seasonal cycle and physiological correlates of pinealocyte nuclear and nucleolar diameters in the bats, myotis lucifugus and myotis sodalis. 1976955388
comparative skeletogenesis of the forearm of the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus) and the norway rat (rattus norvegicus).this study describes, quantifies, and compares the growth and development of the volant forelimb morphology of myotis lucifugus with that of the terrestrial forelimb morphology of rattus norvegicus. in m. lucifugus there is 1) accelerated growth in forearm length after parturition, 2) cessation in growth of the midshaft diameter of the ulna just after the onset of osteogenesis, 3) proximal fusion of the radius and ulna, which results in the radius occupying 97% of the articular surface of the el ...19921474596
patterns of plasma sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroxine and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to reproductive state and hibernation in female little brown bats.a sex hormone-binding globulin (shbg), which bound both oestradiol and dihydrotestosterone, was studied in the plasma of adult female little brown bats throughout the annual reproductive cycle. this protein was present at low baseline levels from september to may inclusive, months which correspond to the periods of hibernation, ovulation and early pregnancy. during the second half of pregnancy in june, shbg levels increased 15- to 30-fold and remained increased throughout lactation and anoestrus ...19911900322
bat rabies in illinois: 1965 to 1986.from 1968 to 1986, illinois (usa) citizens and agencies submitted 4,272 bats to the illinois department of public health for rabies testing. of this number, 6% tested positive, a rate comparable to similar studies from other parts of north america. due to sampling biases, the true infection rate among bats in illinois is probably lower than 6%. additional analysis relied on a subsample (n = 2,433) of the specimens collected from 1965 to 1986. prevalences were significantly different among years, ...19892915390
rabies in insectivorous bats of western canada, 1979 to 1983.a total of 1,745, 362, and 536 bats collected in alberta, british columbia, and saskatchewan, respectively, was tested for rabies virus between 1979 and 1983. only one (0.1%) of 769 bats collected at random from buildings was infected with rabies virus in contrast to 95 (5%) of 1,874 symptomatic, rabies-suspect bats submitted for testing. the pattern of infection in the rabies-suspect bats was similar in alberta and saskatchewan, but differed in british columbia. rabies was diagnosed in four spe ...19863735577
bat rabies in canada 1963-1967.six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this institute for rabies diagnosis between august 1, 1963 and december 31, 1967. brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from ontario, 12 from british columbia and three from manitoba. most of the ...19694242773
antigenicity, toxicity and cross-reactions of male bat (myotis lucifugus) reproductive organs. 19714994571
reservoir of st. louis encephalitis virus in ohio bats.inoculation of the big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) with a small dose of a st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus strain isolated in ohio indicated that the big brown bat was susceptible to infection. the virus was maintained in the bats through hibernation (70 days), and the bats developed a viremia within 4 days of arousal from hibernation (105 days after inoculation). a field survey of 390 big brown bats and little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) conducted in 5 regions of ohio during 1979 to 1981 r ...19836638648
effects of dde and pcb (aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus): lethal brain female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in north east, cecil county, md. mealworms (tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm dde, 12 at 150 ppm dde, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb; aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm pcb. seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. the objective was to elevate brain levels of dde and pcb to lethality and measure these concentrations. ...19816790723
cytomegalovirus in the principal submandibular gland of the little brown bat, myotis the course of a large scale study of salivary gland ultrastructure in chiropterans, enlarged cells infected with numerous virus particles were encountered in some acinar cells in the principal submandibular glands of two of 34 little brown bats (myotis lucifugus). the characteristic morphology of the viruses, together with the cytomegaly that they induced, led to their identification as cytomegalovirus (cmv). in a reversal of the situation in other animal species, bat virus particles within c ...19968729075
climate-mediated energetic constraints on the distribution of hibernating predict the consequences of human-induced global climate change, we need to understand how climate is linked to biogeography. energetic constraints are commonly invoked to explain animal distributions, and physiological parameters are known to vary along distributional gradients. but the causal nature of the links between climate and animal biogeography remain largely obscure. here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts the feasibility of mammalian hibernation under different climatic ...200212124621
comparative patterns of postcranial ontogeny in therian mammals: an analysis of relative timing of ossification on the relative sequence of ossification of postcranial elements for eight therian mammals (myotis lucifugus, homo sapiens, rattus norvegicus, mus musculus, mesocricetus auratus, cavia porcellus, didelphis albiventris, and sminthopsis macroura) and three outgroups (chelydra serpentina, alligator mississippiensis, and lacerta vivipara) were taken from the literature. for each species, a matrix was constructed in which the relative timing of the onset of ossification in 24 elements was summar ...200212362432
transmission of a street rabies virus strain (r-174) from the cave bat (myotis lucifugus) to the tick (ornithodoros) by blood feeding: a preliminary report. 195613277316
studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in insectivorous bats. i. role of brown adipose tissue.studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected insectivorous chiroptera, the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida mexicana), a quasi hibernator, and the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus), a deep hibernator, provided evidence that brown adipose tissue may serve as an extraneural site for storage and multiplication of rabies virus. although the mexican free-tailed bat proved to be relatively insusceptible to experimental rabies infection, virus was demonstrated in t ...195913835624
