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plaque formation by alphavirus (getah) in culex mosquito cells.plaques were formed by getah virus (an alphavirus) which had been grown in bhk cells and passaged once in culex cells before inoculation of culex cell cultures. plaques were not produced either by getah or japanese encephalitis (je) viruses which had been passaged only in bhk cells. plaque counts in culex cell monolayers were almost the same as in bhk cells.197717288
interspecies interactions of arboviruses. iii. competition for virus envelope antigens in mixed getah and sindbis virus populations.interactions of getah and sindbis virus populations in mixed infections of 5 tissue systems were competitive or neutral. the type of interaction is regulated by the host cell and virus population density. on reproduction in mouse brains and spev cell cultures the mixed population exhibited antigenic markers of getah virus; in syrian hamster kidney and chick embryo cell cultures those of sindbis virus; and in chinese hamster kidney cell cultures the antigenic markers of both viruses. mixed popula ...197829465
alphaviruses in peninusular malaysia: i. virus isolations and animal serology.a survey of the activity of three alphaviruses (sindbis, getah and chikungunya) in peninsular malaysia was conducted between 1962 and 1970. serum samples were examined from 3,917 vertebrates representing a wide variety of wild and domestic animals throughout the peninsula for hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies. a total of 548,939 mosquitoes were collected from different habitats, including jungle, rural, suburban and urban areas, and the majority of the females taken were ex ...197834888
[comparative analysis of the morphogenesis of the getah virus in cell cultures of vertebrates and mosquitoes].reproduction of getah virus (the genus alphavirus) in piglet kidney (pk) and a. aegypti mosquito cell cultures was studied morphologically. inoculation of pk cells resulted in the development of a lytic infection. virus morphogenesis in these cells showed the features known for other alphaviruses. in mosquito cell cultures persistent infection developed which was not accompanied by any marked changes in morphology or proliferative activity of the culture. all the morphological and cytochemical d ...197934927
arbovirus infections in sarawak, october 1968-february 1970: getah virus isolations from mosquitoes.14 strains of getah virus were isolated from a variety of mosquito species collected in sarawak between october 1968 and february 1970. ten strains were isolated from c. tritaeniorhynchus 7 of them at k. tijirak. single strains were isolated from c. gelidus, c. pseudovishnui, m. bonneae/dives and aanopheles species. 6 of the isolates were obtained in october 1968 when japanese encephalitis, tembusu and sindbis viruses were also very active. the available evidence suggest that getah virus in sara ...1975238314
some biological and serological properties of large and small plaque variants of getah virus.two plaque types of getah virus were isolated on bhk-21 cells from an emulsion of suckling mouse brain infected with strain amm-2021 and were designated as large plaque (lp) and small plaque (sp) strains. some of the properties of lp and sp strains were studied with the following results. the difference in plaque size of the lp and sp strains was quite distinct on bhk-21 cells and there was little difference in size at the 3rd--8th serial passage level in suckling mouse brain. the lp strain sho ...1978678119
the distribution and prevalence of group a arbovirus neutralizing antibodies among human populations in southeast asia and the pacific islands.plaque reduction neutralization tests, using five group a arboviruses (chikungunya, ross river, getah, bebaru and sindbis), were done on sera from human populations in 44 southeast asia and pacific island localities. specificity of the plaque neutralization test was determined by examining convalescent sera from patients with known alphavirus infections. chikungunya-specific neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera of persons living in south vietnam, northern malaysia, indonesia (kalima ...19751155702
arbovirus infections in sarawak: the role of the domestic pig.the possible role of pigs as arbovirus maintenance hosts and their importance as amplifier hosts was studied. blood samples from 464 pigs of all ages collected in 1962 and 1964 were tested against 10 arboviruses. antibodies to japanese encephalitis and getah viruses were particularly prevalent and their calculated monthly infection rates were 19-5% and 13-3% respectively. in 1969, 447 pigs were bled monthly throughout the year and the infection rates for japanese encephalitis virus were calculat ...19761265821
isolation of getah virus from mosquitos collected on hainan island, china, and results of a serosurvey.an isolate of getah virus was obtained from culex mosquitos collected in mao'an village, baoting county, hainan province, china, in 1964. the virus (strain m-1) replicated in laboratory-bred aedes aegypti and cx. fatigans (= quinquefasciatus), and was transmitted by laboratory-bred ae. albopictus to healthy newborn albino mice. skeletal muscles of newborn albino mice experimentally infected with the virus showed degeneration, atrophy, necrosis, and inflammatory changes of muscle fibers. antibody ...19921338481
isolation of getah virus from dead fetuses extracted from a naturally infected sow in japan.three viruses producing a cytopathic effect in cell culture were isolated from dead fetuses extracted from a naturally infected sow, and were found to be serologically identical by neutralization tests. one of the viruses was cloned and named the sakura strain. the sakura strain was identified as getah virus by cross-neutralization tests.19911652864
