Publications

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ph stability and purification of lumpy skin disease virus. 195413211978
electron microscopic studies on lumpy skin disease virus type "neethling". 19664290898
the optimal conditions for the multiplication of neethling-type lumpy skin disease virus in embryonated eggs. 19695408795
experimental infection of game animals with lumpy skin disease virus (prototype strain neethling). 19705535829
lumpyskin disease in nigeria. 1978625800
[lumpy skin disease in cattle. ii. production of a lyophilized vaccine using live virus]. 1979554280
observations on the epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in kenya.lumpy skin disease virus strains isolated in kenya over a period of some 20 years have proved to be serologically identical. they were indistinguishable by indirect fluorescent antibody and serum neutralization test from the south african neethling and west african serotypes. these two serological methods proved of value in studying the antibody responses to infection. while epizootic spread of lsd has occurred in kenya, most cases are of a sporadic nature and are thought to be the result of acc ...19827057030
some observations on the occurrence of lumpy skin disease in nigeria. 19827090644
a study of the pathology of lumpy skin disease in cattle.microscopic lesions in cattle infected with the virus of the neethling form of lumpy skin disease comprised a granulomatous reaction in the dermis and hypodermis which extended to the surrounding tissue. during the early stages of the lesions a vasculitis and lymphangitis with concomitant thrombosis and infarction resulted in necrosis and oedema. a hallmark of the acute to subacute stages of the lesions was the presence of intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in various cell types. the inclu ...19827177597
neutralising antibodies to lumpy skin disease virus in african wildlife.a total of 3445 sera from 44 different wild species collected between 1963 and 1982 in 11 african countries south of the sahara, were examined for neutralising antibodies to lumpy skin diseases (lsd) virus (prototype neethling). antibodies were demonstrated in six species but were of low prevalence. it was concluded from the generally negative results, that wildlife in africa probably does not play a very important part in he perpetuation and spread of lsd virus.19836627909
comparison of the external dimensions of capripoxvirus isolates.no significant difference was found between the external dimensions of the m forms of isolates of sheep pox virus from nigeria, sheep and goat pox virus from kenya and lumpy skin disease virus from south africa. earlier reports that isolates of capripoxvirus can be distinguished by their relative sizes could not be substantiated.19863809738
studies on the major common precipitating antigen of capripoxvirus.the proteins of sheep pox, goat pox, sheep and goat pox and lumpy skin disease (neethling) viruses were labelled with [35s]methionine. the major structural polypeptides of these viruses co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels, demonstrating the very close biochemical relationship between them. using the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test with radiolabelled antigen preparations, a major common precipitating antigen was identified. this co-migrated on polyacrylamide gels with one of the major structu ...19863080547
lumpy skin disease--a review. 19883281337
the characterization of african strains of capripoxvirus.isolates of capripoxvirus collected from sub-saharan africa were compared in sheep, goats and cattle and by restriction endonuclease digestion of their purified dna. biochemical techniques were used to precisely identify strains of capripoxvirus for epidemiological investigations. strains of capripoxvirus infecting cattle have remained very stable over a 30-year period and are closely related to strains recovered from sheep in africa.19892539299
the isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in egypt.lumpy skin disease (lsd) virus (lsdv) was isolated for the first time from cattle in egypt in 2 disease outbreaks. bovine herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4) and lsdv were detected in a pooled sample from the first outbreak (suez). only lsdv was isolated from the second outbreak (ismalia). the capripoxviruses were identified as lsdv by neutralization with specific antiserum and by their ability to produce generalized lsd in experimentally inoculated cattle.19901965577
antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in tanzania.a total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in tanzania between 1987 and 1989. these sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, african horse sickness and african swine fever viruses and brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. sera from buffalo syncerus caff ...19902123458
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
capripoxvirus disease in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia.lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the national wildlife research center, taif, saudi arabia. clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. the virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. a serologic survey of the herd of 90 o ...19921602585
early and late transcriptional phases in the replication of lumpy-skin-disease virus.approximately 71 of the estimated 145 kilobase pairs of the genome of the south african isolate of lumpy-skin-disease virus, neethling strain, was cloned into the plasmid vector pbluescribe. selected clones were used in northern blot analysis to investigate the replication cycle of the virus. the synthesis of early mrna was initiated immediately after infection, and continued for approximately 9 h. the transition to late-gene transcription occurred approximately 10 h post-infection and required ...19947596579
the clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (neethling) virus.british cattle were inoculated with lumpy skin disease (neethling) virus and their clinical signs observed over a three week period. elevation of body temperature following infection was not found to be a consistent feature, and even in severe cases was limited to a peak temperature of 41 degrees c. generalised lesions were seen 9-14 days post infection (p.i.), and the development of generalised infections did not appear to be dose related. following intradermal inoculation lesions were detected ...19957733823
an investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (neethling).british cattle were infected with the south african (neethling) strain of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) and their clinical signs monitored over a 3-week period. different routes of infection were assessed for effect on the clinical characteristics of the disease by using a clinical scoring system. neither of 2 animals inoculated onto the conjunctival sac showed clinical signs of seroconverted. the intradermal route produced local lesions in 21 of 25 animals, and generalized infection in 4. in ...19957867740
spread of lumpy skin disease in israeli dairy herds.fourteen of the 17 dairy herds in peduyim, an israeli village, became infected with lumpy skin disease during a period of 37 days in august and september 1989. one cow in one neighbouring village and four cows in another neighbouring village also became infected, probably through being treated by a veterinarian who treated cows in peduyim. circumstantial evidence suggests that the original infection was brought to peduyim and spread by stable flies (stomoxys calcitrans) carried by the wind from ...19958533249
trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in african cattle.cattle were vaccinated with differing doses of an equal mixture of capripox-rinderpest recombinant viruses expressing either the fusion protein (f) or the haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus. animals vaccinated with 2 x 10(4) p.f.u. or greater of the combined viruses were completely protected against challenge, 1 month later, with both virulent rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. vaccination with any of the doses did not induce any adverse clinical response in the animals or tr ...19979042036
identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter of the capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus.identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter element of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is described. the 56 bp element shows substantial structural similarities with other poxvirus promoters, providing further evidence that transcriptional elements are conserved within the poxviridae. the relative strengths of the lsdv early and late promoters were compared to the vaccinia virus (vv) p7.5k and p11k promoters in transient expression assays. these transient assays ...199910446656
a capripoxvirus detection pcr and antibody elisa based on the major antigen p32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus h3l gene.sheeppoxvirus (spv), goatpoxvirus (gpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. capripox diagnosis by classical virological methods dependent on live capripox virus is not suitable in countries such as australia where the virus is exotic and live virus is not available. to develop diagnostic tests based on recombinant material, we cloned and sequenced a ...199910485266
mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti female mosquitoes are capable of the mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) from infected to susceptible cattle. mosquitoes that had fed upon lesions of lsdv-infected cattle were able to transmit virus to susceptible cattle over a period of 2-6 days post-infective feeding. virus was isolated from the recipient animals in 5 out of 7 cases. the clinical disease recorded in the animals exposed to infected mosquitoes was generally of a mild nature, with only one cas ...200111349983
genome of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a member of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of an important disease of cattle in africa. here we report the genomic sequence of lsdv. the 151-kbp lsdv genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 2.4 kbp-inverted terminal repeats and contains 156 putative genes. comparison of lsdv with chordopoxviruses of other genera reveals 146 conserved genes which encode proteins involved in transcription and mrna biogenesi ...200111435593
lumpy skin disease in southern africa: a review of the disease and aspects of control.this article reviews some of the important aspects of lumpy skin disease (lsd) that may impact on its successful control. a resurgence of the disease in the last decade has highlighted some constraints of the neethling strain vaccine, but there is no evidence of vaccine breakdowns owing to the presence of heterologous field strains. more research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of lsd in south africa to formulate control measures.200111513262
alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease virus.in our institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. however, the availability of lambs in kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years. this has led to an increase in the cost of using primary lamb testis cells. this study was undertaken to investigate other primary cell lines, which are easily available and provide an equivalent or better yield of lumpy skin disease virus. foetal bovine muscle (fbm) ce ...200111585094
the genome of swinepox virus.swinepox virus (swpv), the sole member of the suipoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a worldwide disease specific for swine. here we report the genomic sequence of swpv. the 146-kbp swpv genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 3.7-kbp inverted terminal repeats and contains 150 putative genes. comparison of swpv with chordopoxviruses reveals 146 conserved genes encoding proteins involved in basic replicative functions, viral virulence, host range, a ...200211752168
