PMID(sorted descending)
molecular and maldi-tof identification of ticks and tick-associated bacteria in mali.ticks are considered the second vector of human and animal diseases after mosquitoes. therefore, identification of ticks and associated pathogens is an important step in the management of these vectors. in recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has been reported as a promising method for the identification of arthropods including ticks. the objective of this study was to improve the conditions for the preparation of tick samples ...201728742123
genetic parameters for tick counts across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle.the objective of the study was to characterise genetic parameters across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle. tick counts were conducted monthly, over a 2-year period, on 586 nguni cattle under natural infestation, from four herds located in different provinces of south africa. the counts were recorded for six species of ticks (amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus decoleratus and microplus (boofilids), rhipicephalus ...201728687941
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. l. ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.the aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in south africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the faculty of veterinary science, university of pretoria. ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in limpopo province, 2 in gauteng province and 1 in north we ...201728281774
infestation and identification of ixodid tick in cattle: the case of arbegona district, southern ethiopia.the study was conducted from october 2014 to june 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in arbegona district, southern ethiopia. a total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. from 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) ...201628105466
occurrence of ticks in cattle in the new pastoral farming areas in rufiji district, tanzania.ticks and tick-borne diseases plus trypanosomosis are a constraint to cattle rearing in tanzania. rufiji district was not known for important ticks infesting cattle because inhabitants were not engaged in keeping livestock. not only has settlement of pastoralists and cattle in rufiji increased the number of cattle but also cattle have been the source of bringing in and spreading of ticks. this study investigated tick species that have been introduced and managed to establish themselves in the ne ...201627990463
shifts in the distribution of ixodid ticks parasitizing cattle in an attempt to update information on the ecological distribution of ixodid ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) in zimbabwe, a cross-sectional survey was carried out between september 2013 and may 2015 at 322 dip tanks. a total of 15 tick species were collected, namely: amblyomma hebraeum koch (65.2%, n = 210/322), amblyomma variegatum fabricius (14.9%, n = 48/322), hyalomma rufipes koch (62.4%, n = 201/322), hyalomma truncatum koch (37.9%, n = 122/322), rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann (60.6%, n = 1 ...201727935088
identification of a novel β-adrenergic octopamine receptor-like gene (βaor-like) and increased atp-binding cassette b10 (abcb10) expression in a rhipicephalus microplus cell line derived from acaricide-resistant ticks.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is an economically important parasite of livestock. effective control of ticks using acaricides is threatened by the emergence of resistance to many existing compounds. several continuous r. microplus cell lines have been established and provide an under-utilised resource for studies into acaricide targets and potential genetic mutations associated with resistance. as a first step to genetic studies using these resources, this study aimed to de ...201627484910
anaplasma, ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western oromia, ethiopia.although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. this study was conducted to determine the presence of anaplasma spp., ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. in rhipicephalus evertsi and rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at bako, western oromia, ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. anaplasma ovis and anaplasma spp., ehrlichia ruminantium and ehrlichia spp. were dete ...201627411938
analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of rhipicephalus appendiculatus in kenya.the ixodid tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus transmits the apicomplexan protozoan parasite theileria parva, which causes east coast fever (ecf), the most economically important cattle disease in eastern and southern africa. recent analysis of micro- and minisatellite markers showed an absence of geographical and host-associated genetic sub-structuring amongst field populations of r. appendiculatus in kenya. to assess further the phylogenetic relationships between field and laboratory r. appendic ...201627334334
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
ethnoecological knowledge of ticks and treatment of tick-borne diseases among maasai people in northern tanzania.the aim of this study was to understand traditional knowledge of tick ecology and remedies for tick-borne diseases (tbds) among the maasai people in northern tanzania.201527065643
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for comprehensive indexing of east african ixodid tick species.the tick population of africa includes several important genera belonging to the family ixodidae. many of these ticks are vectors of protozoan and rickettsial pathogens including theileria parva that causes east coast fever, a debilitating cattle disease endemic to eastern, central and southern africa. effective surveillance of tick-borne pathogens depends on accurate identification and mapping of their tick vectors. a simple and reproducible technique for rapid and reliable differentiation of l ...201626979606
growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
multiple pathogens including potential new species in tick vectors in côte d'ivoire.our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in côte d'ivoire.201626771308