effect of viral inoculum size on appearance of clinical signs in equine getah virus infection.a study was performed to examine the effect of viral inoculum size on the appearance of clinical signs in equine getah virus (gv) infection by intramuscular inoculation with 10(1.3) to 10(6.3) tcid50 of the mi-110 strain in 6 experimental horses. when inoculated with more than 10(3.3) tcid50 of the virus, every horse developed pyrexia, edema in the hind legs, serous nasal discharge, lymphopenia and viremia in the relatively early stage of disease. on the other hand, enlargement of the submandibu ...19911661174
intranasal infection of getah virus in experimental horses.aerosol transmission in equine getah virus (gv) infection was examined by intranasal inoculation with 10(3.0) to 10(7.0) tcid50 of the mi-110 strain in 7 experimental horses. the establishment of intranasal infection of gv was confirmed in all these horses by detecting serum neutralizing antibody against the mi-110 strain. horses inoculated with more than 10(4.0) tcid50 of the virus manifested mild pyrexia, eruptions, serous nasal discharge, lymphopenia or monocytosis. viremia ranging from 10(1. ...19911661175
susceptibility of pregnant hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit to the transplacental infection of getah virus. 19911665083
the relation between pathogenicity and plaque size of getah virus kanagawa strain in suckling mice.the relation among biological properties, particularly pathogenicity for suckling mice, and plaque size was studied in four virus strains: getah virus strain kanagawa; two strains obtained by plaque cloning of the kanagawa strain, getah kanagawa sp (g-k-sp) strain which forms small plaques (sp) only and strain g-k-lp which forms large plaques (lp) only; and strain haruna which forms sp only. there were no marked differences among the four strains in serological properties, growth curves and sens ...19902166851
polymyositis in mice experimentally inoculated with getah virus.mice inoculated intracerebrally with parent, large-plaque (lp) and small-plaque (sp) strains of kanagawa strain of getah virus showed clinically recumbency and paralysis. the lp strain caused recumbency more rapidly and killed mice more early after inoculation than the parent and sp strains. microscopically, skeletal muscles of the whole body were involved showing degenerative or inflammatory changes. in mice inoculated with the parent or sp strains, there were degeneration and necrosis of the m ...19902167996
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serological survey of getah virus in pigs. 19902167998
a dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of antibody to getah virus in horses. 19892818365
a fatal case in newborn piglets with getah virus infection: pathogenicity of the isolate. 19872828730
a fatal case in newborn piglets with getah virus infection: isolation of the virus. 19872828741
transplacental infection in mice inoculated with getah virus.transplacental transmission was demonstrated in pregnant mice subcutaneously inoculated with getah virus. viremia was shown in the infected dams, and high-titered virus was detected in the placenta and later in the fetus, suggesting virus invasion of the fetus through hematogenous infection of the placenta. high-titered virus was shown in the fetal brain and muscle and in the brain of the young dying soon after birth. intrauterine infection resulted in a reduction of the litter size, number of y ...19882836988
clinical and virological observations on swine experimentally infected with getah virus.the pathogenicity of getah virus for swine was examined. all 8 pigs (4 adults and 4 piglets) inoculated with strains mip-99 and mi-110 developed pyrexia ranging from 39.4 to 40.7 degrees c and anorexia. mild depression and diarrhea were observed in 2 of the 4 piglets. these clinical signs were transient. viremia occurred 1-2 days post-inoculation (p.i.) and the maximum titer was 10(3.0) tcid50 0.1 ml-1. the virus was recovered from a piglet autopsied on day 3 p.i. from spleen and various lymph n ...19882836997
pathogenicity for horses of original sagiyama virus, a member of the getah virus group.sagiyama virus is a member of the getah virus group. its pathogenicity for horses was examined. all the horses infected with the original 4 strains of sagiyama virus (m6/mag 33, mag 121, mag 132 and mag 258) developed pyrexia ranging from 39.0 to 40.0 degrees c. other clinical signs, characterized by eruptions, edema in the hind legs, enlargement of the submandibular lymph node and mild leukopenia, were also manifested. viremia occurred 1-4 days post-inoculation (p.i.). virus was recovered from ...19882847399
structural proteins of getah virus isolates from japan and malaysia.purified preparations of getah virus strains have been analysed by sodium-dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) to reveal their structural proteins. two envelope proteins (e1 and e2) and core protein (c) were found with the prototype amm2021 strain both under reducing and nonreducing conditions, while separation of e1 and e2 was observed only under nonreducing conditions for 3 strains isolated in japan. limited digestion by staphylococcus aureus v8 protease revealed diff ...19862873729
getah virus isolations from mosquitoes in an enzootic area in japan. 19862881020
getah virus isolations from mosquitoes collected at two horse habitations in the western areas of japan. 19862881021
reappearance of getah virus infection among horses in japan. 19852989599
regions of conservation and divergence in the 3' untranslated sequences of genomic rna from ross river virus isolates.the 3' untranslated (ut) sequences of the genomic rnas of five geographic variants of the alphavirus ross river virus (rrv) were determined and compared with the 3' ut sequence of rrv t48, the prototype strain. part of the 3' ut region of getah virus, a close serological relative of rrv, was also sequenced. the rrv 3' ut region varies markedly in length between variants. large deletions or insertions, sequence rearrangements and single nucleotide substitutions are observed. a sequence tract of 4 ...19863025449