importance of thymidine kinase activity for normal growth of lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling).in order to study the importance of an intact thymidine kinase (tk) gene for the vaccine strain of a southern african capripoxvirus, namely, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (type sa-neethling), a tk disruption recombinant was generated expressing the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) reporter gene. a comparative growth study of the recombinant and wild-type (wt) lsdv in tk-positive primary and secondary cells and tk-negative secondary cells was performed. it was found that although reco ...200211958465
long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine.cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent rpv 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully pro ...200212002554
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle.rabies virus (rv) readily infects cattle and causes a fatal neurological disease. a stable vaccine, which does not require the maintenance of a cold chain and that is administered once to elicit lifelong immunity to rabies would be advantageous. the present study describes the construction of a live recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) vaccine, expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus (rg) and assessment of its ability to generate a humoral and cellular immune response against rabies v ...200212034095
comparative sequence analysis of the south african vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of lumpy skin disease virus.the genomic sequences of 3 strains of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz. the south african vaccine strain (lw), a virulent field-strain from a recent outbreak in south africa (ld), and the virulent kenyan 2490 strain (lk). a comparison between the virulent field isolates indicates that in 29 of the 156 putative genes, only 38 encoded amino acid differences were found, mostly in the variable terminal regions. when the attenuated ...200312827464
evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a capripoxvirus with a host range limited to ruminants, was evaluated as a replication-deficient vaccine vector for use in non-ruminant hosts. by using the rabies virus glycoprotein (rg) as a model antigen, it was demonstrated that recombinant lsdv encoding the rabies glycoprotein (rlsdv-rg) was able to express rg in both permissive (ruminant) and non-permissive (non-ruminant) cells. the recombinant lsdv, however, replicated to maturity only in permissive but not ...200312867628
attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects.the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae), the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans linnaeus (diptera: muscidae) and the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (lsd) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). these arthropods were then allowed to refeed on susceptible cattle at various intervals after the infective f ...200312941014
vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus capripoxvirus. strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (lsd) and sheep ...200314677686
differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and pcr-rflp of p32 gene.sheep pox and goat pox are highly contagious viral diseases of small ruminants. these diseases were earlier thought to be caused by a single species of virus, as they are serologically indistinguishable. p32, one of the major immunogenic genes of capripoxvirus, was isolated and sequenced from two indian isolates of goat poxvirus (gpv) and a vaccine strain of sheep poxvirus (spv). the sequences were compared with other p32 sequences of capripoxviruses available in the database. sequence analysis ...200415215685
genome of deerpox virus.deerpox virus (dpv), an uncharacterized and unclassified member of the poxviridae, has been isolated from north american free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) exhibiting mucocutaneous disease. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of two pathogenic dpv isolates, w-848-83 (w83) and w-1170-84 (w84). the w83 and w84 genomes are 166 and 170 kbp, containing 169 and 170 putative genes, respectively. nucleotide identity between dpvs is 95% over the central 157 kbp. w83 and ...200515613325
excretion of lumpy skin disease virus in bull semen.this work was done to establish the incidence and duration of excretion of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) in semen of experimentally infected susceptible bulls. six serologically negative bulls 11-20 months of age were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate (strain v248/93) of lsdv. animals were observed for the development of clinical signs, blood was collected until day 90 after infection, and semen was collected every second day until day 18, then twice a week till day 63 and ...200515725437
immune responses to recombinants of the south african vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion.the south african vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus (type sa-neethling) is currently being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines of economically important livestock diseases throughout africa. in this study, the feasibility of using the viral thymidine kinase gene as the site of insertion was investigated and recombinant viruses were evaluated in animal trials. two separate recombinants were generated and selected for homogeneity expressing either the structural glycoprotein ge ...200515811653
the detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a disease of cattle, primarily in africa and madagascar and rarely in the middle east. it is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family poxviridae. the disease is of economic importance in endemic areas. effective control of lsd requires accurate and rapid laboratory techniques to confirm a tentative clinical diagnosis. comparative studies on different diagnostic tests used at different stages of the disease have not been done. the aim of this study was to c ...200516137133
