cooperia connochaeti sp. nov. (nematoda, trichostrongylidae) from the blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus (burchell, 1823).a new species of nematode. cooperia connochaeti, was collected from cross-bred blue and black wildebeest at krugersdorp (transvaal), blue wildebeest connochaetes taurinus (burchell, 1823) from the kruger national park (transvaal) and lake xhau (botswana), as well as from impala aepyceros melampus (lichtenstein, 1812) at malelane (transvaal) and pafuri (kruger national park). these nematodes are smaller than cooperia pectinata ransom, 1907, and their spicules, which are bifid in the distal third, ...1979551358
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxvi. the mosaic of ixodid tick infestations on birds and mammals in the mountain zebra national park.sixteen species of ixodid ticks were collected over varying periods of time from 6 species of ground-frequenting birds and 15 species of small and large mammals in the mountain zebra national park, karoo, cape province. margaropus winthemi followed by rhipicephalus glabroscutatum and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were the most abundant species. the host preferences of 14 tick species and the seasonal abundances of 13 species were determined. small numbers of immature stages of only a few tick sp ...19911923374
effect of interferons on the replication of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 of malignant catarrhal fever.four isolates of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) were tested for their inducibility of and sensitivity to various interferons. viral isolates from an indian gaur (bos gaurus), a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and two wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) calves did not induce measurable interferon (ifn) in bovine fetal kidney cells. however, these low passages of each virus were all highly cell-associated and viral replication was inhibited at these passages by ifn ...19882457716
seasonal activity and hosts of the vectors of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever in south africa.the seasonal activity and hosts of two species of hyalomma, h. marginatum rufipes and h. truncatum, were studied in a crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) zone near bloemhof in the western transvaal. the study was conducted at the s.a. lombard nature reserve, where a child had died from this disease. it was found that adults of the two species are very common during summer while the immature stages were active during winter and also demonstrated a second peak of activity in november. h. margi ...19863961619
the effect of season on reproduction in the black wildebeest and red hartebeest in south africa. 19734522365
a note on the use of xylazine hydrochloride (rompun, bayer) in a black wildebeest. 19744850252
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xvi. helminth and arthropod parasites of blue and black wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus and connochaetes gnou).fifty-five blue wildebeest ( connochaetes taurinus ) were shot for parasite recovery at approximately monthly intervals during a period of 13 months in the kruger national park. thirteen nematode species, 4 cestode species, 1 trematode, the larvae of 5 oestrid flies, 3 lice species, 7 ixodid tick species, 1 mite species and the nymphae of a pentastomid were recovered. the seasonal prevalence of 8 nematodes, 2 cestodes, the larvae of 4 oestrid flies, 2 lice and 4 ixodid tick species was determine ...19836676686
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
a description of the immature stages of kirkioestrus minutus (rodhain & bequaert, 1915) (diptera: oestridae), and the life cycle and seasonal prevalence of this fly in blue wildebeest.descriptions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae and the puparium of kirkioestrus minutus are gives. first instar larvae, which have not previously been described, can be distinguished from other oestrid larvae by the ventral spinulation of segments iv-xii and the spinulation of the anal protuberance. of 55 blue wildebeest examined in the kruger national park all but two 1-month-old and one 2-month-old animals were infested. first stage larvae are probably deposited in or on the nostrils and m ...19807454232
prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle and wildlife in morogoro region, tanzania.prevalences of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle (n = 486) on five selected farms in morogoro municipality and three species of herbivorous wildlife (n = 87) from mikumi national park, morogoro, tanzania, were determined using the modified ziehl-neelsen staining technique. of 486 bovine faecal samples, 5.3% were positive for cryptosporidium spp. the prevalence of cryptosporidium was higher in calves less than 3 months of age compared to weaned calves and adults. cryptosporidium spp. oocysts ...19979234442
[malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in indian gauer (bos gaurus gaurus) and javan banteng (bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the munich zoo at that time. in the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of mcf occurred sporadically at the zoo in european and american bison (bison bonasus, b. bison' bison, b. bison athabascae), elk (alces alces), red deer (cervus e ...19989810608
intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.the intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (oryx dammah). the animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the schirmer tear test i was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonomet ...200212233828
postthaw evaluation of in vitro function of epididymal spermatozoa from four species of free-ranging african improved understanding of reproductive physiology in nondomestic bovids is necessary for the development of assisted reproductive technologies (arts) for use in the conservation of endangered bovids. in this study, epididymal spermatozoa were recovered from blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), african buffalo (syncerus caffer), springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) following organized culls in south africa. our objectives were 1) to characterize the qu ...200415151928
identification of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle of four southern african wild ruminants.the aim was to separate and characterize the myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoforms of four southern african wild ruminants, namely blesbuck (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) and blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus). longissimus dorsi muscle samples were subjected to sds-page and western blot analyses using antibodies raised against mhc isoforms. the specificity of these antibodies was assessed using immunohistochemistry combined w ...200717631404
gammaherpesvirus carrier status of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in south africa.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an economically important disease primarily of domestic cattle with a high case fatality rate. it is caused by either alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2). the major reservoir host of alhv-1 is the blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), but it is generally accepted that the black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) is also a reservoir host. no viral studies in the black wildebeest have been reported and the carrier status of ...200819244822
comparison of the milk composition of free-ranging blesbok, black wildebeest and blue wildebeest of the subfamily alcelaphinae (family: bovidae).the proximate composition of milk from free ranging blesbok, black wildebeest and blue wildebeest is reported, with detailed analysis of fatty acid composition and protein identification by electrophoresis. the milk of the blesbok, black- and blue wildebeest contain respectively 5.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.7 and 4.1 +/- 0.9 g/100 g protein, 8.6 +/- 1.1, 5.5 +/- 1.5 and 7.5 +/- 2.1 g/100 g fat, and 4.9 +/- 0.4, 4.1 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 1.6 g/100 g lactose, and are comparable with ovine milk. the milk c ...200919426824
a comparative study of meiotic recombination in cattle (bos taurus) and three wildebeest species (connochaetes gnou, c. taurinus taurinus and c. t. albojubatus).the karyotypic evolution in the family bovidae is based on centric fusions of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes. here, the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination was analyzed in pachytene spermatocytes from bos taurus (2n = 60) and 3 wildebeest species (connochaetes gnou, c. taurinus taurinus and c. t. albojubatus) (2n = 58) using immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. significant differences in mean numbers of recombination events per cell were observed between ...201323594414
the host-specificity of theileria sp. (sable) and theileria sp. (sable-like) in african bovidae and detection of novel theileria in antelope and giraffe.tick-borne diseases caused by theileria are of economic importance in domestic and wildlife ruminants. the majority of theileria infects a limited number of host species, supporting the concept of host specificity. however, some theileria seem to be generalists challenging the host specificity paradigm, such as theileria sp. (sable) reported from various vertebrate hosts, including african buffalo, cattle, dogs and different antelope species. we tested the hypothesis that t. sp. (sable) uses bov ...202031566155
isolation and characterization of species-specific microsatellite markers for blue and black wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus and c. gnou).the bluewildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) is distributed throughout southern and east africa while the black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) is endemic to south africa and was driven to near extinction in the early 1900s due to hunting pressure and disease outbreaks. extensive translocation of both species throughout south africa is threatening the genetic integrity of blue and blackwilde beest. to effectively manage these species, genetic tools that can be used to detect hybrid individuals, ide ...201830574875
novel mycobacterium avium complex species isolated from black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in south africa.a study was undertaken to isolate and characterize mycobacterium species from black wildebeest suspected of being infected with tuberculosis in south africa. this led to the discovery of a new mycobacterium avium complex species, provisionally referred to as the gnou isolate from black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou). sixteen samples from nine black wildebeest were processed for mycobacterium isolation. following decontamination, samples were incubated in an ordinary incubator at 37°c on löwenste ...201526671520
wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-saharan africa.wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (wa-mcf), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern africa. the transmission of wa-mcf is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species connochaetes taurinus and connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of wa-mcf is largely restricted to ken ...201626446889
parasites of south african wildlife. xix. the prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the limpopo province, south africa.little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. the aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. ten impalas (aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), two bla ...201123327219
comparative histology of antelope placentomes.the histological structure of ruminant (family: bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. the chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. all species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. uganda kob (kobus kob, reduncinae) and common duiker (sylvicapra grimmia ...198816726390
the gross and histopathologic lesions of maignant catarrhal fever in three captive sika deer (cervus nippon) in southern ontario.the gross and histopathologic lesions of three captive sika deer (cervus nippon) with malignant catarrhal fever are described. lesions included those of the head and eye form and the more commonly described peracute form. one deer had been exposed to a wildebeeste (connochaetes gnou) and the other two to domestic sheep.1977557117
changes in the physico-chemical attributes through processing of salami made from blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), eland (taurotragus oryx), fallow deer (dama dama), springbok (antidorcas marsupialis) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in comparison to pork.drying kinetics and changes in proximate composition, ph, salt content, water activity (aw) and lipid oxidation through processing of salami made using five different game meat species were evaluated and compared to pork. eight batches of salami from each species were made and sampled for analysis throughout processing. processing time was a significant factor on all measured attributes whilst species affected (p ≤ .05) ph and moisture but not drying kinetics. black wildebeest meat exhibited hig ...201830138886
black wildebeest seek shade less and use solar orientation behavior more than do blue wildebeest.many ungulates, including wildebeest, seek shade and orient their bodies relative to incoming solar radiation in order to reduce environmental heat loads. blue (connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou), which co-exist artificially in some reserves in south africa, are thought to adopt different thermoregulatory behaviors to mitigate high environmental heat loads. however, whether or not blue and black wildebeest use different behaviors to reduce heat loads in regions where ...201425436964
protozoa and digestive tract parameters in blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou), with description of entodinium taurinus n. sp.rumen contents from four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and six black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) were collected from two locations during two winter culling seasons. a total of 16 species of protozoa were found in blue wildebeest with dasytricha ruminantium, opisthotrichum janus and ostracodinium gracile occurring in all four animals. in black wildebeest, 23 species of protozoa were observed with only diplodinium bubalidis (caudal spine morphotype) and ostracodinium damaliscus being ...201222683066
black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity and a high proportion of type iix fibres.the aim of the study was to investigate the skeletal muscle characteristics of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in terms of fibre type and metabolism. samples were obtained post mortem from the vastus lateralis and longissimus lumborum muscles and analysed for myosin heavy chain (mhc) content. citrate synthase (cs), 3-hydroxyacyl co a dehydrogenase (3had), phosphofructokinase (pfk), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and creatine kinase (ck) activities were measured spectrophotometrically to repres ...201122071196
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlvi. oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the eastern cape province.merino sheep in thornveld, dorper sheep and angora goats in inland valley bushveld, angora goats and boer goats in valley bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, in karroid mountainveld, all in the eastern cape province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. the sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of oestrus ovis, and dorper sheep and boer goats harboured more larvae than angora goats on the same farms. ...200516562735
orientation to solar radiation in black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).we recorded the body axis orientation of free-living black wildebeest relative to incident solar radiation and wind. observations were made on three consecutive days, on six occasions over the course of 1 year, in a treeless, predominantly cloudless habitat. frequency of orientation parallel to incident solar radiation increased, and perpendicular to incident solar radiation decreased, as ambient dry-bulb temperature or solar radiation intensity increased, or wind speed decreased. we believe the ...200516075268
