PMID(sorted ascending)
high seasonal malaria transmission rates in the intermediate rainfall zone of sri lanka.malaria transmission was studied at nikawehera, a long-established farming village, located in the intermediate rainfall zone of sri lanka. observations were made over a 12-month period (october-september) that included the main rainy season which occurred during the north-east monsoon in november-january. anolpheles culicifacies, the recognized vector of malaria in sri lanka, was the predominant anopheline mosquito collected by human night baiting at nikawehera. high entomological inoculation r ...19921304700
malaria transmission at a new irrigation project in sri lanka: the emergence of anopheles annularis as a major vector.malaria transmission was studied in a newly irrigated area of the mahaweli project in the dry zone of sri lanka. observations were performed for a three-month period following the northeast monsoon. parasitemia in the population varied from 20.2% in february to 7% in may, and infection was due to both plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax. night catches of mosquitoes collected with human bait included a high proportion of anopheles annularis. mosquitoes containing sporozoites in the salivary glands ...19921449195
survey of adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during irrigation development in the mahaweli project, sri lanka.a survey of adult mosquitoes was done during 1986-1987 in an area undergoing irrigation development in the mahaweli project of sri lanka. the study encompassed two 12-mo phases of settlement and irrigation, respectively. diurnal human bait catches yielded 1,427 female mosquitoes in 27 species. nocturnal collections (human bait, cdc light traps, indoor resting catches) produced a total of 30,491 females in 67 species. comparisons with an earlier survey in the predevelopment forest showed that the ...19911678784
mosquito fauna of certain areas of deltaic west bengal--a preliminary report.survey of mosquito fauna in certain areas of deltaic bengal was conducted between september 1989 to february 1990. anopheles vagus predominated in canning study area and anopheles hyrcanus in budge budge. comparatively low densities of anopheles annularis were recorded from canning (6.05% of the total anophelines) and budge budge (7.36% of the total anophelines), respectively. c. vishnui, c. pseudovishnui and c. tritaeniorhynchus were collected from both canning and budge budge study areas. c. p ...19911680757
larval survey of surface water-breeding mosquitoes during irrigation development in the mahaweli project, sri lanka.a survey of ground water-breeding mosquitoes was done during 1986-1987 in an area undergoing irrigation development in the mahaweli project of sri lanka. forty-nine species were collected during the 12-mo phase of humans settlement and infrastructure construction, and 42 species during the succeeding 12-mo period under irrigated rice culture. development resulted in the elimination of some preexisting breeding habitats, the modification of others, and the creation of new habits. the overall chan ...19901977912
present status of susceptibility of anopheles annularis to different insecticides. 19892486986
vectors of japanese encephalitis virus (jev): species complexes of the vectors.the vectors of jev are cx. tritaeniorhynchus, cx. vishnui, cx. pseudovishnui, cx. gelidus, cx. fuscocephala, cx. quinquefasciatus, cx. pipiens pallens, cx. bitaeniorhynchus, cx. annulirostris, aedes togoi, ae. japonicus, ae. vexans nipponii, anopheles annularis and an. vagus. cx. tritaeniorhynchus is in the tritaeniorhynchus complex, breeds in rice fields, ground pools in vast areas. two types of mating behavior, eurygamy and moderate stenogamy were detected. in the case of the eurygamy type, th ...19892576966
hybridization, cytogenetic studies and genetics of ddt-resistance in anopheles annularis population in burma. 19862949004
field trial of the effectiveness of indoor-spraying with pirimiphos-methyl emulsion for malaria control in a tribal area of phulbani district, orissa state, india.a field trial of malaria vector control was conducted in phulbani district, orissa, during 1984 and 1985. indoor-spraying of pirimiphos-methyl emulsion formulation was undertaken at an application rate of 2 g/m2 in two sections (population 14,692) of nuagaon primary health centre. houses in two adjacent sections (population 21,450) were sprayed with ddt a water dispersible powder (wdp) formulation at 1 g/m2 for comparison purposes. operational problems in this area come from the tendency of trib ...19872979544
bacterial isolates from laboratory colonies of anopheles annularis. 19883241069
prevalence of winter forms of anopheles annularis v. d. wulp (diptera:culicidae) in keonjhar district of orissa. 19883268592
host preference of anopheles annularis in different biotopes. 19863569619
anopheles annularis as a vector of malaria in rural west bengal. 19853830747
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from anopheles annularis and anopheles vagus in lombok, indonesia.three strains of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were recorded from mosquitoes collected in lombok, indonesia, during march 1979, from pools of anopheles vagus, an. annularis and culex tritaeniorhynchus respectively. this is believed to be the first report of isolation of je virus from an. vagus. the frequencies of je viral infection in zoophilic anopheles species were higher than in cx tritaeniorhynchus, the principle vector of je virus in asia. the low frequency of infection in cx tritaeniorh ...19853832495
a note on adaptation of anopheles annularis van der wulp, kanchanaburi, thailand to free mating in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm cage. 19836673134
morphometrical variations in anopheles annularis. 19836677689
