in africa.the study of relapsing fever borreliae in africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. accordingly, borrelia hispanica, borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. the recent sequencing of three relapsing fever borrelia gen ...201323926141
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. l. ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.the aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in south africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the faculty of veterinary science, university of pretoria. ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in limpopo province, 2 in gauteng province and 1 in north we ...201728281774
identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern senegal.the spotted fevers, caused by the rickettsia bacteria, are a group of emerging diseases that are responsible for significant human morbidity. in africa, the distribution of different species of rickettsia in their tick vectors is poorly studied. we have collected 1169 hard ticks from 5 different species in the northern senegal, close to the saharan border. in a far northern collection site, corresponding to the rickettsia africae distribution area, we collected three amblyomma variegatum ticks i ...201424908548
isolation and maintenance of rickettsia raoultii in a rhipicephalus sanguineus tick cell line.rickettsia raoultii, a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, has been implicated in cases of debonel/tibola/senlat, and has been detected in dermacentor spp. and rhipicephalus pumilio ticks by pcr. r. raoultii has been isolated in mammalian and tick cell lines. this study aimed to isolate r. raoultii from spanish dermacentor marginatus in tick cell lines. a single adult d. marginatus collected from vegetation in la rioja (northen spain) in october 2012 was surface-sterilised, triturated ...201626428859
shifts in the distribution of ixodid ticks parasitizing cattle in an attempt to update information on the ecological distribution of ixodid ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) in zimbabwe, a cross-sectional survey was carried out between september 2013 and may 2015 at 322 dip tanks. a total of 15 tick species were collected, namely: amblyomma hebraeum koch (65.2%, n = 210/322), amblyomma variegatum fabricius (14.9%, n = 48/322), hyalomma rufipes koch (62.4%, n = 201/322), hyalomma truncatum koch (37.9%, n = 122/322), rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann (60.6%, n = 1 ...201727935088
distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in free state province, south africa.the distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to free state province, south africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. amongst endemic ticks, the presence of rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south ...201526244582
an update on the ecological distribution of the ixodidae ticks in total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of zimbabwe's five ecological regions between september 2013 and may 2014. based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and hyalomma ...201525721256
a comparison between tick species collected in a controlled and control free area on a game ranch in south africa.despite the large number of collection records, there are no recent collections of ixodid ticks of this magnitude in the waterberg area, limpopo province, south africa. free-living ticks on a commercial game farm were obtained by a total of 432 drag-samples in eight sample sites from september 2003 to august 2008. the ticks were collected to establish the difference between tick species and densities associated with acaricide-controlled (semi-intensive) and control-free areas on a game farm in t ...201323718159
ticks on pastures and on two breeds of cattle in the eastern cape province, south africa.many studies on the population dynamics of questing ticks on pastures and of parasitic ticks on cattle have been conducted. few, however, have attempted to link the two in a single study. this study aimed to assess the population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks on pastures and of adult ticks on two breeds of cattle with different levels of susceptibility to tick infestation on the same pastures. between january 2005 and december 2009 questing ixodid ticks were collected monthly from natural pa ...201123327215
molecular and maldi-tof identification of ticks and tick-associated bacteria in mali.ticks are considered the second vector of human and animal diseases after mosquitoes. therefore, identification of ticks and associated pathogens is an important step in the management of these vectors. in recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has been reported as a promising method for the identification of arthropods including ticks. the objective of this study was to improve the conditions for the preparation of tick samples ...201728742123
genetic parameters for tick counts across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle.the objective of the study was to characterise genetic parameters across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle. tick counts were conducted monthly, over a 2-year period, on 586 nguni cattle under natural infestation, from four herds located in different provinces of south africa. the counts were recorded for six species of ticks (amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus decoleratus and microplus (boofilids), rhipicephalus ...201728687941
the dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the kruger national park (1988-2002). part iii. the less commonly collected species.despite many studies regarding tick ecology, limited information on long-term changes in tick populations exist. this study assessed the long-term population dynamics of the less frequently collected questing ixodid ticks in the kruger national park (knp). from 1988 to 2002, monthly dragging of the vegetation was performed in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the knp (nhlowa road, landscape zone 17, and skukuza, landscape zone 4). amblyomma marmoreum and rhipicephalu ...201123327206
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