the current status of sheep pox disease.sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. the causative agent, sheep p ...200616458357
protective immune responses induced by different recombinant vaccine regimes to rift valley fever.the glycoprotein (gp) and nucleocapsid (nc) genes of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) were expressed in different expression systems and were evaluated for their ability to protect mice from virulent challenge using a prime-boost regime. mice vaccinated with a lumpy skin disease virus-vectored recombinant vaccine (rlsdv-rvfv) expressing the two rvfv glycoproteins (g1 and g2) developed neutralising antibodies and were fully protected when challenged, as were those vaccinated with a crude extract of ...200616870311
elimination of toxicity and enhanced detection of lumpy skin disease virus on cell culture from experimentally infected bovine semen samples.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a poxvirus of the genus capripoxvirus, is shed in the semen of infected bulls. the screening of semen for infectious virus requires a sensitive diagnostic method. the isolation of the virus on cell cultures and/or the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) are sensitive diagnostic tests which may be used to screen semen for lsd viral dna prior to artificial insemination. although cell culture detects infectious virus and is a sensitive method, there are major difficulti ...200617283726
improved method for the generation and selection of homogeneous lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling) recombinants.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines against diseases of veterinary importance. a strategy for generating viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene-disrupted recombinants which are stable and homogeneous using the south african neethling vaccine strain of lsdv as vector has been developed. to assist with the selection process, the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) visual marker gene was incorporated into the constructs. however, the use of lacz ...200717644196
absence of lumpy skin disease virus in semen of vaccinated bulls following vaccination and subsequent experimental infection.twelve serologically negative bulls were used, six were vaccinated with a modified live lsd vaccine and six unvaccinated. all were then experimentally infected with a virulent field strain of lsdv. no clinical abnormality was detected following vaccination, and mild clinical signs were seen in four vaccinated bulls following challenge. virus was not found in semen of vaccinated bulls. two of the unvaccinated bulls developed severe lsd and four showed mild symptoms, all excreted the virus in the ...200717250934
evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using bayesian method.the performance of indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) for serological diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease (lsd) was evaluated using methods without gold standard. virus neutralization test (vnt) was used as the second test and the study sites were selected from two different geographical places in ethiopia to get different disease prevalence. the analysis of conditional dependent bayesian model for the accuracy of ifat showed that sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of the pop ...200818242888
quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle.lumpy skin disease along with sheep pox and goatpox are the most serious poxvirus diseases of livestock, and are caused by viruses that belong to the genus capripoxvirus within the subfamily chordopoxvirinae, family poxviridae. to facilitate the study of lumpy skin disease pathogenesis, we inoculated eight 4- to 6-month-old holstein calves intravenously with lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) and collected samples over a period of 42 days for analysis by virus isolation, real-time pcr and light mic ...200818503511
the use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis.during 2006 and 2007 there were two outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (lsd) in israel. an lsd virus (lsdv)-specific pcr assay was developed that can detected specifically lsdv even though the number of tested lsdv isolates were limited. full-length sheep pox and lsdv genome sequences were aligned to find non-homologous regions, which were then used for preparing specific primers, whose specificity was tested against several lsdv dna isolates and the system could detect all the different isolates. ...200818582954
a heterologous prime/boost immunisation strategy protects against virulent e. ruminantium welgevonden needle challenge but not against tick challenge.heterologous prime/boost immunisation strategies using the ehrlichia ruminantium 1h12 pcmviubs_orfs [pretorius a, collins ne, steyn hc, van strijp f, van kleef m, allsopp ba. protection against heartwater by dna immunisation with four ehrlichia ruminantium open reading frames. vaccine 2007;25(12):2316-24] were investigated in this study. all the animals immunised twice with a recombinant (r) dna cocktail of four 1h12 pcmviubs_orfs followed by a r1h12 protein and those immunised 3x with 1h12 plas ...200818602727
appearance of skin lesions in cattle populations vaccinated against lumpy skin disease: statutory challenge.the ultimate goal of a vaccine is to protect vaccinated animals against re-exposure to the same pathogen and provide sterile immunity. however, a cutaneous clinical manifestation appeared, following re-exposure of cattle that had been vaccinated with the rm65 strain, to lsdv infection during an epidemic in 2006-2007. four thousand six hundred and seven vaccinated cows entered the study after being re-exposed to lsdv infection. of them, 513 (11%) presented lumps, and there was a marked difference ...200919186204