additional isolations of japanese encephalitis virus from the philippines.japanese encephalitis virus was isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex bitaenorhynchus and anopheles annularis mosquitoes collected from san jose, nueva ecija, south central luzon in the philippines. this is the second report of the isolation of the virus from mosquitoes in the philippine islands.19807221693
laboratory observations on the ovipositional preferences of anopheles annularis. 19807229317
successful laboratory colonization of anopheles annularis van der wulp, 1834. 19807451936
distribution and relative prevalence of anophelines in district south 24-parganas, west bengal, india.the anopheline survey of district south 24-parganas revealed presence of sixteen species including anopheles annularis, an. subpictus, an. fluviatilis, an. varuna, an. culicifacies and an. sundaicus known to be associated with malaria transmission in the country. a total of 14, 12 and 8 species were encountered in cattlesheds (cs) in contrast to 7, 5 and 4 species in human dwellings (hd) during monsoon, winter and summer respectively. the population density of anophelines in cs was significantly ...19947713266
postirrigation breeding patterns of surface water mosquitoes in the mahaweli project, sri lanka, and comparisons with preceding developmental phases.a 2-yr (1988-1989) survey of mosquitoes breeding in surface water was done in an area of the mahaweli project of sri lanka that underwent irrigation development and human settlement during the preceding 3 yr. in total, 78,649 immatures of 42 species were collected during the survey. species of medical importance in the area were anopheles annularis van der wulp, an. culicifacies giles, an. jamesii theobald, an. nigerrimus giles, an. subpictus grassi, an. vagus doenitz, an. varuna iyengar, manson ...19947932596
incrimination of anopheles annularis van der wulp-1854 as an epidemic malaria vector in bangladesh. 19937939958
insecticide susceptibility status of some anophelines in district bikaner, rajasthan.insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on the adults of four anopheline species namely. anopheles annularis, an. culicifacies, an. stephensi and an. subpictus against the diagnostic doses of six insecticides, viz. ddt (4.0%), dieldrin (0.4%), malathion (5.0%). fenitrothion (1.0%), propoxur (0.1%) and permethrin (0.25%) in district bikaner (rajasthan). a time dependent effect has been observed with each insecticide. all the four species were found resistant to ddt and dieldrin and suscep ...19968690127
mosquito breeding in relation to aquatic vegetation and some physico-chemical parameters in rice fields of central gujarat.mosquito breeding in relation to aquatic vegetation and certain physico-chemical parameters was studied in rice fields of kheda district in central gujarat. a total of 14 anopheline and 15 culicine species were encountered in close association with different types of aquatic vegetation in different proportions. among anophelines, anopheles annularis, an. nigerrimus, an. subpictus and an. tessellatus were of general distribution and were found associated with each aquatic vegetation. an. culicifa ...19968690130
environmental management for vector control. is it worth a dam if it worsens malaria?this article reports a seven-fold increase in the incidence of malaria among children living close to small dams in the tigray region of northern ethiopia compared with children in villages distant from the dams. despite the weakness of a case-control design, the authors of this study convincingly addressed the issue of confounders such as altitude, seasonality, and use of antimalarials. intensity of malaria transmission does not correlate directly with morbidity and mortality because of the mod ...010480801
incidence of malaria among children living near dams in northern ethiopia: community based incidence assess the impact of construction of microdams on the incidence of malaria in nearby communities in terms of possibly increasing peak incidence and prolonging transmission.010480820
investigation on malaria vectors and mosquito fauna in south tripura district, tripura an entomological study in south tripura district of tripura state during june 1998, a total of 31 species of mosquitoes belonging to eight genera were recorded. among the known malaria vectors in india, anopheles annularis, an. jeyporiensis, an. minimus, an. philippinensis/nivipes and an. varuna were collected but none of them could be incriminated. during the survey, aedes pallidostriatus and malaya genurostris were recorded for the first time in the north-eastern region and tripura state re ...199810497841
anopheline ecology and malaria transmission at a new irrigation project area (bargi dam) in jabalpur (central india).anopheline ecology and malaria transmission were studied in a newly irrigated area of the bargi project, district jabalpur, madhya pradesh, central india. observations were made for 2 years (1993-95) in 10 villages along the bargi irrigation canal, which are situated between 44 km (head end of canal) and 78 km (tail end of canal) from the dam site. anopheles annularis was the predominant species in the head-end villages and its abundance was directly related to the opening of the canal, whereas ...200011198914
'a mate or a meal'--pre-gravid behaviour of female anopheles gambiae from the islands of são tomé and príncipe, west africa.malaria prevalence differs between the two islands that comprise the archipelago of são tomé and príncipe. this may be due to differences in the biology of local anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the islands. survival rate and feeding frequency are two factors influencing vectorial capacity. anophelines generally feed just once per gonotrophic (oviposition) cycle. newly emerged insects, however, may feed two or more times during their first oviposition cycle thus increasing the likelihood of ...200312801421