a new virus, "mml", enzootic in bats (myotis lucifugus) of montana. 196414198669
transmission of a strain of rabies virus to the large brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) and to the cave bat (myotis lucifugus). 195114849156
effects of nasal instillation of virus strains of newcastle disease virus into the cave bat (myotis lucifugus). 195114878130
west nile virus antibodies in bats from new jersey and new york.eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (eptesicus fuscus), little brown (myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (myotis septentriotalis) bats (chiroptera: vespertilionidae), from new jersey and new york (usa) between july and october 2002. samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus. one little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for wnv neutralizing antibodies. no bats had antibodies ...200415362837
neorickettsia risticii is vertically transmitted in the trematode acanthatrium oregonense and horizontally transmitted to bats.potomac horse fever is known to be transmitted through the ingestion of caddisflies parasitized with neorickettsia (formerly ehrlichia) risticii-infected metacercaria. however, the species of trematode involved and how n. risticii is maintained in nature are unknown. in this study, gravid trematodes were recovered from the intestines of 12 out of 15 eptesicus fuscus big brown bats and eight out of nine myotis lucifugus little brown bats from various sites in pennsylvania, usa. trematode specimen ...200515658987
use of artificial roost structures by bats at the indianapolis international airport.from 1992-1996, 3204 artificial roosts of 9 types were placed in woodlots near indianapolis international airport in an effort to provide habitat for the federally-endangered indiana myotis (myotis sodalis) and to determine the feasibility of using these structures to manage bats in a rapidly developing suburban area. we surveyed these structures at least annually during 1992-1999 and found only northern myotis (myotis septentrionalis) regularly using the structures. four other species were occa ...200616622759
prevalence of cryptosporidium species in wildlife populations within a watershed landscape in southeastern new york state.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium in wildlife in the new york city (nyc) watershed in southeastern new york state. a total of 6227 fecal samples were collected and evaluated from 5892 mammals (38 species), 263 birds (14 species), 2 reptiles (2 species), 8 amphibians (4 species), and 62 fish (15 species). cryptosporidium was detected in 30 species. of the species found positive for cryptosporidium, 16 represented new records for this parasite-alo ...200717466459
p38 mapk regulation of transcription factor targets in muscle and heart of the hibernating bat, myotis lucifugus.mammalian hibernation combines a profound net metabolic rate suppression with the selective up-regulation of key genes whose protein products address specific metabolic needs of the hibernator. the signal transduction pathways and transcription factors involved in regulating hibernation-responsive gene expression are of great interest. the present study suggests an important role for the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 mapk) and selected downstream transcription factors under its contr ...200717487931
mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (gh) sequences. characterization of the gh-encoding genes of armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), bat (myotis lucifugus), hyrax (procavia capensis), shrew (sorex araneus), ground squirrel (spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (loxodonta africana), cat (felis catus) and opossum (monodelphis domestica).mammalian growth hormone (gh) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. however, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of gh ...200817574247
low rates of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated heart mitochondria associate with long maximum lifespan in vertebrate inverse correlation between free radical production by isolated mitochondria and longevity in homeotherms has been reported, but previous comparative studies ignored possible confounding effects of body mass and phylogeny. we investigated this correlation by comparing rates of hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) production by heart mitochondria isolated from groups or pairs of species selected to have very different maximum lifespans but similar body masses (small mammals, medium-sized mammals, bird ...200717596208
comparative analysis of expression and secretion of placental leptin in mammals.increased plasma level of leptin appears to be a ubiquitous feature of pregnant mammals. the mechanisms by which leptin levels are increased may be species specific, however, with some species upregulating adipose leptin production and others expressing leptin in the placenta. placental leptin expression was examined in representative species of the two most abundant mammalian orders, rodentia and chiroptera, and in cultured human choriocarcinoma (bewo) cells. leptin mrna was expressed in bewo c ...200312702488
morphogenesis in bat wings: linking development, evolution and ecology.the evolution of powered flight in mammals required specific developmental shifts from an ancestral limb morphology to one adapted for flight. through studies of comparative morphogenesis, investigators have quantified points and rates of divergence providing important insights into how wings evolved in mammals. herein i compare growth,development and skeletogenesis of forelimbs between bats and the more ancestral state provided by the rat (rattus norvegicus)and quantify growth trajectories that ...200818163246
six new eimeria species from vespertilionid bats of north america.twenty species of bats (molossidae, vespertilionidae) were collected from california, new mexico, oregon, south carolina, utah, and baja california norte (mexico), and 29 of 404 (7%) animals, including antrozous pallidus, eptesicus fuscus, myotis auriculus, myotis californicus, myotis ciliolabrum, myotis evotis, myotis lucifugus, myotis thysanodes, myotis vivesi, myotis volans, myotis yumanensis, and nycticeius humeralis were infected with eimeria spp., which represent 6 new species. sporulated ...199910386443
eimeria from bats of the world: two new species from myotis spp. (chiroptera: vespertilionidae).between 1986 and 1995, 548 fecal samples were collected from 41 species of bats (molossidae, mormoopidae, phyllostomidae, thyropteridae, and vespertilionidae) from new mexico, california, baja california sur (mexico), and bolivia. of these, the feces of 28 (5%) bats, including antrozous pallidus, myotis ciliolabrum, myotis lucifugus, and myotis yumanensis (vespertilionidae), contained oocysts representing at least 3 species of eimeria. a new species of eimerian from m. lucifugus (3/27, 11%) and ...19979194833