experimental infection of getah virus in swine. 19883210480
getah virus in several species of mosquitoes.vector competence of aedes (ae.) vexans nipponii (nip.) and culex (cx) tritaeniorhynchus for getah virus was compared after incubation at 28 degrees c and 20 degrees c. marked differences existed between ae. vexans nip. strains sapporo and cx tritaeniorhynchus strain kyoto in infection and transmission rates following ingestion of blood meals containing several concentrations of getah virus. simultaneous comparison of infectivity also revealed that infection rates of ae. vexans nip. strains sapp ...19854082267
propagation of sindbis virus, murray valley encephalitis virus and getah virus. 19695779036
oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis of strains of getah virus isolated in japan and malaysia.eighteen strains of getah virus isolated from mosquitoes, swine and horses in japan (1956 to 1981), and one strain isolated in malaysia (1955), were analysed by rnase t1-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. all fingerprints showed a poly(a) tract. the fingerprint pattern of the malaysian strain was quite different from those of the japanese strains. although most of the recent japanese isolates shared many large oligonucleotide spots in common, the patterns were not identical even among the ...19846094708
isolation of getah virus from nueva ecija province, republic of the philippines. 19816117960
equine getah virus infection: isolation of the virus from racehorses during an enzootic in japan.a primary enzootic of equine getah virus infection involving 722 of 1,903 racehorses occurred at a training center in japan between september and november of 1978. sixty-two viral agents were isolated from the plasma of 209 sick horses which exhibited pyrexia with rectal temperatures ranging from 38.5--40 degrees c, urticarial rash on various portions of the body, and edema of the hind legs. the viruses were antigenically related to the amm 2021, haruna, and sagiyama strains of getah virus. infe ...19806254385
survey on antibody to getah virus in horses in japan.a seroepidemiological survey was performed on antibody against getah virus in horses in japan by the complement fixation test. the positive rate was 35 and 53% in two areas where an outbreak of the infectious disease was reported, whereas it was in a range of 3.3 to 24.2% in other areas, except in certain prefectures of the kyushu district where a high positive rate was observed. in the hokkaido district, the northernmost part of japan, no reactors were found in horses under 6 years old, unlike ...19806255345
an epidemic of getah virus infection among racehorses: isolation of the virus.during the autumn of 1978 a disease characterised by fever and occasionally by exanthema and/or oedema of the limbs was seen in approximately 13 per cent of horses in a training stable in the kanto district of japan. a virus was isolated by the intracerebral inoculation of one-day-old mice from blood and nasal swabs taken from naturally and experimentally infected horses. the virus was subsequently passaged in two monkey kidney cell lines in which it produced complete cytopathic changes. infecte ...19806258204
an epidemic of getah virus infection among racehorses: properties of the virus.a virus (sakai) which had been recovered from an outbreak of disease in horses was found to be a small spherical enveloped rna virus with a diameter of approximately 70 nm and a buoyant density of 1.22 g per ml. it grew well and produced a cytopathic effect in a variety of cell cultures; it was sensitive to organic solvents, heat and low ph. it agglutinated goose erythrocytes in a 0.35 m sodium chloride solution at an optimum ph of 6.2 and was antigenically identical or closely related to getah ...19806258205
effect on mice of infection during pregnancy with three australian arboviruses.infection of pregnant mice with ross river or getah viruses after the establishment of a functional placenta resulted in fetal infection with these viruses. however, only with ross river virus was there any significant fetal death. there was significant post-partum mortality in mice infected in utero with ross river but not with getah virus. in contrast, significant post-partum mortality occurred in murray valley encephalitis virus-infected mice despite the inability of the virus to cross the pl ...19816259957
pathogenicity of getah virus for mice.the sakai strain of getah virus isolated from a feverish horse was examined for pathogenicity for mice. its pathogenicity depended on the age of the host and the route of inoculation. intracerebral inoculation caused death to mice less than 9 days old. it induced retarded growth, insufficient hair growth, paralysis, and sporadic death in mice 11 days old, but no symptoms in mice 13 days old. the virus multiplied rapidly and extensively in every tested organ, particularly in the muscular tissue, ...19816264327
studies on the mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement of getah virus infectivity.inoculation on bhk-21 cells with getah virus sensitized with hyperimmune homologous mouse antiserum resulted in higher infective titers than those obtained with non-sensitized control virus. this phenomenon was not observed with vero cells. experiments were carried out on the mechanism of this enhancement with the following results. when bhk-21 cells were pretreated with a mixture of uv-irradiated virus and antiserum before inoculation, the enhancement of infectivity of getah virus was markedly ...19816272689
prevalence of antibodies against getah virus in horses raised in hokkaido. 19816276610
isolation of picornavirus from horses associated with getah virus infection. 19816279949
sero-epizootiological survey on getah virus infection in light horses in japan. 19816283217
studies on getah virus: some biological, physicochemical and antigenic properties of the mi-110 strain. 19826285055