sri lanka malaria maps.despite a relatively good national case reporting system in sri lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available.200312914667
pcr-rflp method for the identification of four members of the anopheles annularis group of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).the anopheles annularis group of mosquitoes is widely distributed in southeast asia and may be locally important as malaria vectors. members of this group are morphologically very similar and often difficult to distinguish, particularly a. nivipes and a. philippinensis. we report the sequence analysis of the rdna internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and domain-3 (d3) regions of the four members of the a. annularis group -a. nivipes, a. philippinensis, a. annularis and a. pallidus - and a method ...200716806334
molecular identification of mosquito species in the anopheles annularis group in southern asia.the anopheles annularis group of subgenus cellia theobald (diptera: culicidae) includes five currently recognized species in southern asia: an. annularis van der wulp, anopheles nivipes (theobald) and anopheles philippinensis ludlow, which are widespread in the region, anopheles pallidus theobald, which is known in sri lanka, india and myanmar, and anopheles schueffneri stanton, which occurs in java and sumatra. identification of the four mainland species based on morphology is problematic. in v ...200717373944
environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) larvae in sukabumi, west java, indonesia.a 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of anopheles species was conducted in sukabumi district, west java, indonesia. the study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained anopheles larvae. principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [anopheles aconitus doenitz, anopheles annularis van de wulp, anopheles bar ...200717695007
the resting sites and blood-meal sources of anopheles minimus in taiwan.the who declared taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies.200818538036
epochal changes in the association between malaria epidemics and el niño in sri lanka.el niño events were suggested as a potential predictor for malaria epidemics in sri lanka based on the coincidence of nine out of 16 epidemics with el niño events from 1870 to 1945. here the potential for the use of el niño predictions to anticipate epidemics was examined using enhanced climatic and epidemiological data from 1870 to 2000.200818652697
multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in sri lanka.the current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, anopheles subpictus in five districts (anuradhapura, kurunegala, moneragala, puttalam and trincomalee) of sri lanka. eight other anophelines, anopheles annularis, anopheles barbirostris, anopheles jamesii, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles tessellatus, anopheles vagus and anopheles varuna from a ...200818755020
prevalence of mosquito species in chhura block of raipur district of chhattisgarh state.mosquitoes act as vectors for several diseases including malaria and filaria. in indian scenario, chhattisgarh is endemic for both the diseases. the present study on prevalence of mosquito population in block chhura of raipur district of chhattisgarh state was undertaken between august 2002 and march 2004 to asses the distribution pattern of various species of mosquitoes and their seasonal variations. indoor resting mosquitoes were collected from five villages by aspirator tube in the morning (0 ...200819301699
the development and evaluation of a single step multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, human host preference and plasmodium falciparum sporozoite presence.the anopheles annularis group mosquitoes, subgenus cellia theobald (diptera: culicidae), includes five recognized species: an. annularis van der wulp, an. nivipes theobald, an. pallidus theobald, an. philippinensis ludlow and an. schueffneri stanton. from these five, the three most common species found in orissa were considered for this study because of their remarkable vectorial and behavioral variation and the important role they play in malaria transmission. to identify and understand their r ...200919394991
prevalence of anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of bangladesh.information related to malaria vectors is very limited in bangladesh. in the changing environment and various anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. this study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in bangladesh.201020074326
malaria vectors of timor-leste.the island of timor lies at the south-eastern edge of indonesia on the boundary of the oriental and australian faunal regions. the country of timor-leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east asia and the south-west pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of is ...201020122278
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in sri lanka and implications for malaria control.anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in sri lanka, while anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. in sri lanka, an. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species b and e, while an. subpictus exists as a complex of species a-d. the freshwater breeding habit of an. culicifacies is well established. in order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in sri lanka, a limit ...201020409313
relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in west timor and java, indonesia.malaria is a serious health issue in indonesia. mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. to focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. this research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in west timor and java.201020796265
vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central vietnam.malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector anopheles dirus is uncommon. in these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species.201020846447
persistent transmission of malaria in garo hills of meghalaya bordering bangladesh, north-east india.malaria is endemic in garo hills of meghalaya, and death cases are reported annually. plasmodium falciparum is the major parasite, and is solely responsible for each malaria-attributable death case. garo hills are categorized high-risk for drug-resistant malaria; however, there exists no data on malaria transmitting mosquitoes prevalent in the region. included in this report are entomological observations with particular reference to vector biology characteristics for devising situation specific ...201020858290
detection of 1014f kdr mutation in four major anopheline malaria vectors in indonesia.malaria is a serious public health problem in indonesia, particularly in areas outside java and bali. the spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or insecticides used for mosquito control would cause an increase in malaria transmission. to better understand patterns of transmission and resistance in indonesia, an integrated mosquito survey was conducted in three areas with different malaria endemicities, purworejo in central java, south lampung district in sumatera an ...201021054903
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
effect of construction of an irrigation canal on malaria situation in two primary health centres of dhenkanal district of orissa, assess the impact of irrigation canals on malaria transmission, a study was conducted in dhenkanal district of orissa, india. the district is situated in the central part of orissa and hyperendemic area for malaria. a canal system is being constructed for irrigation in the district, which passes through parjang and analabereni primary health centres (phc), endemic for malaria. the water has been released only up to parjang (canal with water -cww) area during the end of 2004 and construction w ...201121602772
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
glutathione s transferase activity in indian vectors of malaria: a defense mechanism against ddt.glutathione s transferases (gsts) are multifunctional enzymes involved in detoxification of xenobiotic compounds in majority of the insect groups. significance of insect gsts is their elevated level of activity in association with insecticide resistance. this investigation was to explore the metabolic status of gsts in two indian ddt-resistant malaria vectors, anopheles culicifacies and anopheles annularis, and one ddt-susceptible vector, anopheles fluviatilis. malkangiri and koraput districts o ...201121661317
molecular evidence for the presence of malaria vector species a of the anopheles annularis complex in sri lanka.anopheles annularis s.l. is a wide spread malaria vector in south and southeast asia, including sri lanka. the taxon an. annularis is a complex of two sibling species viz. a and b, that are differentiated by chromosome banding patterns and ribosomal gene sequences in india. only species a is reported to be a malaria vector in india while the occurrence of sibling species in sri lanka has not been documented previously.201122192337
malaria in south asia: prevalence and control.the "malaria evolution in south asia" (mesa) program project is an international center of excellence for malaria research (icemr) sponsored by the us national institutes of health. this us-india collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the indian subcontinent. this knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from plasmodium falciparum and plasmodi ...201222248528
blood-feeding patterns of anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of bangladesh.blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. however, little information is available on the host preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in bangladesh. therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of bangladesh.201222336191
malaria outbreak in a non endemic tribal block of balasore district, orissa, india during summer season.a focal outbreak of malaria at sialimal sub-centre of balasore district of orissa was reported during the month of march, 2010. three villages of the above block were affected. regional medical research centre, bhubaneswar has conducted an entomological survey and a central clinic simultaneously, with door to door household survey to identify the fever cases. within a span of 18 days around 172 fever cases were reported with slide positivity rate (spr) of 24.4% and pf % of 81%. the malaria epide ...201222735850
insecticide substitutes for ddt to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases.malaria continues to be a public health problem in bangladesh, despite efforts in the 1960s to eradicate the vectors through the use of ddt. at one point, eradication of malaria was acclaimed but later on it reappeared. the use of ddt is no more legally allowed in bangladesh, which has been officially replaced by a number organophosphates and/or synthetic pyrethroids and their combinations in addition to the integrated vector management (ivm) package. ivm being a community approach is still to g ...201222956113
diversity and seasonal densities of vector anophelines in relation to forest fringe malaria in district sonitpur, assam (india).the prevalence and bionomics of known indian malaria vector anophelines was studied in three forest fringe villages in sonitpur district of assam, india. anopheles philippinensis/nivipes (36.8%) and an. annularis (25.6%) were the most abundant of the seven vector anopheline species recorded. densities of vector anophelines in general were high during monsoon season and low during winter months. an. dirus s.l. was the most anthropophagic (91.6%) of all the species collected whereas, an. annularis ...201123024492