repeated horizontal transfer of a dna transposon in mammals and other tetrapods.horizontal transfer (ht) is central to the evolution of prokaryotic species. selfish and mobile genetic elements, such as phages, plasmids, and transposons, are the primary vehicles for ht among prokaryotes. in multicellular eukaryotes, the prevalence and evolutionary significance of ht remain unclear. here, we identified a set of dna transposon families dubbed space invaders (or spin) whose consensus sequences are approximately 96% identical over their entire length (2.9 kb) in the genomes of m ...200818936483
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lh-rh) cells and their projections in the forebrain of the bat myotis lucifugus lucifugus.luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lh-rh) neurons and their projections were studied by immunocytochemistry in the brains of little brown bats (myotis lucifugus lucifugus: chiroptera: vespertilionidae ) as a first step in the study of relationships between these neurons and the seasonal reproductive events characteristic of this species. the majority of immunoreactive neurons in adult male, adult female, and fetal bats were ovoid bipolar cells with one thin and one thicker process, both of w ...19846372946
detection of polyoma and corona viruses in bats of canada.several instances of emerging diseases in humans appear to be caused by the spillover of viruses endemic to bats, either directly or through other animal intermediaries. the objective of this study was to detect, identify and characterize viruses in bats in the province of manitoba and other regions of canada. bats were sampled from three sources: live-trapped myotis lucifugus from manitoba, rabies-negative eptesicus fuscus, m. lucifugus, m. yumanensis, m. septentrionalis, m. californicus, m. ev ...200919357225
studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in insectivorous bats : ii. influence of environmental temperature.studies on the influence of environmental temperature on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected chiroptera, the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida mexicana) and the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus), provided evidence that little or no viral multiplication occurs in the inactive host during experimentally induced hibernation. when inoculated animals are wakened from hibernation by transfer to a warm room, virus previously in "cold storage" multiplies, reaching dete ...196019867178
control of sex steroid-binding protein (sbp) in the male little brown bat: relationship of plasma thyroxine levels to the induction of plasma sbp in immature males.the seasonally reproductive male little brown bat (myotis lucifugus lucifugus) exhibits marked increases in plasma concentrations of sex steroid-binding protein (sbp) in the spring following arousal from hibernation. in this species an increase in sbp levels is induced prematurely in male bats aroused during the first half of hibernation and housed under long photoperiods; however, this rise is inhibited in bats housed under short photoperiods. in order to investigate the physiological role of t ...19863746164
the little brown bat, m. lucifugus, displays a highly diverse v h, d h and j h repertoire but little evidence of somatic hypermutation.myotis lucifugus populations in northeastern us are being decimated by a fungal disease. since almost nothing is known about the immune system of bats, we are characterizing the immunoglobulin genes of bats. we show that m. lucifugus has a diverse v(h) gene repertoire comprised of five of the seven human v(h) gene families and an estimated 236v(h)3 genes. 95% of these germline vh3 genes differ in fr3. a comparison of 67 expressed v(h)3 genes with 75 germline v(h)3 genes revealed a mutation frequ ...201120547175
immunocytochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) in the brain of the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus).vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip)-like immunoreactivity has been examined in the brain of the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus, using light microscopic immunocytochemistry and the indirect antibody enzyme method of sternberger. animals were sacrificed at three different and discrete levels of physiological activity: euthermic, hypothermic and hibernating. the density and distribution of immunoreactive neurons and fibres was compared in the three animal groups with the aid of a computeriz ...19883047320
chiropteran types i and ii interferon genes inferred from genome sequencing traces by a statistical gene-family assembler.the rate of emergence of human pathogens is steadily increasing; most of these novel agents originate in wildlife. bats, remarkably, are the natural reservoirs of many of the most pathogenic viruses in humans. there are two bat genome projects currently underway, a circumstance that promises to speed the discovery host factors important in the coevolution of bats with their viruses. these genomes, however, are not yet assembled and one of them will provide only low coverage, making the inference ...201020663124
an emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common north american bat species.white-nose syndrome (wns) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern north america that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. first discovered in 2006 in new york state, wns is spreading rapidly across eastern north america and currently affects seven species. mortality associated with wns is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus), previously ...201020689016
fine structure of the conduction system and working myocardium in the little brown bat, myotis the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus, topography and ultrastructure of the sinus node and the atrioventricular (av) node resemble those in large mammalian hearts, except that the p cells in the sinus node are smaller than those in the bat av node or those in the sinus node of slower hearts (e.g., dog, man). despite rich innervation in the bat nodes, true neuromuscular synapses are rarely formed. bat working cardiocytes have a well developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, but otherwise resemble wor ...19761032029
antifungal testing and high-throughput screening of compound library against geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of geomycosis (wns) in bats.bats in the northeastern u.s. are affected by geomycosis caused by the fungus geomyces destructans (gd). this infection is commonly referred to as white nose syndrome (wns). over a million hibernating bats have died since the fungus was first discovered in 2006 in a cave near albany, new york. a population viability analysis conducted on little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), one of six bat species infected with gd, suggests regional extinction of this species within 20 years. the fungus gd is a ...201121399675