capripoxvirus g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination.the genus capripoxvirus within the family poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. this nomenclature is based on the animal species from which the virus was first isolated, respectively, goat, sheep and cattle. since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. we describe here the suitability of the g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (gpcr) gene ...200919339476
evaluation of different diagnostic methods for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cows.viral isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dot blot hybridization (dbh), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) were used for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in clinically infected, fevered, and apparently normal dairy cows. lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) was isolated from skin biopsies and blood samples collected from clinically infected cows in percentages of 72% and 20%, respectively. the virus recovered from blood samples collected from fevered cows in percentage ...201019882228
serodiagnosis of sheeppox and goatpox using an indirect elisa based on synthetic peptide targeting for the major antigen p32.sheeppoxvirus (sppv), goatpoxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. despite the considerable threat that these viruses pose to livestock production and global trade in sheep, goats, cattle and their products, convenient and effective serodiagnostic tools are not readily available. toward this goal, two synthetic peptides corresponding to th ...201020854693
real time pcr method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses.the genus capripoxvirus (capv) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. capv infections produce similar symptoms in sheep and goats, and the three viruses cannot be distinguished serologically. since there are conflicting opinions regarding the host specificity of capvs, particularly for goatpox and sheeppox viruses, the development of rapid genotyping tools will facilitate mor ...201021029751
a potential role for ixodid (hard) tick vectors in the transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important cattle disease. the disease is endemic in many african countries, but outbreaks have also been reported in madagascar and the middle east. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ixodid (hard) ticks in the transmission of the disease. cattle were infected with a virulent, south african field isolate of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). three common african tick species (genera rhipicephalus, amblyomma and rhipicephalus ( ...201021114790
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses.in egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (lsd) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. in the present study 15 skin nodules from lsd suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (sp) suspected sheep were collected. hyperimmune rabbit sera to lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv)/ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (spv)/ kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. the causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence ...201021221919
sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.the objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of lsdv. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supe ...201019055553
a novel candidate hiv vaccine vector based on the replication deficient capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv).abstract: background: the capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) has a restricted host-range and is being investigated as a novel hiv-1 vaccine vector. lsdv does not complete its replication cycle in non-ruminant hosts. methods: the safety of lsdv was tested at doses of 10e4 and 10e6 plaque forming units in two strains of immunocompromised mice, namely rag mice and cd4 t cell knockout mice. lsdv expressing hiv-1 subtype c gag, reverse transcriptase (rt), tat and nef as a polyprotein (grt ...201121624130
detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic dna in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an egyptian outbreak in 2006.an outbreak of lumpy skin disease (lsd) was reported in 2006 in egypt affecting 16 provinces. biopsies and post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves that showed typical clinical signs of lsd and fixed in formalin. these samples were collected from a private dairy farm in the damietta province of egypt. formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were assessed using histology, and skin lesions were classified as either acute or subacute/chronic. both lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv ...201121699673
common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.this review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. while the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine ab ...201121733134
the antiviral activity of six south african plants traditionally used against infections in ethnoveterinary medicine.viral infections remain a major threat to humans and animals and there is a crucial need for new antiviral agents especially with the development of resistant viruses. the hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of six plant species selected for their traditional use against infections were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parainfluenza virus-2 (cpiv-2), feline herpesvirus-1 (fhv-1) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). all extract ...201121982126
the utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in egypt.an outbreak of lumpy skin disease (lsd) occurred among cattle and water buffaloes in egypt in 2006. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and the agar gel precipitation test (agpt) were compared. eight of ten (80%) tissue specimens from diseased cattle were positive with agpt while 100% were positive with pcr. of ten tissue specimens from diseased water buffaloes, 70% were positive with agpt while 100% were positive with pcr. ten milk samples were obtained from diseased water buffaloes; pcr detected n ...201122435194