equine getah virus infection: pathological study of horses experimentally infected with the mi-110 strain. 19826290732
getah virus in aedes vexans nipponii and culex tritaeniorhynchus: vector susceptibility and ability to transmit.vector competences of aedes (ae.) vexans nipponii (nip.) and culex (cx.) tritaeniorhynchus to getah virus were assessed by using a membrane feeding technique. the getah virus was present at high titer in both species of mosquitoes after 21 days of extrinsic incubation at 28 degrees c. infection rates on 21 post-feeding were 100 per cent (4/4) for ae. vexans nip. at a virus dosage of 10(5.3) pfu/ml and 60 per cent (3/5) for cx. tritaeniorhynchus at similar virus dosage. more than 10(3.5) pfu of v ...19836312927
viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in sri lanka.attempts to isolate viruses from 178,181 unengorged female mosquitoes collected from different ecologic areas of sri lanka yielded 31 isolates: 17 of japanese encephalitis (je) virus, nine of getah virus, three of a batai-related bunyavirus, and two of arkonam virus. culex tritaeniorhynchus and mansonia uniformis mosquitoes were found to carry je virus in a dry zone nonepidemic area, and cx. pseudovishnui was found to carry it in a wet zone nonepidemic area. japanese encephalitis virus was isola ...19947915499
inheritance of oral susceptibility of aedes aegypti to chikungunya virus.a colony of rosy eye mutants of aedes aegypti was established. this strain was refractory to chikungunya virus by oral route of infection when compared with the wild-type parent strain. the refractoriness of this strain seems to be due to a mesentronal barrier, since both the mosquito strains supported the multiplication of virus after intrathoracic inoculation. the rosy eye strain was also found to be refractory to sagiyama virus (alphaviridae: getah virus subtype) when compared with wild-type ...19947943547
kinetics and cross-reactivity of the virus-specific antibody-forming cells in mice during primary and secondary infection with japanese encephalitis virus and related flaviviruses.a modified antibody-forming cell assay was used to enumerate splenocytes secreting antibodies to japanese encephalitis (je) virus and four other flaviviruses in infected cells as the target antigens. the optimal viral antigen expression for the assay was standardized in the infected cells for each virus and the incubation time varied depending of the cell line and the virus. the kinetics of response of je virus-infected mice readily showed igg isotype switching. antibody-forming splenocytes of m ...19947962258
serological evidence for the transmission of getah virus in hong kong. 19948085315
effect of heparin on hemagglutination by pseudorabies virus.heparin inhibited hemagglutination (ha) by pseudorabies virus (prv), but not ha by akabane virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, fukuoka virus, getah virus, japanese encephalitis virus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 belonging to the families bunyaviridae, adenoviridae, rhabdoviridae, togaviridae, flavivi-idae, and paramyxoviridae, respectively. the minimal inhibitory concentration of heparin required to inhibit 8 ha u of prv ranged from 0.005 to 0.01 u/ml. mouse erythrocytes failed to combine with t ...19938381261
alphavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes recognize a cross-reactive epitope from the capsid protein and can eliminate virus from persistently infected macrophages.persistent alphavirus infections in synovial and neural tissues are believed to be associated with chronic arthritis and encephalitis, respectively, and represent likely targets for cd8+ alphabeta cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). here we show that the capsid protein is a dominant target for alphavirus-specific ctl in balb/c mice and that capsid-specific ctl from these mice recognize an h-2kd restricted epitope, qysggrfti. this epitope lies in the highly conserved region of the capsid protein, and ...19989573286
getah virus infection of indian horses.an outbreak of disease, characterized by depression, anorexia, fever, limb oedema and lymphocytopenia, occurred on a farm for thoroughbreds in india in 1990. twenty-six of the 88 horses on the farm were affected, predominantly adults. signs were present in affected horses for 7-10 days, and the outbreak lasted 21 days. seven of the 26 affected horses were tested for exposure to getah virus using paired serum samples, acute and convalescent. four of the 7 horses seroconverted to getah virus, and ...19989760716
interaction of poliovirus with its receptor affords a high level of infectivity to the virion in poliovirus infections mediated by the fc receptor.poliovirus infects susceptible cells through the poliovirus receptor (pvr), which functions to bind virus and to change its conformation. these two activities are thought to be necessary for efficient poliovirus infection. how binding and conformation conversion activities contribute to the establishment of poliovirus infection was investigated. mouse l cells expressing mouse high-affinity fcgamma receptor molecules were established and used to study poliovirus infection mediated by mouse antipo ...19999882307
seroepizootiological survey of japanese encephalitis virus and getah virus in regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in japan.a sero-epizootiological survey was conducted for japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and getah virus (gev) at 10 to 20 regional horse race tracks from 1991 to 1997 in japan. it was observed that geometrical mean (gm) antibody titer to jev and gev was 10 to 50 times higher than others at several race courses (rcs) almost every year. of them, several race horses showing high antibody titer, which were suggested to be infected with the virus, were also observed in this survey. these data suggested th ...199910487225