relationship between microvascular blood velocity and pressure blood cell velocity and diameter were measured in vessels of the wing of the unanesthetized bat (myotis lucifugus) from the supplying artery to the capillaries. these data were used to determine the manner in which velocity, shear rate, volume flow, and blood pressure depend on the vessel's hierarchical position within the vascular network. the results show that velocity decreases in an almost linear fashion as the capillary is approached but that the shear rate increases as one progresses d ...1977851203
specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.white-nose syndrome (wns) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern united states. the syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. to assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in ...201122140440
plasma progesterone concentrations in female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) during hibernation.monthly collections of hibernating little brown bats contained (1) nulliparous females with small uteri and no antral follicles, (2) nulliparous females with swollen uteri and mature follicles, and (3) parous females, which, despite obvious differences in reproductive status, had equivalent plasma progesterone values. during the principal study season, mean monthly progesterone concentrations (measured by radioimmunoassay) showed recurrent increases with an apparent periodicity of about 60 days, ...20123397958
classification of communication signals of the little brown bat.little brown bats, myotis lucifugus, are known for their ability to echolocate and utilize their echolocation system to navigate, and locate and identify prey. their echolocation signals have been characterized in detail but their communication signals are less well understood despite their widespread use during social interactions. the goal of this study was to develop an automatic classification algorithm for characterizing the communication signals of little brown bats. sound recordings were ...200616938995
leptin receptor expression increases in placenta, but not hypothalamus, during gestation in mus musculus and myotis addition to effects on appetite and metabolism, the hormone leptin is required for reproduction in mammals. maternal plasma leptin is increased above non-pregnant levels in all mammals thus far examined, including humans. the increase in plasma leptin appears to result in part from upregulation of adipose leptin secretion (e.g., in mice), or from production and secretion of leptin from the placenta (e.g., in humans and some bats). the placenta may also modulate maternal leptin levels via prod ...200415450389
ectoparasite associations of bats from central pennsylvania.between april and october 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at pennsylvania's canoe creek state park. each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. ectoparasites include the bat flea myodopsylla insignis (rothschild), the wing mite spinturnix americanus (banks), the bed bug cimex adjunctus barber, and the soft tick ornithodoros kelleyi cooley & kohls. prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity we ...200314765658
reduced free-radical production and extreme longevity in the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus) versus two non-flying mammals.the extended longevity of bats, despite their high metabolic rate, may provide insight to patterns and mechanisms of aging. here i test predictions of the free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging as an explanation for differences in lifespan between the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus (maximum lifespan potential mlsp=34 years), the short-tailed shrew, blarina brevicauda (mlsp=2 years), and the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus (mlsp=8 years) by comparing whole-organism oxygen co ...200414706233
bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears ursus americanus.disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. this net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. there is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disu ...200314581593
host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. white-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across north america and threatens several bat species with extinction. we examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmi ...025473016
multiple waves of recent dna transposon activity in the bat, myotis lucifugus.dna transposons, or class 2 transposable elements, have successfully propagated in a wide variety of genomes. however, it is widely believed that dna transposon activity has ceased in mammalian genomes for at least the last 40 million years. we recently reported evidence for the relatively recent activity of hat and helitron elements, two distinct groups of dna transposons, in the lineage of the vespertilionid bat myotis lucifugus. here, we describe seven additional families that have also been ...200818340040
food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats.we have observed recurring chlordane poisonings of large numbers of common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), european starlings (sturnus vulgaris), and american robins (turdus migratorius) at suburban roosts in new jersey during the month of july. this paper describes aspects of the food chain uptake of chlordane that account for the periodicity of these poisonings. chlordane concentrations ranged from < 0.02 to 20.3 microg/g wet weight in 11 soil samples collected from residential lawns and a golf ...200111243332
adaptive evolution of the hox gene family for development in bats and dolphins.bats and cetaceans (i.e., whales, dolphins, porpoises) are two kinds of mammals with unique locomotive styles and occupy novel niches. bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight in the sky, while cetaceans have returned to the aquatic environment and are specialized for swimming. associated with these novel adaptations to their environment, various development changes have occurred to their body plans and associated structures. given the importance of hox genes in many aspects of embr ...201323825528