differentiation of sheeppox and goatpox viruses by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.in the present study, the partial gene sequences of p32 protein, an immunogenic envelope protein of capripoxviruses (capv), were analyzed to assess the genetic relationship among sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates, and restriction enzyme specific pcr-rflp was developed to differentiate capv strains. a total of six goatpox virus (gtpv) and nine sheeppox virus (sppv) isolates of indian origin were included in the sequence analysis of the attachment gene. the sequence analysis revealed a high degr ...201223271576
mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.abstract: lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a severe viral disease of cattle. circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods. we compared the importance of transmission via direct and indirect contact in field conditions by using mathematical tools. we analyzed a dataset collected during the lsd outbreak in 2006 in a large dairy herd, which included ten separated cattle groups. outbreak dynamics and risk factors for lsd were assessed by a transm ...201222236452
development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsdna intercalating dye.sheep pox virus (sppv), goat pox virus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are very closely related viruses of the capripoxvirus (capv) genus of the poxviridae family. they are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. the epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some capvs are not strictly host-specific. additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-saharan countries which complicates the iden ...201324116084
detection of capripoxvirus dna using a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. they are double stranded dna viruses of the genus capripoxvirus, (subfamily chordopoxvirinae) within the family poxviridae. the aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the detection of capripoxvirus (capv) dna.201323634704
evidence of vertical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important acute or sub-acute disease of cattle that occurs across africa and in the middle east. the aim of this study was to assess whether rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks were able to transmit lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) transovarially. uninfected, laboratory-bred r. decoloratus larvae were placed to feed on experimentally infected "donor" cattle. after completion of the life cycle on donor animals, fully engorged adult female ticks were harveste ...201323545323
detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle.lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), which belongs to the genus capripoxvirus. it is endemic in africa and outbreaks have also been reported in the middle-east. transmission has mostly been associated with blood-feeding insects but recently, the authors have demonstrated mechanical transmission by rhipicephalus appendiculatus as well as mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial transmission by amblyomma hebraeum. ...201323456606
mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by rhipicephalus appendiculatus male ticks.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important, acute or sub-acute, viral disease of cattle that occurs across africa and in the middle east. the aim of this study was to investigate if lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) can be transmitted mechanically by african brown ear ticks (rhipicephalus appendiculatus neum.). laboratory-bred r. appendiculatus males were fed on experimentally infected viraemic 'donor' cattle. partially fed male ticks were then transferred to feed on an uninfected 'reci ...201322717050
seminal transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in heifers.it is known that lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) can be shed in bull semen following infection and also that artificial insemination (ai) poses a biosecurity risk. however, it is not known whether the use of lsdv infected semen in ai poses a biosecurity risk. the aim of this study was to investigate whether lsdv, transmitted through semen, can infect cows and their embryos. two controlled trials were performed simultaneously. eleven young beef heifers, naïve to lsdv, were synchronized using an o ...201423289592
transovarial passage and transmission of lsdv by amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus decoloratus.lumpy skin disease (lsd), an acute, sub-acute or inapparent disease of cattle, is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a member of the genus capripoxvirus in the family poxviridae. lsd is characterised by high fever, formation of circumscribed skin lesions and ulcerative lesions on the mucous membranes of the mouth, respiratory and digestive tracts. it is an economically important disease due to the permanent damage to hides, the reduction in productivity and trade restrictions imposed on ...201423975564
evidence of lumpy skin disease virus over-wintering by transstadial persistence in amblyomma hebraeum and transovarial persistence in rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks.lumpy skin disease is a debilitating cattle disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), belonging to the genus capripoxvirus. epidemics of the disease usually occur in summer, when insect activity is high. limited information is available on how lsdv persists during inter-epidemic periods. transmission of lsdv by mosquitoes such as aedes aegypti has been shown to be mechanical, there is no carrier state in cattle and the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of the disease seems to be ...201423975563