seroepidemiological studies of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in domestic and wild animals.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. humans are the only species known to develop illness after cchf virus (cchfv) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. a variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of cchfv in an endemic cycle of transmission. seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating cchfv reservoirs and in determining endem ...201626741652
faustovirus-like asfarvirus in hematophagous biting midges and their vertebrate hosts.faustovirus, a new asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. as part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. the dna virome analysis ...201526733117
emergence of multi-acaricide resistant rhipicephalus ticks and its implication on chemical tick control in uganda.acaricide failure has been on the rise in the western and central cattle corridor of uganda. in this study, we identified the tick species associated with acaricide failure and determined their susceptibility to various acaricide molecules used for tick control in uganda.201626727991
laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne african relapsing fevers: latest africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. these tropical diseases are responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. cultured borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia hispanica circulate alongside at least six species that have not yet been cultured in vectors. direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. indeed, microsco ...201526618151
isolation and maintenance of rickettsia raoultii in a rhipicephalus sanguineus tick cell line.rickettsia raoultii, a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, has been implicated in cases of debonel/tibola/senlat, and has been detected in dermacentor spp. and rhipicephalus pumilio ticks by pcr. r. raoultii has been isolated in mammalian and tick cell lines. this study aimed to isolate r. raoultii from spanish dermacentor marginatus in tick cell lines. a single adult d. marginatus collected from vegetation in la rioja (northen spain) in october 2012 was surface-sterilised, triturated ...201626428859
molecular detection and characterization of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria species and anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in kenya.infections with babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria species and anaplasma marginale are endemic in kenya yet there is a lack of adequate information on their genotypes. this study established the genetic diversities of the above tick-borne hemoparasites infecting cattle in kenya.201526420543
arachnids of medical importance in brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. these animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. several protein and non-protein compo ...201526273285
distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in free state province, south africa.the distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to free state province, south africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. amongst endemic ticks, the presence of rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south ...201526244582
molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four south african provinces.ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. with little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern africa, the aim of our study was to screen for anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia species and ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the easte ...201526227797
propagation of the israeli vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. while a. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for a. centrale. in the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the israeli vaccine strain of a. centrale and mon ...201526210950
in vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of tephrosia vogelii on rhipicephalus sanguineus in abomey-calavi.ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. the use of tephrosia leafs' extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central kenya.026101758
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild african ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (gi) parasite infections, an ...201525875647
history and development of research on wildlife parasites in southern africa, with emphasis on terrestrial mammals, especially ungulates.the history of wildlife parasitology in south africa, and to some extent southern africa, is reviewed, giving a brief overview of the early years and following its development from the founding of the onderstepoort veterinary institute in 1908 until the turn of the century. an emphasis is placed on game species. the main findings on protozoan parasites, including those of carnivores, are presented, starting in the 1890s and leading up to the first decade of the 21st century. important developmen ...201425830101
an update on the ecological distribution of the ixodidae ticks in total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of zimbabwe's five ecological regions between september 2013 and may 2014. based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and hyalomma ...201525721256
lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral dna in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in africa and the near and middle east. several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). the aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus ...201425468765
bunyavirus-vector interactions.the bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the hantavirus, orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, tospovirus, and phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. the viruses within the orthobunyavirus, nairovirus, and phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. this review present ...201425402172
first molecular detection of rickettsia africae in ticks from the union of the comoros.rickettsia africae is the agent of african tick bite fever, a disease transmitted by ticks in sub-saharan africa. in union of the comoros, a recent study reported the presence of a rickettsia africae vector but no information has been provided on the circulation of the pathogenic agent in this country.201425245895
are ticks venomous animals?as an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of metazoa. as haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many ixodida genera ...201425006341
identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern senegal.the spotted fevers, caused by the rickettsia bacteria, are a group of emerging diseases that are responsible for significant human morbidity. in africa, the distribution of different species of rickettsia in their tick vectors is poorly studied. we have collected 1169 hard ticks from 5 different species in the northern senegal, close to the saharan border. in a far northern collection site, corresponding to the rickettsia africae distribution area, we collected three amblyomma variegatum ticks i ...201424908548
detection of borrelia theileri in rhipicephalus geigyi from mali.disease burden within cattle is a concern around the world. bovine borreliosis, one such disease, is caused by the spirochete borrelia theileri transmitted by the bite of an infected rhipicephalus (boophilus) species tick. a number of species within the genus are capable of transmitting the agent and are found on multiple continents. cattle in the west african nation of mali are infested with four species of rhipicephalus ticks of the subgenus boophilus: rhipicephalus annulatus, rhipicephalus mi ...201424709337
tick infestation patterns in free ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer): effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. we studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? we identified ticks and estimated ...201224533310
protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in south africa.a total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 south african provinces (free state, mpumalanga, and limpopo). the geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for haemaphysalis silacea. from each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the saliva ...201424378080
host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. the question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptation ...201324109592
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
new data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western indian ocean islands.recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western indian ocean islands. rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from tanzania in 2002, is now well established on grande comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (mohéli, anjouan and mayotte). only one of the two clades identified in africa has settled so far. amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the antananarivo region (13 ...201324016261
relationship between the prevalence of ectoparasites and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in kenya.a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of busia district, kenya. three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. the ectoparasites found in the pigs were haematopinus suis (96.1%), sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%) ...201323984085
relapsing fever borreliae in africa.the study of relapsing fever borreliae in africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. accordingly, borrelia hispanica, borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. the recent sequencing of three relapsing fever borrelia gen ...201323926141
molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western oromia, ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. during the study period from october 2010 to april 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in bako district, western oromia, ethiopia. the study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4  ...201423846769
a comparison between tick species collected in a controlled and control free area on a game ranch in south africa.despite the large number of collection records, there are no recent collections of ixodid ticks of this magnitude in the waterberg area, limpopo province, south africa. free-living ticks on a commercial game farm were obtained by a total of 432 drag-samples in eight sample sites from september 2003 to august 2008. the ticks were collected to establish the difference between tick species and densities associated with acaricide-controlled (semi-intensive) and control-free areas on a game farm in t ...201323718159
molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from nigeria.only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in nigeria. the aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from nigeria.201323505591
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and african buffaloes in the tsavo conservation area, kenya.several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and african buffaloes (syncerus caffer). so too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. the aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the tsavo conservation area, kenya. to this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in february 2010. eight species, namely amblyomma gemma, amblyomma lepid ...201223327329
ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia, from october 2009 to april 2010. the study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. the ectoparasites identified were bovicola ovis (27.2%), melophagus ovinus (16.4%), ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), linognathus africanus (1.2%), linognathus ovillus (0.3%), sarcop ...201223327319
epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in south sudan: cross-sectional survey results.a cross-sectional study was conducted between september and october 2010 in five states of south sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. the purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in south sudan and their uses in future control strategies. a total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. the indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (elisa) was used to dete ...201223327317
theileriosis (cytauxzoonosis) in roan antelope (hippotragus equinus): field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors.four hand-reared, naïve roan antelope, 4 months of age, were exposed to naturally infected pasture on a game farm in mpumalanga province, south africa, where roan are known to die from theileriosis. various clinical parameters were recorded during this period. the predominant ticks parasitising these animals at the time (january to february), were rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi adults. after a period of 5 weeks the animals developed signs of clinical theileriosis ...201223327309