protein kinase a from bat skeletal muscle: a kinetic study of the enzyme from a hibernating mammal.the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3'-5'-cyclic mono-phosphate-dependent protein kinase (pkac) was purified to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus. the purification procedure was highly reproducible, resulting in a final activity of 205 nmol phosphate transferred/min/mg protein at 22 degreesc. identification of the enzyme as a protein kinase a was confirmed through the use of specific pka inhibitors. the catalytic subunit had a molecular weight of 54.6 +/- ...19989841635
protein kinase c from bat brain: the enzyme from a hibernating mammal.protein kinase c (pkc) from brain of euthermic and hibernating bats (myotis lucifugus) showed only one form as determined by hydroxylapatite chromatography, compared with three forms found in rat brain. cross-reaction with antibodies to rabbit alpha, beta, and gamma isozymes showed that bat brain contained only pkc(gamma). during hibernation the activity of pkc in bat brain decreased to 63% of the euthermic value but the percentage that was membrane-associated did not change. bat and rat brain p ...19979185174
seasonal influences on the control of plasma sex hormone-binding globulin by t4 in male little brown bats.male little brown bats showed a well-defined seasonal cycle of plasma thyroxine (t4). total t4 concentrations increased during hibernation, reached peak levels in may at spring emergence, and subsequently declined to lowest levels in september. thyroxine-binding globulin (tbg) activity increased only in summer, and seasonal changes in non-tbg-bound t4 generally paralleled those of total t4. during the fall and early hibernation period, bats studied under feral conditions or following photoperiod ...19957771594
coding of directional information by single neurones in the s-segment of the fm bat, myotis lucifugus.1. response parameters of s-segment neurones of the fm bat myotis lucifugus were measured as a sound was delivered from different azimuthal angles around the animal's head. 2. the response parameters investigated were the amplitude and threshold of the evoked potential (n3) of the s-segment, together with the threshold, latency and number of impulses (per stimulus pulse) of single units. 3. all the neurones studied had their lowest thresholds either at 20-40 degrees contralateral, or 20-40 degre ...19807420015
medial pterygoid muscle activity during the closing and compressive phases of human mastication.the lack of specific data correlating activity in the human medial pterygoid muscle with displacement of the jaw during mastication, and the hint of possible differences in function between certain mammalian species, prompted a study of unilateral mastication in six adult subjects. muscle activity in the medial pterygoid, masseter, and anterior temporal muscles was recorded simultaneously with three-dimensional movement of an incisor point on the mandible. signals from muscles and displacement t ...19817270663
distribution and size of boettcher cells in the little brown bat, rabbit, and other species.the distribution and size of boettcher cells were determined from serial sections of the temporal bones of four little brown bats and six rabbits. in addition, one harp seal and one two-toed sloth were examined. in the little brown bat, the heights of the boettcher cells measured 4-8 micron and they were found throughout much of the length of the cochlea. there were four rows in most of the lower basal coil, five rows in the upper basal coil, and four rows in the middle coil. in the rabbit there ...19836670760
brain opioid receptors in the hibernating bat, myotis lucifugus: modification by low temperature and comparison with rat, mouse and hamster.several studies have provided evidence that brain opioid peptides may be involved in the control of the hibernation cycle. we have now examined the influence of hibernation on central opioid receptors. we have characterized the receptor binding properties of [3h]-naloxone in slices of the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus of the bat myotis lucifugus. these receptors possess those characteristics expected of an opioid site namely high affinity, stereospecificity and saturability. under normal incu ...19863022305
temperatures and locations used by hibernating bats, including myotis sodalis (indiana bat), in a limestone mine: implications for conservation and management.understanding temperatures used by hibernating bats will aid conservation and management efforts for many species. a limestone mine with 71 km of passages, used as a hibernaculum by approximately 30,000 bats, was visited four times during a 6-year period. the mine had been surveyed and mapped; therefore, bats could be precisely located and temperatures (t (s)) of the entire hibernaculum ceiling accurately mapped. it was predicted that bats should hibernate between 5 and 10 degrees c to (1) use t ...200717874161
energetic benefits of enhanced summer roosting habitat for little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) recovering from white-nose syndrome.habitat modification can improve outcomes for imperilled wildlife. insectivorous bats in north america face a range of conservation threats, including habitat loss and white-nose syndrome (wns). even healthy bats face energetic constraints during spring, but enhancement of roosting habitat could reduce energetic costs, increase survival and enhance recovery from wns. we tested the potential of artificial heating of bat roosts as a management tool for threatened bat populations. we predicted that ...201627293749
skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species are resistant to some, but not all, lethal stresses and to the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone.fibroblast cell lines were developed from skin biopsies of eight species of wild-trapped rodents, one species of bat, and a group of genetically heterogeneous laboratory mice. each cell line was tested in vitro for their resistance to six varieties of lethal stress, as well as for resistance to the nonlethal metabolic effects of the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone and of culture at very low glucose levels. standard linear regression of species-specific lifespan against each species mean stress ...200717156084
inhibition of trophoblast invasiveness in vitro by immunoneutralization of leptin in the bat, myotis lucifugus (chiroptera).in addition to effects on metabolism and appetite, leptin is a reproductive hormone produced and secreted by the placenta of many, but not all mammalian species. in mice, in which the placenta does not secrete leptin, exogenously added leptin stimulates invasiveness of early (but not late)-gestation trophoblast cells. we report a similar phenomenon occurs in myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis), a species in which the placenta synthesizes and secretes leptin. immunoneutralization of endogenous ...200716938297