false positivity of circumsporozoite protein (csp)-elisa in zoophilic anophelines in bangladesh.circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (csp-elisas) are widely used for malaria vector identification throughout the world. however, several studies have reported false-positive results when using this method. the present study was conducted to estimate the frequency of false positives among anopheline species in malaria endemic areas of bangladesh. in total, 4724 anopheles females belonging to 25 species were collected and tested for plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax- ...201323085098
blood meal preference of some anopheline mosquitoes in command and non-command areas of rajasthan, india.the present study was undertaken to compare the entomological situation by analyzing the blood meal of mosquitoes of canal irrigated and non-irrigated areas of bikaner in order to explore scientific information on the vector biology and malaria burden profile and to plan proper strategies for malaria control and eradication.201223378966
barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes.determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. this is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. this is particularly difficult in the south-west pacific countries of indonesia, the solomon islands and papua new guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are ...201323379959
genetic diversity of japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987.five genotypes (gi-v) of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) have been identified, all of which have distinct geographical distributions and epidemiologies. it is thought that jev originated in the indonesia-malaysia region from an ancestral virus. from that ancestral virus gv diverged, followed by giv, giii, gii, and gi. genotype iv appears to be confined to the indonesia-malaysia region, as giv has been isolated in indonesia from mosquitoes only, while gv has been isolated on three occasions onl ...201323590316
living on the edge: a longitudinal study of anopheles funestus in an isolated area of mozambique.understanding the survival strategies of malaria vectors at the edges of their distribution, where they are under stress from environmental conditions, may lead to the development of novel control techniques and may help predict the effects of climate change on these mosquitoes.201323773359
genetic compatibility between anopheles lesteri from korea and anopheles paraliae from assess differentiation and relationships between anopheles lesteri and anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of an. lesteri from korea and an. paraliae from thailand, respectively. these isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing dna sequences of ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and subunit ii (coii). resul ...023778670
anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in trincomalee district of sri lanka.anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in sri lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. the main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of an. culicifacies.201323958454
a study on relapse/re-infection rate of plasmodium vivax malaria and identification of the predominant genotypes of p. vivax in two endemic districts of nepal.malaria is a major public health problem in nepal inflicted primarily by the parasite plasmodium vivax, - the only species responsible for relapse cases in nepal. knowledge on its relapse rate is important for successful malaria control, but is lacking in nepal. the information on circulating predominant genotypes of p. vivax is equally relevant for high endemic districts of nepal to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite and to uncover the coverage and efficacy of potential vaccin ...201324041296
entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in western a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (itn) in western myanmar the malaria protective effect of itn was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. a coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to itn effectiveness.201324119994
review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in thailand.physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. the complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent') properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. the development of "physiological" resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and ...201324294938
a video clip of the biting midge culicoides anophelis ingesting blood from an engorged anopheles mosquito in hainan, china.biting midges are hematophagus ectoparasites of insects, humans and other animals. culicoides (trithicoides) anophelis edwards1922 is a predator of engorged mosquitoes.201324499575
on the road to eliminate malaria in sri lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs.malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including sri lanka. encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, sri lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. this article reviews the historical milestones associated w ...201424548783
early malaria resurgence in pre-elimination areas in kokap subdistrict, kulon progo, indonesia.indonesia is among those countries committed to malaria eradication, with a continuously decreasing incidence of malaria. however, at district level the situation is different. this study presents a case of malaria resurgence kokap subdistrict of the kulon progo district in yogyakarta province, java after five years of low endemicity. this study also aims to describe the community perceptions and health services delivery situation that contribute to this case.201424684702