ticks on pastures and on two breeds of cattle in the eastern cape province, south africa.many studies on the population dynamics of questing ticks on pastures and of parasitic ticks on cattle have been conducted. few, however, have attempted to link the two in a single study. this study aimed to assess the population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks on pastures and of adult ticks on two breeds of cattle with different levels of susceptibility to tick infestation on the same pastures. between january 2005 and december 2009 questing ixodid ticks were collected monthly from natural pa ...201123327215
the dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the kruger national park (1988-2002). part iii. the less commonly collected species.despite many studies regarding tick ecology, limited information on long-term changes in tick populations exist. this study assessed the long-term population dynamics of the less frequently collected questing ixodid ticks in the kruger national park (knp). from 1988 to 2002, monthly dragging of the vegetation was performed in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the knp (nhlowa road, landscape zone 17, and skukuza, landscape zone 4). amblyomma marmoreum and rhipicephalu ...201123327206
theileria, babesia, and anaplasma detected by pcr in ruminant herds at bié province, angola.distribution of anaplasma spp., babesia spp., theileria spp., and ehrlichia ruminantium, was for the first time studied in bié province, central angola. we examined 76 blood samples of cattle originated from seven farms, and 13 blood samples of goats from two farms employing molecular genetic tools (pcr). most prevalent was a. ovis-infection in goats (100%) and a. marginale-infection in cattle (38% of examined animals, and six out of seven farms). b. bigemina-infection was detected in only one s ...023193527
gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded rna.gene silencing by rna interference (rnai) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. to effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for rnai-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (amblyomma, hyalomma, ixodes and rhipicephalus including the sub-species boophilus) were used to examine key p ...201222773071
pathogen prevalence in ticks collected from the vegetation and livestock in nigeria.ticks are important disease vectors that can cause considerable economic losses by affecting animal health and productivity, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. in this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from the vegetation and cattle in nigeria by pcr. the infection rates of questing ticks were 3.1% for rickettsia species, 0.1% for coxiella burnetii and 0.4% for borrelia species. other pathogens, suc ...201222327584
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
relationships between tick counts and coat characteristics in nguni and bonsmara cattle reared on semiarid rangelands in south africa.indigenous nguni cattle are adapted to the semiarid rangeland and appear to be resistant to ticks; however, the mechanism for tick resistance is yet to be established. to understand tick resistance in cattle, relationships among skin thickness, hair length, coat score, and tick counts were estimated in nguni (n=12) and bonsmara (n=12) heifers on semiarid rangelands of south africa. the tick species observed to infest the heifers were rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (frequency: 76%), rhipic ...201121890073
control of tick populations by spraying metarhizium anisopliae conidia on cattle under field conditions.conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae, in oil/water formulation (1-á+ù-á10(8) conidia/ml) were sprayed at 3-áweekly intervals on rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus ticks while feeding on afrikana bulls grazing in paddocks for a period of 1-áyear. the fungus reduced the on-host tick populations by 83% 3-ámonth after commencement of the experiment. the formulation by itself had only minimal effect on the tick population. tick population ...201121725837
an elisa to detect serum antibodies to the salivary gland toxin of ixodes holocyclus neumann in dogs and rodents.the ixodes holocyclus tick causes paralysis in up to 10,000 companion and domestic animals each year in australia. treatment requires the removal of the parasite and the administration of a commercial tick antiserum that is prepared from hyperimmune dogs. each batch of this serum is initially tested for toxin-neutralising potency in a mouse bioassay that is expensive, time consuming, and subjective. with the aim of developing a rapid in vitro assay to replace the bioassay, we used a partially pu ...201121687655
prevalence and species composition of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecologies in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species composition and prevalence of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central ethiopia. for this purpose, a total of 1,168 horses were examined for tick infestation. an overall prevalence of 39.04% of tick infestation on horses was recorded. a total of 917 adult ticks were collected from infested horses. amblyomma, boophilus, rhipicephalus, and hyalomma genera with the respective prevalence of 3.2%, 1.8%, 29.2% ...201121656133
colonization of grande comore island by a lineage of rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks.union of the comoros suffered a severe east coast fever epidemic in 2004. rhipicephalus appendiculatus was probably involved in pathogen transmission as this competent tick species, although previously absent from comoros, was sampled on 4 animals on one geographical site during the epidemic. we carried out an entomological survey on all three islands of union of the comoros to establish cattle tick species distribution with a special emphasis on r. appendiculatus. we investigated r. appendicula ...201121414194
tick paralysis in australia caused by ixodes holocyclus neumann.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. they are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, wit ...201121396246
species composition and geographic distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in a temperate and in a subtropical region of south-east africa.the species and distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa and maputo province, mozambique were determined from collections made from these animals at 72 localities in the former region and 30 in the latter. eleven ixodid and one argasid species were recovered in the eastern cape province and 15 ixodid species in maputo province. the most common ticks infesting cattle and goats in both provinces were amblyomma hebraeum, ...200921105593
tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of south africa.the objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the eastern cape province, south africa. engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from august 2007 to april 2008. three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely rhipicep ...201020967568
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of matabeleland south, zimbabwe.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in gwanda district of matabeleland south province, zimbabwe. eight tick species were identified: amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus zambeziensis and rhipicephalus ...200920698443
the comparative prevalence of five ixodid tick species infesting cattle and goats in maputo province, mozambique.this study compares the prevalence of ixodid tick species on cattle and goats in maputo province. adult ticks as well as the nymphs of three species, and only the adults of two species were collected from sets of five cattle at 21 localities throughout the province and compared with those collected from similar sets of goats at the same places. amblyomma hebraeum adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle and on goats at all 21 localities, and 90 cattle and 22 goats were infested with adult tic ...200920698440
bm86 homologues and novel ataq proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (egf)-like domains from hard and soft ticks.tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant bm86 protein from rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. partial protection of the bm86 vaccine against other rhipicephalus (boophilus) and hyalomma tick species suggests t ...201020647015
survey of ixodid ticks in domestic ruminants in bedelle district, southwestern ethiopia.a survey aimed at determining the status of ticks in cattle, sheep and goats in bedelle district (southwestern ethiopia) was carried out from november 2007 to april 2008. out of the total 330 animals examined, 314 (95.2%) were found to be infested (harbouring of at least a single tick). high rates of infestations were recorded across all three host species. factors like month of collection, age and sex of host species did not show significant association with infestation rates. a total of 5,507 ...201020563884
coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural senegal.q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts.201020386603
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
poxvirus protein evolution: family wide assessment of possible horizontal gene transfer investigate the evolutionary origins of proteins encoded by the poxviridae family of viruses, we examined all poxvirus protein coding genes using a method of characterizing and visualizing the similarity between these proteins and taxonomic subsets of proteins in genbank. our analysis divides poxvirus proteins into categories based on their relative degree of similarity to two different taxonomic subsets of proteins such as all eukaryote vs. all virus (except poxvirus) proteins. as an example ...200919464330
the extent of acaricide resistance in 1-, 2- and 3-host ticks on communally grazed cattle in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south order to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in the eastern region of the eastern cape province 1-, 2- and 3-host ticks were collected from cattle at 59 dip-tanks over a period of 2 years. these ticks were tested for resistance against 3 compounds, namely amitraz, cypermethrin and chlorfenvinphos. the shaw larval immersion test detected emerging resistance to amitraz in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus at 2 dip-tanks and resistance at a 3rd. it also revealed resistance in this tic ...200819244821
ixodid ticks infesting domestic goats in communal land areas of zimbabwe.the purpose of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ticks infesting goats owned by resource-limited farmers in the state-owned communal land areas of zimbabwe. ticks were collected from goats at a single locality within each of 5 communal land areas, and a total of 14 ixodid tick species was recovered. the most numerous tick was rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, which was present in all areas at each sampling, and a rhipicephalus sp. (near r. punctatus), which was most abundant on go ...200819244819
host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, ehrlichia canis.the ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. historically, advances in tick-borne dise ...200818963493
the prevalence of serum antibodies to ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in tanzania: a cross-sectional study.serum samples collected in a cross-sectional survey of grazing cattle on manyara ranch, monduli district, tanzania, were tested by indirect major antigenic protein 1 fragment b (map 1-b) elisa to determine the seroprevalence of ehrlichia ruminantium and to assess ranch-level risk factors for heartwater. heartwater-exposed cattle were widespread on the ranch and overall seroprevalence was 50.3% (95% ci, 44.9-55.6), enough to indicate an endemically unstable situation. multivariate logistic regres ...200818846851
protection of metarhizium anisopliae conidia from ultra-violet radiation and their pathogenicity to rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi ticks.metarhizium anisopliae conidia were formulated in water or in olive oil containing 3% commercial sunscreens (everysun or e45 sun block 50) and exposed to an artificial uv source for up to 5 hours. survival of conidia after 5 h of exposure to uv in oil formulation was 29% when protected with everysun, 40% when protected with e45, and 4% in control. in comparison, survival of conidia formulated in water was 13% when protected with everysun, 24% when protected with e45, and 0% in control. furthermo ...200818712608
reliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in central equatoria state, southern a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan was determined. three locations were selected (gumbo, khor rumla and nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (nilotic zebu breed) kept in six different herds. four tick genera and ten spe ...200818575063