alteration in diel activity patterns as a thermoregulatory strategy in black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).the nychthemeral activity patterns of a population of female black wildebeest inhabiting a shadeless environment were surveyed periodically over 1 year. the wildebeest fed mostly at night, with the proportion of feeding at night increasing when ambient conditions were hotter. inactive periods were spent mostly lying during cooler weather but standing as days became hotter. we suggest that the entire suite of behavioural adjustments is beneficial to heat exchange with the environment. behaviour p ...200516049700
occurrence and molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. in mammals and reptiles at the lisbon zoo.the presence of cryptosporidium parasites in mammals and reptiles kept at the lisbon zoo was investigated. a total of 274 stool samples were collected from 100 mammals and 29 reptiles. the species and genotype of the isolates identified by light microscopy were determined by nested pcr and sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit rrna gene. cryptosporidium oocysts were found in one black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou), one prairie bison (bison bison bison) and in one indian star tort ...200515986253
indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against rift valley fever virus in domestic and wild ruminant indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-elisa) for the detection of specific igg immunoglobulins against rift valley fever virus (rvfv) was validated in-house. a total of 3055 sera from sheep (n = 1159), goats (n = 636), cattle (n = 203), african buffalo (n = 928), and other wild ruminants (n = 129), including eland, kudu, and black wildebeest, was used. sera from domestic ruminants were collected in west (n = 10), south (n = 1654) and east africa (n = 334), and sera from wild ruminants ...200312825681
adaptive heterothermy and selective brain cooling in arid-zone mammals.adaptive heterothermy and selective brain cooling are regarded as important thermal adaptations of large arid-zone mammals. adaptive heterothermy, a process which reduces evaporation by storing body heat, ought to be enhanced by ambient heat load and by water deficit, but most mammals studied fail to show at least one of those attributes. selective brain cooling, the reduction of brain temperature below arterial blood temperature, is most evident in artiodactyls, which possess a carotid rete, an ...200211923074
parasites of south african wildlife. xvi. helminths of some antelope species from the eastern and western cape provinces.the numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, three eland, taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, aicelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the karoo national park, western cape province; two bontebok, damaliscus pygargus dorca ...200010843320
duinefontein 2: an acheulean site in the western cape province of south africa.excavations at duinefontein (dft) 2 near cape town, south africa have recovered numerous stone artefacts and animal bones on an ancient surface sealed within iron-stained eolian sands. u-series analysis of an overlying calcrete places the sands before 150 ka ago, while the large mammal taxa imply an age between 400 and 200 ka ago. the artefacts include a classic acheulean handaxe and probable biface shaping flakes that support this age estimate. the principal mammalian species are long-horned bu ...199910444350
swayback in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and a black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).ataxia associated with myelopathy and low liver copper concentrations is described in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) from the karoo nature reserve, graaff-reinet. this syndrome, which occurs in neonatal and delayed forms, has been described in sheep, goats, pigs and domesticated red deer, but reports in other ungulates, including antelope, are very rare and generally unconfirmed by histopathological examination. the 2 animals examined exhibited a ...19968765071
genetic divergence in south african wildebeest: analysis of allozyme variability.genetic variability within the blue (connochaetes taurinus) and black (c. gnou) wildebeests in south africa was estimated from allozyme frequencies at 31 protein-encoding loci. seven loci, ak-1, alb, est-d, icdh-1, mpi-1, pgm-1, and tf, were polymorphic in the blue wildebeest, but only two loci, est-d and tf, were variable in its congener. average gene diversity was h = 0.018 +/- 0.013 in the black wildebeest and was significantly smaller than that, h = 0.081 +/- 0.030, in the blue wildebeest. t ...19947995929
allozyme divergence among four representatives of the subfamily alcelaphinae (family: bovidae).we used protein gel electrophoresis to study genetic diversity within and between blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), black wildebeest (c. gnou), red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) and blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi). twenty-nine protein encoding loci were resolved, average heterozygosity ranged from 3.25-5.36% and between population gene diversity accounted for the major share of the total relative gene diversity (69.34%). genetic distance values ranged from 0.021 to 0.132 ...19957584860