seroprevalence of rift valley fever and lumpy skin disease in african buffalo (<i>syncerus caffer</i>) in the kruger national park and hluhluwe-imfolozi park, south africa.rift valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in africa and some parts of the middle east, but with increasing potential for global emergence. wild ruminants, such as the african buffalo (syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. this study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) by determining seroprevalence to t ...201428235305
characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in africa. the disease is currently spreading aggressively in the near east, posing a threat of incursion to europe and asia. due to cross-protection within the capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (sppv) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). in the middle east and the horn of africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattl ...201424973760
development of an assay to differentiate between virulent and vaccine strains of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv).lumpy skin disease (lsd) was and still is a constant threat to the state of israel, since the first outbreaks in 1989 and in 2006-2007. recently, another massive outbreak occurred, at the beginning of july 2012, in the northern part of israel. an intensive vaccination campaign with a sheeppox-based vaccine was initiated, in addition to culling symptomatic animals in the dairy herds. in spite of this, there was a need to apply extra efforts to completely contain and control the spread of the dise ...201424462845
demonstration of lumpy skin disease virus infection in amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks using immunohistochemistry.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a member of the genus capripoxvirus. transmission of the virus has been associated with haematophagous insects such as stomoxys calcitrans as well as aedes and culex species of mosquitoes. recent studies have reported the transmission of the virus by amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks and the presence of lsdv in saliva of a. hebraeum and r. appendiculatus ticks. the aim of th ...201424287140
seroprevalence of rift valley fever and lumpy skin disease in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park and hluhluwe-imfolozi park, south africa.rift valley fever and lumpy skin disease are transboundary viral diseases endemic in africa and some parts of the middle east, but with increasing potential for global emergence. wild ruminants, such as the african buffalo (syncerus caffer), are thought to play a role in the epidemiology of these diseases. this study sought to expand the understanding of the role of buffalo in the maintenance of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) by determining seroprevalence to t ...201425686252
lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral dna in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in africa and the near and middle east. several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). the aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus ...201425468765
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
the novel capripoxvirus vector lumpy skin disease virus efficiently boosts modified vaccinia ankara human immunodeficiency virus responses in rhesus macaques.poxvirus vectors represent promising human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) vaccine candidates and were a component of the only successful hiv vaccine efficacy trial to date. we tested the immunogenicity of a novel recombinant capripoxvirus vector, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), in combination with modified vaccinia ankara (mva), both expressing genes from hiv-1. here, we demonstrated that the combination regimen was immunogenic in rhesus macaques, inducing high-magnitude, broad and balanced cd4(+ ...201424866849
capripox disease in ethiopia: genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of the genus capripoxvirus (capv) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. these viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. in ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (ks1-o180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are f ...201525907637
six host-range restricted poxviruses from three genera induce distinct gene expression profiles in an in vivo mouse model.host-range restricted poxviruses make promising vaccine vectors due to their safety profile and immunogenicity. an understanding of the host innate immune responses produced by different poxvirus vectors would aid in the assessment, selection and rational design of improved vaccines for human and veterinary applications. novel avipoxviruses are being assessed to determine if they are different from other poxvirus vectors. analysis of the transcriptome induced in a mouse model would aid in determ ...201526153454
geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of african wildlife.the role of african wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. in africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. the indigenous african pathogens with transboundary potential, such as rift valley fever virus, african horse sickness virus, ...201526470454
genetic diversity of fusion gene (orf 117), an analogue of vaccinia virus a27l gene of capripox virus isolates.the fusion gene (orf 117) sequences of twelve (n = 12) capripox virus isolates namely sheeppox (sppv) and goatpox (gtpv) viruses from india were demonstrated for their genetic and phylogenetic relationship among them. all the isolates were confirmed for their identity by routine pcr before targeting orf 117 gene for sequence analysis. the designed primers specifically amplified orf 117 gene as 447 bp fragment from total genomic dna extracted from all the isolates. sequence analysis revealed a si ...201525663144