alpha/beta interferon protects adult mice from fatal sindbis virus infection and is an important determinant of cell and tissue tropism.infection of adult 129 sv/ev mice with consensus sindbis virus strain tr339 is subclinical due to an inherent restriction in early virus replication and viremic dissemination. by comparing the pathogenesis of tr339 in 129 sv/ev mice and alpha/beta interferon receptor null (ifn-alpha/betar(-/-)) mice, we have assessed the contribution of ifn-alpha/beta in restricting virus replication and spread and in determining cell and tissue tropism. in adult 129 sv/ev mice, subcutaneous inoculation with 100 ...200010708454
genome structure of sagiyama virus and its relatedness to other alphaviruses.sagiyama virus (sag) is a member of the genus alphavirus in the family togaviridae, isolated in japan from mosquitoes in 1956. we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the sag genomic rna from the original stock virus which formed a mixture of plaques with different sizes, and that from a full-length cdna clone, psag2, infectious rna transcripts from which formed uniform large plaques on bhk-21 cells. the sag genome was 11698 nt in length exclusive of the 3' poly(a) tail. between the co ...200010769079
[isolation of getah virus (togaviridae, alfavirus) strains in north- eastern asia].fifteen strains of getah alfavirus were for the first time isolated from aedes and culex mosquitoes in yakutia, magadan region, buryatia, and khabarovsk region of the russian federation and in mongolia. the area of this virus dissemination in the above regions was steppe, mixed forest, northern taiga, and forest-tundra zones, reaching the tundra zone in the north. getah virus is the only alfavirus occurring under such severe climatic conditions.200011107647
getah virus as an equine pathogen.getah virus is a member of the genus alphavirus in the family togaviridae and has been frequently isolated from mosquitoes. seroepizootiologic studies indicate that the virus is mosquito-borne and widespread, ranging from eurasia to southeast and far eastern asia, the pacific islands, and australasia. the natural host animal of the virus was not known until the first recognized occurrence of getah virus infection among racehorses in two training centers in japan in 1978. outbreaks of clinical di ...200011219353
arbovirus of marine mammals: a new alphavirus isolated from the elephant seal louse, lepidophthirus macrorhini.a novel alphavirus was isolated from the louse lepidophthirus macrorhini, collected from southern elephant seals, mirounga leonina, on macquarie island, australia. the virus displayed classic alphavirus ultrastructure and appeared to be serologically different from known australasian alphaviruses. nearly all macquarie island elephant seals tested had neutralizing antibodies against the virus, but no virus-associated pathology has been identified. antarctic division personnel who have worked exte ...200111287559
genomic analysis of some japanese isolates of getah virus.using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and direct sequencing, capsid protein and non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) regions of sagiyama virus and eight getah virus strains were analysed. the viruses were isolated from malaysia and various areas of japan over a period of 30 years. based on the available published sequence data, oligonucleotide primers were designed for rt-pcr and the sequences were determined. our findings showed that though there were differences in the ...200111557154
evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses.partial e1 envelope glycoprotein gene sequences and complete structural polyprotein sequences were used to compare divergence and construct phylogenetic trees for the genus alphavirus. tree topologies indicated that the mosquito-borne alphaviruses could have arisen in either the old or the new world, with at least two transoceanic introductions to account for their current distribution. the time frame for alphavirus diversification could not be estimated because maximum-likelihood analyses indic ...200111581380
ross river virus transmission, infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review.ross river virus (rrv) is a fascinating, important arbovirus that is endemic and enzootic in australia and papua new guinea and was epidemic in the south pacific in 1979 and 1980. infection with rrv may cause disease in humans, typically presenting as peripheral polyarthralgia or arthritis, sometimes with fever and rash. rrv disease notifications in australia average 5,000 per year. the first well-described outbreak occurred in 1928. during world war ii there were more outbreaks, and the name ep ...200111585790
engineering of a sagiyama alphavirus rna-based transient expression vector.sagiyama virus (sagv), a strain of getah virus in the genus alphavirus in the family togaviridae, has a broad host range in vertebrates and invertebrates but is not pathogenic for humans. we engineered the sagv genome as an efficient transient expression vector using the full-length infectious cdna clone psag2 as the background. a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was used as a reporter gene and expressed from a subgenomic mrna. when the gfp gene was placed downstream of the intact capsid pro ...200211939577
isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes collected in northern vietnam.in response to recent increases in cases of pediatric encephalitis with unknown etiology in northern vietnam, surveillance for arbovirus activity was conducted in four provinces surrounding the city of hanoi during june 2002 and july-august 2004. a total of 20,615 mosquitoes consisting of 19 species in 1,122 pools were processed for virus isolation; virus isolates were obtained from 44 pools. sagiyama virus (11 isolates), getah virus (15 isolates), oya virus (13 isolates), and akabane virus (4 i ...200516103625