exertional myoglobinaemia in black wildebeest, and the influence of graduated exercise. 19807241499
characteristics of the herpesvirus of malignant catarrhal fever isolated from captive wildebeest calves.a herpesvirus was isolated from buffy coat cells from a newborn wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) and from tissues of a 12-day-old wildebeest during the 1982 calving season of a captive, inbred herd maintained in a zoologic collection. both wildebeests were clinically healthy, and there was no herd record that malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) existed. each viral isolate produced cytopathologic changes in bovine kidney cell cultures (intranuclear inclusions and massive syncytia). the viral-infected c ...19846324620
genetic divergence in south african wildebeest: comparative cytogenetics and analysis of mitochondrial dna.the blue and the black wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus and c. gnou, are currently classified as congeneric, but previous reports have placed c. taurinus in its own genus, gorgon. to further clarify the evolutionary relationship between these two species, we examined and compared their mitotic chromosomes and mitochondrial dna (mtdna). no species-specific g-banded or c-banded chromosomal markers were found, and we conclude that the karyotypes are invariant at the level of resolution obtained. a ...19911795096
wild antelope skeletal muscle antioxidant enzyme activities do not correlate with muscle fibre type or oxidative metabolism.wild antelope are some of the fastest land animals in the world, presenting with high oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle metabolism. however, no study has investigated their muscle antioxidant capacity, and may assist in understanding their physical ability and certain pathophysiological manifestations, such as capture myopathy. therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activities superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and glutathione reductase (gr), as ...202031862242
mammalian exocrine secretions xix. chemical characterization of the interdigital secretion of the black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou.using gas chromatography (gc) in conjunction with electron impact mass spectrometry and retention-time comparison, 94 compounds, ranging from 2-methyl-2-propenal to octadecanoic acid, were identified in the interdigital secretions of male and female black wildebeests, connochaetes gnou (also known as the white-tailed gnu). the constituents of these secretions belong to many different compound classes, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatics and aliphatic carbonyl compounds including carboxyl ...202032573484
preservation of previously frozen black wildebeest meat (connochaetes gnou) using oregano (oreganum vulgare) essential oil.the effect of oregano essential oil (1% v/v) on the shelf-life of black wildebeest biceps femoris (bf) muscles stored aerobically at 2.6 ± 0.6 °c was investigated by evaluating changes in ph, lipid oxidation, microbial counts and colour over 9 days of storage. treatment group had lower ph values than control group, for most of storage. lipid oxidation was stabilized at <9 mgmda/kg throughout storage for the treatment, whilst instability was seen for the control. the treatment group had significa ...201930368058
changes in ph, colour and the microbiology of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) longissimus thoracis et lumborum (ltl) muscle with normal and high (dfd) muscle ph.the effect of ph and the spoilage of black wildebeest longissimus thoracis et lumborum (ltl) muscles with normal (ph > 6.06) and high ph (dfd; ph < 6.06) was investigated for 12 days under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °c) aerobic conditions. results showed that ph affected colour, as initial values from normal samples (l* = 33.08, a* = 13.60, b* = 10.29, c* = 17.10 and hab = 36.85) were greater than values for dfd meat (l* = 27.21, a* = 11.10, b* = 6.97, c* = 13.12 and hab = 32.08). initial bacterial cou ...201930172085
blood and brain temperatures of free-ranging black wildebeest in their natural environment.using miniature data loggers, we measured the temperatures of carotid blood and brain in four wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) every 2 min for 3 wk and every 5 min, in two of the animals, for a further 6 wk. the animals ranged freely in their natural habitat, in which there was no shelter. they were subject to intense radiant heat (maximum approximately 1,000 w/m2) during the day. arterial blood temperature showed a circadian rhythm with low amplitude (< 1 degree c) and peaked in early evening. br ...19947810762
the influence of normal and high ultimate muscle ph on the microbiology and colour stability of previously frozen black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) meat.changes in ph, colour and microbiological counts were investigated in previously frozen biceps femoris (bf) muscles from black wildebeest. samples were stored under vacuum at refrigerated conditions (4.2±0.8°c) for 12days. seven bf muscles had a high ph (dfd) (ph≥6) and five had a normal ph (ph<6). overtime the ph of dfd did not significantly change whilst that of normal ph meat decreased. browning under anaerobic storage conditions was seen, more for normal meat than dfd meat. initial total via ...201828843939
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