uniform myosin isoforms in the flight muscles for little brown bats, myotis lucifugus.the present study used muscle histochemistry and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of native myosin and myosin heavy chains to establish a correlation, if any, between chiropteran histochemical fiber types and myosin isoform composition. histochemical analysis of the primary flight muscle, the pectoralis profundus, documented the presence of a single histochemical fiber type, here termed type ii. electrophoresis of native myosin isolated from pectoralis muscle yielded a single isoform that comi ...199118323017
comparative biology of aging.virtually, all research on basic mechanisms of aging has used species that are short lived and thus demonstrably unsuccessful at combating basic aging processes. a novel comparative approach would use a diversity of populations and species, focusing on those with particularly long, healthy lives, seeking the causative mechanisms that distinguish them from shorter lived relatives. species of interest from this perspective include the naked mole rat, a mouse-size rodent that lives up to 30 years i ...200919223603
auditory spatial sensitivity of inferior collicular neurons of echolocating bats.the sensitivity of 94 inferior collicular (ic) neurons of eptesicus fuscus and myotis lucifugus to spatial location of the acoustic stimulus were studied under free-field stimulus conditions. the best frequency (bf) and minimum threshold (mt) of each neuron were determined with sound delivered in front of the bat. then the variation in discharge rate of the neuron was measured with a bf sound broadcast from a moving loudspeaker at different angular positions along the horizontal, vertical or dia ...20123409031
piggybac-ing on a primate genome: novel elements, recent activity and horizontal better understand the extent of class ii transposable element activity in mammals, we investigated the mouse lemur, microcebus murinus, whole genome shotgun (2x) draft assembly. analysis of this strepsirrhine primate extended previous research that targeted anthropoid primates and found no activity within the last 37 myr. we tested the hypothesis that members of the piggybac class ii superfamily have been inactive in the strepsirrhine lineage of primates during the same period. evidence again ...201020624734
environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats.white-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern north america, but disease is not seen in european bats and is less severe in some north american species. we show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival ...201627152322
the effects of cutaneous fatty acids on the growth of pseudogymnoascus destructans, the etiological agent of white-nose syndrome (wns).white nose syndrome (wns) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (myotis lucifugus), indiana (myotis sodalis), northern (myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (perimyotis subflavus) bats. it is caused by a cutaneous infection with the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd). big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) are much more resistant to cutaneous infection with pd, however. we thus conducted analyses of wing epidermis from hibernating e. fuscus and m. lucifugus to determine ...201627070905
morphology of the nasal cavities and associated structures in artibeus jamaicensis and myotis lucifugus. 20164812217
a morphometric study of the cochlea of the little brown bat (myotis lucifugus).a detailed morphometric study of the basilar membrane was made from serial sections and graphic reconstructions of the cochlea of three little brown bats. four distinct morphometric changes were observed within the basilar membrane. first, between 0-1.4 mm from the basal end of the cochlea, there is a rapid increase in width and cross-sectional area of the basilar membrane. secondly, between 1.4-2.5 mm, there is little change in width of the basilar membrane (its cross-sectional area is at its g ...1989313453
complete genome sequence of sphingobacterium sp. strain ml3w, isolated from wings of myotis lucifugus infected with white nose syndrome.sphingobacterium sp. strain ml3w was isolated from the wing of a bat infected with white nose syndrome. we report the complete 5.33-mb genome sequence of sphingobacterium sp. strain ml3w, obtained using pacific biosciences technology. being the second complete sphingobacterium sequence, this will increase knowledge of the genus.201525614576
massive amplification of rolling-circle transposons in the lineage of the bat myotis lucifugus.rolling-circle (rc) transposons, or helitrons, are a newly recognized group of eukaryotic transposable elements abundant in the genomes of plants, invertebrates, and zebrafish. we provide evidence for the colonization of a mammalian genome by helitrons, which has not been reported previously. we identified and characterized two families of helitrons in the little brown bat myotis lucifugus. the consensus sequence for the first family, helibat1, displays the hallmarks of an autonomous helitron, i ...200717261799
the expansion and functional diversification of the mammalian ribonuclease a superfamily epitomizes the efficiency of multigene families at generating biological novelty.the ribonuclease (rnase) a superfamily is a vertebrate-specific gene family. because of a massive expansion that occurred during the early mammalian evolution, extant mammals in general have much more rnase genes than nonmammalian vertebrates. mammalian rnases have been associated with diverse physiological functions including digestion, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis, male reproduction, and host defense. however, it is still uncertain when their expansion occurred and how a wide array of functions ...024162010
oxidative stress in vascular senescence: lessons from successfully aging species.cardiovascular disease is a main cause of morbidity and a leading cause of death of elderly americans. studies identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular aging hold promise to develop treatments to delay/prevent coronary artery disease and stroke in the elderly. evidence supporting the roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in the cardiovascular aging process is presented in detail in this review. mammalian lifespan ranges hundred-fold and we propose that long-li ...200818508570
activation of innate immune-response genes in little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) infected with the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans.recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals and, in the northern americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. however, despite these catastrophic events little information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long ...201425391018