identification of a novel babesia sp. from a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838).babesiosis in a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named babesia irvinesmithi. recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. dna was extracted from blood samples; the v4 variable region of the 18s rrna gene was amplifi ...200818508943
distribution and population dynamics of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in sennar state, sudan.a cross-sectional survey of ticks infesting sheep was conducted in sennar state, sudan. a total body collection of ticks was carried out at five localities sennar town, singa, dinder, abu naama and um banein on two types of desert sheep (watish and ashgar) on two farms at each locality at two monthly intervals for one year starting july 2002 to may 2003. four tick genera and eight species were identified. they were amblyomma lepidum, hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicepha ...200718453239
ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern africa.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern african wild ruminants, namely giraffes, giraffa camelopardalis, african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, and eland, taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. to this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. twenty-eigh ...200717933365
goats as alternative hosts of cattle ticks.the objective of this study was to compare the presence on goats and cattle of adult ticks that usually infest cattle. to this end ticks collected from sets of five goats were compared with those collected from sets of five cattle at 72 communal dip-tanks in the eastern region of the eastern cape province. amblyomma hebraeum was present on goats at 25 and on cattle at 39 dip-tanks, and a total of 61 goats and 138 cattle were infested. adult rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus was present on goat ...200717708147
detection of rickettsia africae in rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the republic of botswana, south africa.a total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n = 9), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 27), rhipicephalus appendiculatus (n = 9), amblyomma hebraeum (n = 5), and hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 3), were removed from oryx in botswana (south africa). they were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia and anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). seventy-seven percent of r. decoloratus as well as ...200717690416
chemical restraint of exotic animals in a disease regulatory program.the african red tick (rhipicephalus evertsi neuman) is widely distributed in africa but had never been identified in north america until september 1960 when it was found in a wild animal compound in florida. the red tick is a vector of cattle fever (piroplasmosis) and several other exotic diseases including the highly fatal east coast fever. the 130 acre compound contained more than 300 african and asian animals, including giraffes, camels, zebras, elands, nilghais, blackbuck, aoudads, ostriches ...196317649416
a secondary structural common core in the ribosomal its2 (internal transcribed spacer) of culexspecies from diverse geographical the present study, sequence and structural analysis of its2 region (the spacer segment between 5.8s and 28s rrna of mature rrna sequences) of 7 culex species belonging to 5 different geographical locations was carried out. alignment of the its2 sequence from the 7 species revealed 8 homologous domains. four species namely c. vishnui, c. annulus, c. pipiens, c. quiquefasciatusshowed high sequence (98-100%) and rna secondary structure similarity. the its2 similarity among different species is h ...200517597853
ehrlichia ruminantium variants which do not cause heartwater found in south 1994 a batch of apparently healthy goats was selected for intended export to the usa from a heartwater-free and vector tick-free region of south africa. the animals were tested serologically for heartwater, using either or both an ifa and an elisa test, and 52% were found to be serologically positive. a pcr assay based on ehrlichia ruminantium 16s gene sequences gave positive results for 54% of the animals, suggesting that apparently non-pathogenic e. ruminantium variants existed in this hear ...200717123750
the use of a pour-on and spray dip containing amitraz to control ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle.knockdown and persistence efficacies of a pour-on containing amitraz 1% and cypermethrin 1% and a spray dip containing 12.5% amitraz were compared. knock-down and persistence efficacies of the amitraz spray dip against rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus and amblyomma hebraeum were significantly higher for the duration of the trial than those of the pour-on. in the case of rhipicephalus appediculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, efficacy was significantly higher on days 2 and 5. resistan ...200617120621
ticks on crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and on the vegetation on a farm in limpopo province, south africa.ticks were collected at approximately bi-monthly intervals between june 1996 and june 1997 from crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and from the vegetation on a mixed cattle and wildlife farm in limpopo province, south africa. the birds were infested with the immature stages of 13 tick species, of which amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes were the most numerous and prevalent. ten ixodid tick species were collected from the vegetation, of which the immatu ...200516562738
acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.the efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. the eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. the amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. both acaricides were effective against r. appendi ...200516562734
some observations on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in river nile province of northern sudan.five species of ixodid ticks were found in a cross-sectional survey in which 200 sheep were examined for ticks in river nile province, sudan. hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the predominant species (73.6%), whereas ticks belonging to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (14.7%), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (9.1%), rhipicephalus simus (2%) and hyalomma dromedarii (0.5%) were also found. the mean tick load was 11.2 per animal. in a subsequent longitudinal survey ticks were collected on a monthl ...200516300192