[use of getah virus for antiviral assay of human interferon].antiviral assay is used routinely for measuring the biological activity of interferon (ifn). however, the challenge viruses used in these assays are considered dangerous to the animal industry and pose a risk of human infection. for example, the vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) is an important exotic disease agent in domestic animals, and the sindbis virus provokes rash, arthralgia, and fever in humans. therefore, biosafety needs to be considered when antiviral assays are performed. we chose get ...200516557019
experimentally induced alterations in antigenic properties of an arbovirus serotype.antigenic properties of getah virus were monitored during 80 serial passages in vero tissue cultures. the parent virus lost its serotype identity by passage 80. a clone derived from the parent remained antigenically stable during passage. the experimentally induced antigenic alterations in getah virus were attributable to the tissue culture host selection of constituent subpopulations of virus with properties unlike those of the original parent. the marked differences in neutralization titers of ...197016557909
isolation and characterization of a sagiyama virus from domestic pigs.in 2002, a strain of sagiyama virus (sagv) designated ml/taiwan/02 was isolated from farmed pigs in taiwan. the nsp1 and e1 gene sequences of the ml/taiwan/02 strain shared 98.6 and 96.7% homology, respectively, with corresponding genes of a japanese strain of sagv. nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparison revealed this strain of sagv to be most closely related to getah virus, as opposed to its current classification as a subtype of ross river virus. to investigate the seroprevalence of sag ...200616617695
[isolation and identification of arboviruses in hebei province].to study the arboviruses carried by mosquitoes collected in hebei province.200616642220
epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to ross river virus in vertebrate sera.we describe the development of an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the sensitive and rapid detection of antibodies to ross river virus (rrv) in human sera and known vertebrate host species. this elisa provides an alternative method for the serodiagnosis of rrv infections.200616829622
phylogenetic analysis of buggy creek virus: evidence for multiple clades in the western great plains, united states of america.we present the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of buggy creek virus (bcrv), a poorly known alphavirus with transmission cycles involving a cimicid swallow bug (oeciacus vicarius) vector and cliff swallows (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (passer domesticus) as the principal avian hosts. nucleotide sequences of a 2,075-bp viral envelope glycoprotein-coding region, covering the entire pe2 gene, were determined for 33 bcrv isolates taken from swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies ...200616936062
laboratory transmission of japanese encephalitis, west nile, and getah viruses by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected near camp greaves, gyeonggi province, republic of korea 2003.we conducted experimental studies to evaluate mosquitoes captured in paju county, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, for their ability to transmit west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv), japanese encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, jev), and getah virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, getv) under laboratory conditions. both culex pipiens pallens coquillett and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles were highly susceptible to infection with wnv, with ...200617017248
the study transplacental chikungunya virus antibody kinetics, thailand.antibodies to chikungunya virus were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition assay in 33.6% of 2,000 infants' cord sera at delivery. follow-up of 24 seropositive infants showed that the half-life of antibody persistence was 35.5 days. chikungunya virus infection is common in thailand, and routine use of diagnostic assays is needed.200617283634
seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic rna of alphavirus-like rna viruses.plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to selectively suppress pathogens by production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activities. therefore, direct selections for antiviral compounds from plants can be used to identify new agents with potent antiviral activity but not toxic to hosts. here, we provide evidence that a class of compounds, seco-pregnane steroid glaucogenin c and its monosugar-glycoside cynatratoside a of strobilanthes cusia and three new pantasugar-glycosides of glauco ...200717470783
human muscle satellite cells as targets of chikungunya virus infection.chikungunya (chik) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. since 2005, the emergence of chik virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of chik disease in the indian ocean. clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. since the cellular targets of chik virus in humans are unknown, we studied t ...200717565380
genomic analysis of a chinese isolate of getah-like virus and its phylogenetic relationship with other alphaviruses.an alphavirus, m-1 strain, was isolated from a pool of culicine mosquitoes collected in hainan island of china during an arbovirus survey in 1964. in the present study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the m-1 strain using rt-pcr and race techniques. the m-1 genome is 11,690 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains two open reading frames (orfs) encoding four nonstructural proteins and five structural proteins, respectively. searches using blast and comparison analyses suggested ...200717570048