vectorial capacity and genetic diversity of anopheles annularis (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in odisha, india from 2009 to 2011.anopheles annularis is one of the major vectors of malaria in odisha, india. the present study was undertaken to determine the vectorial capacity and assess the genetic diversity of an. annularis collected from different endemic regions of odisha. mosquitoes were collected from thirteen endemic districts using standard entomological collection methods from 2009 to 2011. sibling species of an. annularis were identified by pcr-rflp and sequencing of d3 region of 28s ribosomal dna (rdna) region. pl ...201424820180
analyzing mosquito (diptera: culicidae) diversity in pakistan by dna barcoding.although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in pakistan is poorly known. recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. dna barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.201424827460
monitoring of malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis vectors.vector monitoring in military stations would help in protecting the armed forces from vector borne diseases such as malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis.201324843200
a household randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of 0.03% transfluthrin coils alone and in combination with long-lasting insecticidal nets on the incidence of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria in western yunnan province, china.mosquito coils are the most commonly used household insecticidal product in the world with sales exceeding 50 billion coils, used by two billion people worldwide annually. despite strong evidence that coils prevent mosquito bites a systematic review concluded that there is no evidence that burning mosquito coils prevents malaria acquisition. therefore, the current trial was designed to measure and compare prevention of malaria infection by mosquito coils or long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) o ...201424885993
insecticide resistance and human blood meal preference of anopheles annularis in asom-meghalaya border area, northeast india. 201424947221
malaria control in nepal 1963-2012: challenges on the path towards elimination.malaria is still a priority public health problem of nepal where about 84% of the population are at risk. the aim of this paper is to highlight the past and present malaria situation in this country and its challenges for long-term malaria elimination strategies.201424957851
bionomics and vectorial capacity of anopheles annularis with special reference to india: a review.anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. an. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in india, sri lanka, bangladesh, myanmar, indonesia, malaysia and china. in india, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of assam, west bengal and u.p. in odisha and some neighbouring countries such as sri lanka, nepal and myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. this ...201425141549
revised morphological identification key to the larval anopheline (diptera: culicidae) of sri revise morphological identification keys to the anophelines in sri lanka.025183086
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
impact of a spatial repellent on malaria incidence in two villages in sumba, indonesia.a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effect of spatial repellent (sr) in households at risk of malaria in indonesia. following presumptive radical cure for malaria in 180 adult men representing sentinels of new infection in four clusters within two villages, all households were given either metofluthrin or placebo mosquito coils. weekly blood smear screening and human-landing mosquito catches were done throughout the 6 months intervention. malaria i ...201425311699
spatio-temporal distribution of malaria and its association with climatic factors and vector-control interventions in two high-risk districts of nepal.over the last decade, the incidence of confirmed malaria has declined significantly in nepal. the aim of this paper is to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria and its association with climatic factors and vector control interventions in two high-risk districts of nepal.201425421720
species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (vbds) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. in particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. the aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other dise ...201425430654
distance to anopheles sundaicus larval habitats dominant among risk factors for parasitemia in meso-endemic southwest sumba, indonesia.the decline in intensity of malaria transmission in many areas now emphasizes greater importance of understanding the epidemiology of low to moderate transmission settings. marked heterogeneity in infection risk within these populations creates opportunities to understand transmission and guide resource allocation to greater impact.201425495283
field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between southeast asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. however, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. among topical repellents, deet is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. the protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, includ ...201425522134
entomological investigations on malaria vectors in some war-torn areas in the trincomalee district of sri lanka after settlement of 30-year civil disturbance.background. malaria was an endemic problem in trincomalee district, eastern province of sri lanka. very few recent data concerning anopheles are available which transmit malaria. therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in trincomalee district for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. method. entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, ...201525789195