detection of capripoxvirus dna using a field-ready nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr platform.capripoxviruses, comprising sheep pox virus, goat pox virus and lumpy skin disease virus cause serious diseases of domesticated ruminants, notifiable to the world organization for animal health. this report describes the evaluation of a mobile diagnostic system (enigma field laboratory) that performs automated sequential steps for nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr to detect capripoxvirus dna within laboratory and endemic field settings. to prepare stable reagents that could be deployed i ...201526608662
a lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an il-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in africa and asia. currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. one of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), ks-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. however, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy sk ...201526341190
comparison of the efficacy of neethling lumpy skin disease virus and x10rm65 sheep-pox live attenuated vaccines for the prevention of lumpy skin disease - the results of a randomized controlled field study.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a viral disease of cattle and buffalo, caused by a capripox virus. a field study was performed during an lsd epidemic which occurred in 2012-2013 in israel, in order to assess the efficacy of two commercial vaccines for protection against lsd. fifteen dairy herds, vaccinated 2-5 months prior to study onset with a single dose of 10(2.5) tcid50 of rm65 attenuated sheep-pox vaccine, and not affected previously, were enrolled in the study. 4694 cows were randomized to be ...201526238726
evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (lsd) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. the three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) neethling and kenyan sheep and goat pox (ksgp) o-180 strain vaccines) and a gorgan goat pox (gtp) vacc ...201526056063
evidence of transstadial and mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by amblyomma hebraeum ticks.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important disease caused by lsd virus (lsdv), a capripoxvirus, characterized by fever and circumscribed skin lesions. it is suspected to be transmitted mechanically by biting flies. to assess the vector potential of amblyomma hebraeum in transmission of lsdv, mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial modes of transmission of the virus by this tick species were investigated. two cattle were artificially infected as sources (donors) of infection to ticks. ...201523702314
adverse reactions to field vaccination against lumpy skin disease in jordan.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an emerging disease in the middle east region and has been recently reported in jordan. the aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administr ...201625098267
complete genome sequences of the neethling-like lumpy skin disease virus strains obtained directly from three commercial live attenuated vaccines.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) causes an economically important disease in cattle. here, we report the complete genome sequences of three lsdv strains obtained directly from the live attenuated vaccines: lumpyvax (msd animal health), herbivac ls (deltamune) and lumpy skin disease vaccine (onderstepoort biological products).201627834707
g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor gene in lumpy skin disease virus isolates from cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in egypt.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), sheep poxvirus (spv) and goat poxvirus (gpv) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. in this study, we analysed the g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (gpcr) genes of lsdv isolates from cattle and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in egypt during the summer of 2011. multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the water buffalo lsdv isolate differed from the cattle isolate at four nucleotide positions, and both isolates had nine nucleotide ...201625754131
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is a capripoxvirus infecting cattle and buffalos. lumpy skin disease (lsd) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertility and mortalities (10 %). early detection of the virus is crucial to start appropriate outbreak control measures. veterinarians rely on the presence of the characteristic clinical signs of lsd. laboratory diagnostics including virus isolation, sequencing and real-time polymerase chain ...201627806722
spatial and temporal epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in the middle east, 2012-2015.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is an infectious disease of cattle that can have severe economic implications. new lsd outbreaks are currently circulating in the middle east (me). since 2012, severe outbreaks were reported in cattle across the region. characterizing the spatial and temporal dynamics of lsdv in cattle populations is prerequisite for guiding successful surveillance and control efforts at a regional level in the me. here, we aim to model the ecological niche of lsdv and identify ep ...201626973845
epidemiological study of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in north-western iran.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a highly contagious transboundary disease of cattle with major economic losses. this study was undertaken to address the emergence and epidemiological features of lsd in four north-western provinces of iran. these provinces have extensive borders with others country including iraq, turkey, azerbaijan and armenia. a population of 683 cattle from 91 farms were examined during lsd outbreak in iran during 2014-2016. the information of the farms including the population si ...201627633121
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