[molecular analysis on the capsid gene and 3' untranslation region of three getah viruses isolated in china].to compare the molecular characteristics of the capsid gene and 3' untranslation region (3'utr) of getah viruses (getv) isolated in hainan province and hebei province of china,the viral rnas were extracted from m1(hainan), hb0215-3 and hb0234(hebei) virus stocks. capsid gene segments and 3' utr segments from three strains of chinese getv were obtained by rt-pcr and then sequenced. the obtained nucleotide sequences were analyzed using the clustal x(1.8), dnastar, maga3.1 programs. the full-length ...200717894228
complete sequence characterization of isolates of getah virus (genus alphavirus, family togaviridae) from china.ten virus isolates belonging to species getah virus (getv) have been obtained during surveys for arboviruses in china since 1964. seven of these isolates (yn0540, yn0542, sh05-6, sh05-15, sh05-16, sh05-17 and gs10-2) were obtained during the current study. the full-length sequences of three chinese isolates (m1, isolated in 1964; hb0234, isolated in 2002; yn0540, isolated in 2005) were determined. the full-length sequences of these isolates were respectively 11 696, 11 686 and 11 690 nt, and sho ...200818474561
[molecular genetic analysis of a diversity of getah virus strains isolated from mosquitoes in the north-eastern asia].a molecular genetic study was performed of the getah virus strains isolated in russia (eastern siberia and far east) and mongolia. a phylogenetic analysis was made, by examining the nucleotide sequences of genome fragments that had been obtained by rt-pcr and that included the portions of the e1 and e2 surface glycoprotein genes and the 6k gene. a genetic diversity of getah virus strains in north-eastern asia is discussed.200818590127
where does bluetongue virus sleep in the winter? 200818752350
discovery of frameshifting in alphavirus 6k resolves a 20-year enigma.the genus alphavirus includes several potentially lethal human viruses. additionally, species such as sindbis virus and semliki forest virus are important vectors for gene therapy, vaccination and cancer research, and important models for virion assembly and structural analyses. the genome encodes nine known proteins, including the small '6k' protein. 6k appears to be involved in envelope protein processing, membrane permeabilization, virion assembly and virus budding. in protein gels, 6k migrat ...200818822126
[analysis of the genome of two getah virus strains (leiv 16275 mar and leiv 17741 mpr) isolated from mosquitoes in the north-eastern asia].the complete nucleotide consequences of two getah virus strains isolated in russia (leiv 16275 mar) and mongolia (leiv 17741 mpr) were first determined and analyzed. the nucleotide sequences of the gene of surface glycoprotein e2 and complete genome were used to establish the phylogenetic relations of the strains with other representatives of the semliki forest serocomplex. the study and reference strains of getah virus were shown to form its own cluster that was far away from other representati ...200819069790
distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern yunnan province, china.from july to september in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' n and 29 degrees 00' n latitude in the northwestern part of yunnan province, china. a total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using uv light traps at 59 sites. culex tritaeniorhynchus and anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. the density of mosquitoes as well as t ...200919196130
multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr for inclusive detection of major swine dna and rna viruses in pigs with multiple infections.multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr were developed to identify nine viruses in pigs with multiple infections. these viruses are: porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), suid herpesvirus 1, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), japanese encephalitis virus, porcine rotavirus a (porv-a), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and getah virus. these methods were shown to be high specificity and sensitivity. in the ...200919467264
[isolation and identification of arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of liaoning province, china].to isolate and identify arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of liaoning province.200919565849
serological survey of arthropod-borne viruses among wild boars in japan.a total of 90 blood samples were collected from wild boars in the kyushu region of japan, and a seroepidemiological survey for 7 arthropod-borne viruses was performed using hemagglutination inhibition tests. the individual seropositive rates for each virus were 52.2% for japanese encephalitis virus (jev), 47.8% for getah virus (getv), 13.3% for akabane virus, 10.0% for aino virus and less than 5% for bluetongue virus, chuzan virus and ibaraki virus. the results indicated that among the 7 viruses ...200919721358
mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau--focused on the qinghai area, china.an investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau, china from july to august in 2007. a total of 8,147 mosquitoes representing six species from three genera (aedes, culex, and anopheles) were collected in three locations (geermu city, altitude of 2,780 m; xining city, 2,200 m; minhe county, 1,700 m). six virus isolates were obtained including tahyna virus (tahv), liaoning virus, and culex pipiens pallens densovir ...201020348523
the neglected arboviral infections in mainland china.the major arboviral diseases in mainland china include japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever), and tick-borne encephalitis. these and other newly found arbovirus infections due to banna virus and tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in china. here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland china with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, ...201020436960
newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland china, in the last two decades.there are four principal arboviruses in mainland china. two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus), which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respective ...201121314994