epidemiology of japanese encephalitis in the philippines: a systematic review.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. the epidemiology of je in the philippines is not well defined. to support consideration of je vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized je surveillance data from 2011 to 2014.201525794009
evidence-based malaria control in timor leste from 2006 to 2012.malaria has been a major public health problem in the newly established democratic republic of timor leste with over 200,000 cases being reported in 2006 and 2007. the national malaria control programme (nmcp) was established in 2003. the progress made in malaria control in timor leste is reported.201525890294
climate change and spatiotemporal distributions of vector-borne diseases in nepal--a systematic synthesis of literature.despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (vbds), namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. there is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on vbds especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of vbds in nepal can be ...201526086887
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in purworejo district, central java province, indonesia.malaria has been targeted for elimination from indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. the regional deadline for malaria elimination for java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. purworejo district, a malaria-endemic area in java with an annual parasite incidence (api) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. this study documents factors that affect incidence and ...201526275822
species composition and diversity of malaria vector breeding habitats in trincomalee district of sri lanka.mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. this in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs.201526583136
natural human plasmodium infections in major anopheles mosquitoes in western thailand.the thai-myanmar border is a remaining hotspot for malaria transmission. malaria transmission in this region continues year-round, with a major peak season in july-august, and a minor peak in october-november. malaria elimination requires better knowledge of the mosquito community structure, dynamics and vectorial status to support effective vector control.201626762512
anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of western india and may facilitate perennial malaria transmission.india contributes 1.5-2 million annual confirmed cases of malaria. since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. possible new vector-parasite interactions in goa, india were tested.201626919828
evaluation of insecticides susceptibility and malaria vector potential of anopheles annularis s.l. and anopheles vagus in assam, india.during the recent past, development of ddt resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many southeast asian countries including india. current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected anopheles annularis sensu lato and an. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of assam in northeast india. anopheles annularis s.l. and an. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly select ...201627010649
determination of the foraging behaviour and blood meal source of malaria vector mosquitoes in trincomalee district of sri lanka using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay.studies of host preference patterns in blood-feeding anopheline mosquitoes are crucial to incriminating malaria vectors. however, little information is available on host preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in sri lanka.201627118141
species composition and population dynamics of malaria vectors in three previously ignored aquatic systems in sri 2015 alone there were an estimated 214 million new cases of malaria across the globe and 438,000 deaths were reported. although indigenous malaria has not been reported in sri lanka since 2012, to date 247 imported cases of malaria have been identified. knowledge of the locations, behaviour and vectorial capacity of potential malarial vectors is therefore needed to prevent future outbreaks. attention is now being focused on some previously ignored habitats.201627165184
effects of microclimate condition changes due to land use and land cover changes on the survivorship of malaria vectors in china-myanmar border the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. however, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. this study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, anopheles sinensis and an. minimus in the ...201627171475
determination of demographic, epidemiological, and socio-economic determinants and their potential impact on malaria transmission in mannar and trincomalee districts of sri lanka.malaria was an endemic problem in mannar and trincomalee districts of sri lanka until the recent past. currently, no local case has been found since october 2012. therefore, the present study was conducted to identify existing demographic, epidemiological and socio-cultural factors in mannar and trincomalee districts of sri lanka, since there is limited information available on the potential influence of above variables responsible for low malaria transmission.201627334969
'nature or nurture': survival rate, oviposition interval, and possible gonotrophic discordance among south east asian anophelines.mosquito survival, oviposition interval and gonotrophic concordance are important determinants of vectorial capacity. these may vary between species or within a single species depending on the environment. they may be estimated by examination of the ovaries of host-seeking mosquitoes.201627405767
vector databank in the indian armed forces.medical intelligence of disease vectors deals with understanding vector distribution and control.201127408077
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