identification of diverse groups of endogenous gammaretroviruses in mega- and microbats.a previous phylogenetic study suggested that mammalian gammaretroviruses may have originated in bats. here we report the discovery of rna transcripts from two putative endogenous gammaretroviruses in frugivorous (rousettus leschenaultii retrovirus, rlrv) and insectivorous (megaderma lyra retrovirus, mlrv) bat species. both genomes possess a large deletion in pol, indicating that they are defective retroviruses. phylogenetic analysis places rlrv and mlrv within the diversity of mammalian gammaret ...201222694899
overwintering of rabies virus in silver haired bats (lasionycteris noctivagans).silver-haired bats, (lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. despite the species rarity, the l. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (rabv) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the us. unlike big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), l. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. it is unknown if rabv can overwinter in hibernating l. noctiv ...201627195489
susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.rabies virus (rabv) maintenance in bats is not well understood. big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), and mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the united states. these colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. however, the silver-haired bat (lasionycteris noctivagans) rabv is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the united states and cana ...201323741002
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from colorado and new mexico, united states.we determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (rvna) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in colorado and new mexico, united states in 2003-2005. a subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus rna in saliva. we sampled little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in larimer county, colorado; big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in morgan county, colorado; and big brown bats at five mat ...201323568912
naturally occurring rabies virus and neutralizing antibody in two species of insectivorous bats of new york colonies of eptesicus fuscus , the big brown bat, and five colonies of myotis lucifugus , the little brown bat, in new york state were sampled for rabies virus and virus-neutralizing antibody. eight of 278 e. fuscus were found to have virus, while 18 of 187 had antibody titers of ≥1:8. one of 333 m. lucifugus yielded virus, while three of 127 had antibody. these data demonstrate the presence of rabies virus as well as immunity to rabies in some insectivorous bats of new york state. evaluat ...197724228955
prevalence and distribution of pseudogymnoascus destructans in michigan bats submitted for rabies surveillance.since 2006, bat populations in north america have suffered devastating mortality from an emerging disease known as white-nose syndrome (wns). the causal agent of wns is the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans. in april 2014, wns was discovered in little brown bats ( myotis lucifugus ) in michigan, and has since been documented in 12 counties. because current surveillance for wns focuses primarily on mine-hibernating species in winter, it is subject geographic, species, and seasonal bias. to inve ...201728318379
immune responses in hibernating little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) with white-nose syndrome.white-nose syndrome (wns) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in north america. pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for wns, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. the immune response that pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by pd, but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. to understand how bats respond to infection during hiber ...201728179513
pharmacokinetics of terbinafine in little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) infected with pseudogymnoascus destructans.objective to determine the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine in little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) infected with pseudogymnoascus destructans. animals 123 bats from a p destructans-infected hibernation site in virginia. procedures 3 bats were euthanized and necropsied to confirm the presence of p destructans within the population. the remaining 120 bats were systematically assigned to 6 groups (20 bats/group). bats in each of 3 groups received 6, 20, or 60 mg of terbinafine/kg, sc, once daily ...201728029293
resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion.increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. we combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. we found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting po ...201727920389
conservation implications of physiological carry-over effects in bats recovering from white-nose syndrome.although it is well documented that infectious diseases can pose threats to biodiversity, the potential long-term consequences of pathogen exposure on individual fitness and its effects on population viability have rarely been studied. we tested the hypothesis that pathogen exposure causes physiological carry-over effects with a pathogen that is uniquely suited to this question because the infection period is specific and time limited. the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose sy ...201627641049
metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three north american bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. the importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including ebola, marburg, nipah, hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (sars-cov), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity ( ...201020926577
first detection of bat white-nose syndrome in western north america.white-nose syndrome (wns) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by pseudogymnoascus destructans. since it was first detected near albany, ny, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern north america, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. the devastating impacts of wns on nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of p. destructans from eurasia to naive host populations in eastern north america. since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pa ...201727504499
white-nose syndrome and wing damage index scores among summer bats in the northeastern united states.white-nose syndrome (wns) adversely affects millions of bats hibernating in caves of the eastern united states. beginning in 2009, the us fish and wildlife service supported use of a wing damage index (wdi) scoring system (scale of 0 to 3, or no damage to severe) to assess wing damage of bats captured during summer. based on bat captures at 459 mist net sites in pennsylvania, new york, maryland, virginia, and new jersey, usa, we questioned whether wdi scores varied by species group, date, and di ...201121269995