probable non-vector-borne transmission of zika virus, colorado, usa.clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 american scientists contracted zika virus infections while working in senegal in 2008. one of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.201121529401
fatal human case of western equine encephalitis, uruguay.to the editor: the genus alphavirus (family togaviridae) comprises 29 viral species (1), grouped in at least 7 antigenic complexes by their serologic cross-reactivity (2). they are maintained in nature through enzootic cycles involving arthropods as vectors with subsequent amplification in small mammals or birds, and epizootic cycles between mosquitoes and large mammals such as horses or humans.201121529429
distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in yunnan province near the china-myanmar-laos border.abstract. economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of yunnan province in china, adjacent to several countries in southeast asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. we report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of china-myanmar-laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. seven ...201121540383
liao ning virus in china.abstract: background: liao ning virus is in the genus seadornavirus within the family reoviridae and has a genome composed of 12 segments of double-stranded rna (dsrna). it is transmitted by mosquitoes and only isolated in china to date and it is the only species within the genus seadornavirus which was reported to have been propagated in mammalian cell lines. in the study, we report 41 new isolates from northern and southern xinjiang uygur autonomous region in china and describe the phylogeneti ...201121649929
Genome scale phylogeny of the Alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin.The genus Alphavirus comprises a diverse group of viruses, including some that cause severe disease. Using full-length sequences of all known alphaviruses, we produced a robust and comprehensive phylogeny of the Alphavirus genus, presenting a more complete evolutionary history of these viruses compared to previous studies based on partial sequences. Our phylogeny suggests the origin of the alphaviruses occurred in the southern oceans and spread equally through the Old and New World. Since lice a ...201122190718
evaluation of the human host range of bovine and porcine viruses that may contaminate bovine serum and porcine trypsin used in the manufacture of biological products.current u.s. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are u.s. department of agriculture (usda) 9cfr tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9cfr requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9cfr testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. recent con ...201122000165
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
rapid molecular detection methods for arboviruses of livestock of importance to northern europe.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have been responsible for some of the most explosive epidemics of emerging infectious diseases over the past decade. their impact on both human and livestock populations has been dramatic. the early detection either through surveillance or diagnosis of virus will be a critical feature in responding and resolving the emergence of such epidemics in the future. although some of the most important emerging arboviruses are human pathogens, this paper aims to high ...201222219660
detection of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in tissues from stillborn piglets delivered by sows via natural farrowing.we detected torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 (ttsuv1 and ttsuv2) in tissue samples from 18 stillborn piglets using nested polymerase chain reaction. the detection rates of ttsuv1 and ttsuv2 were 78% and 50%, respectively, with 83% of the stillborn piglets positive for ttsuv1 or ttsuv2. ttsuv1 was detected highest in the liver (72%) followed by heart (56%), spleen (38%) and tonsils (38%) while ttsuv2 was detected highest in the tonsils (38%) followed by liver (33%), spleen (25%), and heart (17%). th ...201223271185
identification of a novel getah virus by virus-discovery-cdna random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd).the identification of new virus strains is important for the study of infectious disease, but current (or existing) molecular biology methods are limited since the target sequence must be known to design genome-specific pcr primers. thus, we developed a new method for the discovery of unknown viruses based on the cdna--random amplified polymorphic dna (cdna-rapd) technique. getah virus, belonging to the family togaviridae in the genus alphavirus, is a mosquito-borne enveloped rna virus that was ...201223268691
production of cloned nibs (nippon institute for biological science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout mgh miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the nibs breed as surrogates.nuclear transfer (nt) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates.201323581451
results of life-supporting galactosyltransferase knockout kidneys in cynomolgus monkeys using two different sources of galactosyltransferase knockout swine.various durations of survival have been observed in the xenotransplantation of life-supporting α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (galt-ko) porcine kidneys into nonhuman primates. although others have demonstrated loss of galt-ko-transplanted kidneys within 2 weeks, we have reported an average survival of 51 days with the cotransplantation of the kidney and vascularized thymus and an average of 29 days with the kidney alone. to determine the factors responsible for this difference in survival ...201425243512
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