detection of babesia canis rossi, b. canis vogeli, and hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern sudan by using a screening pcr and sequencing methodologies.babesia and hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern sudan were analyzed by using a single pcr and sequencing. among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with b. canis vogeli. thirty-three dogs were positive for hepatozoon. hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.200516275954
prevalence of theileriosis in red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) in namibia.a total of 23 blood samples from red hartebeest and 28 ticks of the subspecies rhipicephalus evertsi were collected in namibia during the summer 2003. for a piroplasmida species, theileria sp 95.7% of blood and 50.0% of tick samples (all r. e. mimeticus, none of r. e. evertsi were carrying the pathogen) were pcr positive. sequencing showed infection from a re-emerging mild species of theileria phylogenetically different from other african theileria species such as theileria parva, t. buffeli, t. ...200515986252
transstadial and intrastadial experimental transmission of ehrlichia canis by male rhipicephalus sanguineus.the acquisition and transmission of rickettsial pathogens by different tick developmental stages has important epidemiological implications. the purpose of this study was to determine if male rhipicephalus sanguineus can experimentally acquire and transmit ehrlichia canis in the absence of female ticks. two trials were performed where nymphal and male r. sanguineus were simultaneously acquisition fed on the same infected donor hosts, and transstadially or intrastadially exposed male ticks were f ...200515941624
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in northern a cross sectional survey conducted during the period june 2001 to july 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the sudan was determined. seventeen locations were surveyed from northern, central, eastern, western, blue nile and white nile provinces. total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. four tick genera and 11 species were identified. the tick species collected included amblyomma lepidum, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, hyalom ...200415732459
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, mauritania.from february to august 2003, 38 persons were infected with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus in mauritania; 35 of these persons were residents of nouakchott. the first patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. she transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and four members of her family. in nouakchott, two disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. the case-fatality ratio was 28.6%. of the patients not i ...200415663851
a sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern free state, south africa.a survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386) was conducted in the north eastern free state between august 1999 and july 2000. giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. a total of 94% of the cattle were sero-positive for babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87% were sero-positive for anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for ana ...200415185577
ticks and tick-borne diseases of livestock belonging to resource-poor farmers in the eastern free state of south africa.the paper provides a summary of three studies conducted in the eastern free state of south africa between 1998 and 2000. in a questionnaire-based study approximately 21% of interviewed resource-poor farmers (n = 150) indicated that they experienced problems with ticks and tick-borne diseases. about 56% of farmers indicated that tick-related problems were most severe in summer, while 32% indicated that the most problems were encountered in winter. about 12% indicated that the tick problems were e ...200214570134
seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (equus asinus) in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana.during the period march to september 2000, a study was conducted in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. the only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. the most prevalent tick was rhipiceph ...200312836744
ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in south africa.ixodid ticks were collected during the period september 1991 to august 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. three of these were in north west province and 1 in mpumalanga province, south africa. ten tick species were collected in north west province and 7 in mpumalanga. the adults of amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in north west province, while in mpumalanga boophilus decoloratu ...200212515294
introduced ticks and tick-borne diseases: the threat and approaches to eradication.exotic tick species and tick-borne diseases are serious threats to live-stock, companion animals, and wildlife in the united states. recurring introductions of exotic tick species into the united states are a significant indicator of the degree of risk. successful tick-eradication campaigns, such as the national program that eradicated boophilus annulatus and b. microplus from the united states, the cattle fever tick eradication program of the us department of agriculture's veterinary services t ...200212442574
seasonal abundance of adult ixodid ticks infesting cattle belonging to resource-limited farmers in the north-eastern free state province of south africa.a study was undertaken to determine the seasonal abundance of the ticks infesting cattle owned by resource-limited farmers in the north-eastern free state province of south africa. infestations of boophilus decoloratus koch, 1844, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi neumann, 1897, rhipicephalus follis donitz, 1910, rhipicephalus gertrudae feldman-muhsam, 1960 and rhipicephalus warburtoni walker & horak, 2000, were monitored on cattle of mixed breeds at monthly intervals from may 1998 to april 1999. hi ...200212092776
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 217