sex and hibernaculum temperature predict survivorship in white-nose syndrome affected little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus).white-nose syndrome (wns), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated north american bat populations since its discovery in 2006. the little brown myotis, myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. the goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on wns survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. in study 1, ...201526064604
glycerophospholipid profiles of bats with white-nose syndrome.pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white-nose syndrome (wns) and massive mortalities of cave-dwelling bats. the fungus infects bat epidermal tissue, causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by p. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. while bat surface lipid a ...201726052639
invasion dynamics of white-nose syndrome fungus, midwestern united states, 2012-2014.white-nose syndrome has devastated bat populations in eastern north america. in midwestern united states, prevalence increased quickly in the first year of invasion (2012-13) but with low population declines. in the second year (2013-14), environmental contamination led to earlier infection and high population declines. interventions must be implemented before or soon after fungal invasion to prevent population collapse.201525989230
white-nose syndrome disease severity and a comparison of diagnostic methods.white-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans and has killed millions of hibernating bats in north america but the pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood. our objectives were to (1) assess non-destructive diagnostic methods for p. destructans infection compared to histopathology, the current gold-standard, and (2) to evaluate potential metrics of disease severity. we used data from three captive inoculation experiments involving 181 little brown bats ...201626957435
a case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. traditional population viability analyses (pva) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. recent studies of evolutionary rescue (er) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. er models have focused on shifting geneti ...201525808080
modeling the environmental growth of pseudogymnoascus destructans and its impact on the white-nose syndrome epidemic.white-nose syndrome (wns) has had a devastating effect on north american bat populations. the causal agent of wns is the fungal pathogen, pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd), which has been shown to persist in caves after the eradication of host populations. as nonpathogenic pseudogymnoascus spp. display saprophytic growth and are among the most commonly isolated fungi from caves, we examined whether pd could grow in cave sediments and the contribution such growth could have to wns disease progres ...201525588008
up-regulation of fatty acid-binding proteins during hibernation in the little brown bat, myotis lucifugus.hibernating animals rely primarily on lipids throughout winter as their primary fuel source, thus it is hypothesized that an increase in genes and proteins relating to lipid transport will increase accordingly. the cloning and expression of heart type fatty acid-binding protein (h-fabp) from a mammalian hibernator, the little brown bat myotis lucifugus, is presented. northern blot analysis revealed that transcript levels of h-fabp were significantly higher during hibernation in brown adipose tis ...200414732491
the white-nose syndrome transcriptome: activation of anti-fungal host responses in wing tissue of hibernating little brown myotis.white-nose syndrome (wns) in north american bats is caused by an invasive cutaneous infection by the psychrophilic fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd). we compared transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression using rna-seq on wing skin tissue from hibernating little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) with wns to bats without pd exposure. we found that wns caused significant changes in gene expression in hibernating bats including pathways involved in inflammation, wound healing, and metabolis ...201526426272
conspecific disturbance contributes to altered hibernation patterns in bats with white-nose syndrome.the emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome (wns) affects both physiology and behaviour of hibernating bats. infection with the fungal pathogen pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd), the first pathogen known to target torpid animals, causes an increase in arousal frequency during hibernation, and therefore premature depletion of energy stores. infected bats also show a dramatic decrease in clustering behaviour over the winter. to investigate the interaction between disease progression and torp ...201525484358
white-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with pseudogymnoascus destructans infection.white-nose syndrome (wns) has devastated bat populations in north america, with millions of bats dead. wns is associated with physiological changes in hibernating bats, leading to increased arousals from hibernation and premature consumption of fat reserves. however, there is evidence of surviving populations of little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) close to where the fungus was first detected nearly ten years ago.201626949407
host, pathogen, and environmental characteristics predict white-nose syndrome mortality in captive little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus).an estimated 5.7 million or more bats died in north america between 2006 and 2012 due to infection with the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (wns) during hibernation. the behavioral and physiological changes associated with hibernation leave bats vulnerable to wns, but the persistence of bats within the contaminated regions of north america suggests that survival might vary predictably among individuals or in relation to environmental conditions. to invest ...201425409028
white-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.white-nose syndrome (wns) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern united states and canada. white-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans (pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. previous work has shown that wns-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently ...201324502712
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