Publications

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feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease.to establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (tee) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained.201020187818
antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). animals-15 healthy adult hispaniolan amazon parrots.201222849674
palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in hispaniolan amazon parrots.201323107194
sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 ...201223156974
pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. to determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult hispaniolan amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. each bird was nebulize ...201223156978
pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after im administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201323363341
antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after im administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201323363342
antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine hcl administered im on thermal thresholds in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201121627517
estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in hispaniolan amazon parrots.to establish a computed tomography (ct)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots.201121281195
antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) following iv administration.201323363343
measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. a veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. to obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard ...201223409433
pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201020367055
pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to compare pharmacokinetics after iv, im, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201323438111
pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201323718650
pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201323802666
comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of hispaniolan amazon parrot (amazona ventralis) urine.to evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (usg) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate usg value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and felin ...201324640927
pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (pde) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. the mechanism of action is by inhibition of pde iii and v and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical ...201425115037
determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots.200919719432
evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).200919231947
comparison of avian biochemical test results with abaxis vetscan and hitachi 911 analyzers.to compare results of clinical biochemical analysis using an abaxis vetscan bench-top analyzer with reagents specifically marketed for avian use and a hitachi 911 analyzer, plasma (both methods) and whole blood (vetscan method) samples from 20 clinically healthy hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) were analyzed. correlation between methods was very high (r = 0.9-1.0) for aspartate aminotransferase (ast), calcium, glucose, and uric acid; high (r = 0.7-0.89) for creatine kinase (ck), ph ...200819216256
agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from anesthetized hispaniolan amazon parrots.to determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane.200819014291
renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201525815572
pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in healthy hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ) after oral administration of a single dose.long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. to determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) ...201425843318
plasma drug concentrations of orally administered rosuvastatin in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular amazon parrots. while hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. no pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds de ...201525867662
acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ache) at nerve synapses. blood samples from 22 hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) were assayed for cholinesterase levels by two different techniques. using the modified michel method, the whole-blood cholinesterase activity levels ranged from 0.082 to 0.616 deltaph/hr with a mean value of 0.35 deltaph/hr. a reference range (0.08-0.62 deltaph/hr) for cholinesterase was established in birds. the modified ellman spec ...200315077720
pharmacokinetics of compounded intravenous and oral gabapentin in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ).neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. to determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions wer ...201526378661
thromboelastography values in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ): a pilot study.thromboelastography (teg) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. thromboelastography (teg) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. the purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of teg in psittacine birds. kaolin-activated teg was used to analyze citrated ...201526378662
evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).objective :to determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment.201626684093
health and reproductive assessment of selected puerto rican parrots ( amazona vittata ) in captivity.the puerto rican parrot ( amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. the cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. in 2002, 40 adult puerto rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in puerto rico (iguaca and río abajo), which are the only sour ...201526771321
the efficacy and safety of topical rocuronium bromide to induce bilateral mydriasis in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ).the efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. a complete ophthalmic examination (including schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. pupillary light reflex (plr) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: ...201627088739
effects of exercise on the plasma lipid profile in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia.hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and amazon parrots ( amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (34 ...201627691968
pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to determine pharmacokinetics after iv and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201222849673
effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201222738045
pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. however, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. the goals of this study in the hispaniolan amaz ...201122216718
plasma osmolality reference values in african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus erithacus), hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (ara rubrogenys).birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. the goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. blood samples were collected from 2 ...201121877445
pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).to assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hcl after iv and im administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).201121627518
fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the hispaniolan amazon parrot (amazona ventralis).contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. however, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a ...201520806877
effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.healthy, adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. there was a significant difference be ...201620402397
effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventrais).the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. to determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered im in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administr ...200920235456
reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus) and hispaniolan parrots (amazona ventralis).calcium (ca), phosphorus (p), and magnesium (mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. this is the first published report of reference intervals for mg in association with ca and p levels for psittacine species. one milliliter of blood was collected from 26 hispaniolan parrots (amazona ventralis) and 24 african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus). the plasma concentrations of ca, p, and mg were determi ...200920063813
analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in hispaniolan parrots (amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.objective-to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. animals-15 adult hispaniolan parrots (amazona ventralis). procedures-arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (msu) into 1 intertarsal joint. parrots were treated in a crossover design. five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam ...200919951118
use of phenol red thread tests to evaluate tear production in clinically normal amazon parrots and comparison with schirmer tear test findings.to determine phenol red thread test (prtt) values in eyes of clinically normal hispaniolan amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with schirmer tear test (stt) values.200919912038
analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in hispaniolan parrots (amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.to evaluate the microcrystalline sodium urate (msu) method for inducing arthritis in parrots and to compare the analgesic efficacy of long-acting liposome-encapsulated butorphanol (lebt), carprofen, or a combination of both.200919795934
comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).blood samples were collected from 20 hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (k2edta) and lithium heparin. complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. the level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (pcv), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. plasma protein and pcv values were signific ...200818689071
intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a hispaniolan amazon parrot (amazona ventralis).a clinically normal 2-year-old hispaniolan amazon parrot (amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (av) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. a complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree av block, with concur ...200818543600
[pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (amazona a. aestiva)].colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. an electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 mhz. after assessment of cardiac function in 2-d-echoc ...200515787312
evaluation of intravenous fluorescein in intradermal allergy testing in psittacines.this study was designed to improve the clinical feasibility of intradermal skin testing of psittacine birds using intravenous fluorescein stain. twenty-five healthy, anaesthetized hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) were injected intravenously with 10 mg kg-1 fluorescein-sodium 1% followed by intradermal injections of 0.02 ml phosphate-buffered saline, histamine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) and codeine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) at the sternal apteria. wheal diameters of reaction sites we ...200314678444
measuring the level of agreement between cloacal gram's stains and bacterial cultures in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ).cloacal or fecal gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. although cloacal or fecal gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. to investigate the level of agreement between results from gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples f ...201425843466
static and dynamic (18) fdg-pet in normal hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).positron emission tomography (pet) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-deoxy-2-[(18) f]-fluoro-d-glucose ((18) f-fdg), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. we characterized the normal distribution of (18) f-fdg in 10 healthy hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis) by performing whole body pet scans at stea ...201121554485
radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus), hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis), and barred owls (strix varia).information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. we evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus), 10 hispaniolan amazons (amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. intra- and interobserver ...200919673455
evaluation of orally administered atorvastatin on plasma lipid and biochemistry profiles in hypercholesterolemic hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).atorvastatin is a synthetic statin administered in its active form and used for the treatment of dyslipidemias. in the current study, the effects of atorvastatin were evaluated on plasma lipid profiles and the potential for adverse effects after once daily po dosing of atorvastatin for 30 days in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). sixteen adult parrots (10 female, 6 male) with hypercholesterolemia were used for this study. birds were assigned to 2 groups (treatment and control) of 8 ...202032237680
effects of fluorescent lighting versus sunlight exposure on calcium, magnesium, vitamin d, and feather destructive behavior in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).low exposure to ultraviolet light, and resulting vitamin d deficiency, has recently been linked to autism spectrum disorder in people. captive psittacine birds that exhibit feather destructive behavior share similarities with people affected by autism spectrum disorder, such as repetitive (stereotypies) and self-harming behaviors. the metabolic and psychological effects of housing pet parrots indoors without ultraviolet b lighting are not typically considered in animal husbandry or veterinary ca ...201931893618
pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).objective to determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (p407) after sc administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). animals 11 adult hispaniolan amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). procedures a sterile formulation of butorphanol in p407 (but-p407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of p407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/ml). five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to ...201728541145
comparison of traditional thermal support with the forced-air warmer system in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). 200228404295
morphologic and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow aspirates from hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).bone marrow aspirate assessments provide valuable information about hematopoietic status and hematologic disease. hematopoietic cell differentials and morphologies have been anecdotally described in psittacines, but quantitative studies are lacking.201931701548
pharmacokinetics and safety of zonisamide after oral administration of single and multiple doses to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).objective to determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of single and multiple doses and to assess the safety of zonisamide in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). animals 12 adult hispaniolan amazon parrots. procedures zonisamide (30 mg/kg, po) was administered once to 6 parrots in a single-dose trial. six months later, a multiple-dose trial was performed in which 8 parrots received zonisamide (20 mg/kg, po, q 12 h for 10 days) and 4 parrots served as control birds. safety ...201930681361
genomes of three closely related caribbean amazons provide insight for species history and conservation.islands have been used as model systems for studies of speciation and extinction since darwin published his observations about finches found on the galapagos. amazon parrots inhabiting the greater antillean islands represent a fascinating model of species diversification. unfortunately, many of these birds are threatened as a result of human activity and some, like the puerto rican parrot, are now critically endangered. in this study we used a combination of de novo and reference-assisted assemb ...201930654561
effects of three fentanyl plasma concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).objective to determine effects of 3 plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (maciso) and cardiovascular variables in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). animals 6 adult parrots. procedures in phase 1, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. the maciso was determined for each bird by use of a bracketing method and supramaximal electrical stimulus. fentanyl (20 μg/kg) w ...201830085862
effect of routine handling and transportation on blood leukocyte concentrations and plasma corticosterone in captive hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis).increased glucocorticoids cause a characteristic stress leukogram in mammalian taxa. it is assumed that avians exhibit a similar response, but to date, there have been no controlled studies to correlate serial endogenous corticosterone levels to hematologic values. an established flock of 18 hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis) was used as a model in a crossover study. the treatment group was subjected to the stress of transport, restraint, and common clinical procedures with serial b ...201829900764
pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). in the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to hispaniolan amazon parrots. twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 ho ...201728891702
cities may save some threatened species but not their ecological functions.urbanization is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss worldwide. wildlife responses to urbanization, however, are greatly variable and, paradoxically, some threatened species may achieve much larger populations in urban than in natural habitats. urban conservation hotspots may therefore help some species avoid regional or even global extinctions, but not conserve their often overlooked ecological functions in the wild. we aim to draw attention to this issue using two species of globally th ...201829942675
pharmacokinetics of fentanyl after intravenous administration in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis).objective to compare the disposition of fentanyl citrate after a single iv injection in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis). animals 6 adult red-tailed hawks and 6 adult hispaniolan amazon parrots. procedures anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing ...201830085853
single-dose pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ).to determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in hispaniolan amazon parrots ( amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. in a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (im) to 2 birds, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after administration. based on the results obtained, a main study was done in which piperacillin/tazobacta ...201728644086
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