the humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (bubo virginianus) and other raptors.a small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. the tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the hum ...19921585989
identification of bloodmeals in anopheles quadrimaculatus and anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern u.s.a.the host-feeding patterns of anopheles quadrimaculatus say and anopheles punctipennis (say) were examined in order to evaluate their potential contributions to the transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) and other arboviruses in the northeastern u.s.a. engorged mosquitoes of the two species were collected from eeev foci in central new york (ny) and throughout new jersey (nj), and their bloodmeals were identified using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay and sequencing ...200919941600
pathology and epidemiology of natural west nile viral infection of raptors in georgia.carcasses from 346 raptors found between august 2001 and december 2004 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for wnv by one or both methods. of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with wnv infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to wnv, and four had no histologic evidence of wnv. the most common histologic lesions associated with wnv infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal ...200717495305
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
hemograms and hematozoa of sharp-shinned (accipiter striatus) and cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) captured during spring migration in northern new york.hemograms were determined for 26 cooper's (accipiter cooperii) and 55 sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus) captured during spring migration (27 march to 12 may 1987) on the south shore of lake ontario, new york (usa). no significant differences were noted in packed cell volume and estimated total solids between the species. however, cooper's hawks had significantly higher total white blood cells counts and higher concentrations of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. proportionally, lymp ...19958583640
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
hematozoa of raptors from southern new jersey and adjacent areas.blood smears from 259 birds of 12 species, representing four families of raptors, from new jersey, pennsylvania, delaware, and virginia were examined for blood parasites. infected birds constituted 59.1% of the total. birds were infected with one or more of the following genera of protozoa: leucocytozoon (43.2%); haemoproteus (21.6%); plasmodium (1.2%); and trypanosoma (1.2%). blood culture of 142 raptors of 11 species for trypanosoma revealed a prevalence of 41.5%. plasmodium circumflexum is re ...19853981737
mites of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae) from north american birds.three new harpirhynchid species of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae) are described from north american birds: harpyrhynchoides aegolius sp. n. from aegolius acadicus (strigiformes: strigidae), harpyrhynchoides accipiter sp. n. from accipiter striatus (accipitriformes: accipitridae), and neharpyrhynchus icterus sp. n. from icterus galbula (passeriformes: icteridae). three species are recorded from new hosts from north america for the first time: harpyrhynchoides trachea ...201323802444
effects of holocene climate change on the historical demography of migrating sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus velox) in north america.dna sequences of the mitochondrial control region were analysed from 298 individual sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus velox) sampled at 12 different migration study sites across north america. the control region proved to be an appropriate genetic marker for identification of continental-scale population genetic structure and for determining the historical demography of population units. these data suggest that sharp-shinned hawks sampled at migration sites in north america are divided int ...200515643959
management of fat reserves in tufted titmice baelophus bicolor in relation to risk of predation.fat reserves are an important energy source for animals wintering in temperate zones. long nights, low ambient temperature and often unpredictable food all increase the probability of death from starvation, and to survive, animals carry energy reserves as fat. based on the assumption that extra weight makes birds more vulnerable to diurnal predators, it has been hypothesized that predation risk places an upper limit on avian fat reserves. the hypothesis leads to the prediction that birds should ...19989710461
a new species of caryospora (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the sharp-shinned hawk, accipiter striatus (aves: accipitriformes).an injured juvenile sharp-shinned hawk, accipiter striatus vieillot, 1807 (aves: accipitriformes), housed and treated at the college of veterinary medicine teaching hospital at kansas state university, manhattan, kansas, usa, was found to be passing oocysts of an undescribed species of caryospora in its feces. sporulated oocysts of caryospora petersoni n. sp. were subspherical, with a bilayered wall, and they measured 43.1 × 39.8 μm; micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. spo ...201323098064
feather mercury concentrations in north american raptors sampled at migration monitoring stations.we assessed total mercury (thg) concentrations in breast feathers of diurnal north american raptors collected at migration monitoring stations. for 9 species in the pacific flyway, we found species and age influenced feather thg concentrations whereas sex did not. feather thg concentrations µg/g dry weight (dw) averaged (least squares mean ± standard error) higher for raptors that generally consume > 75% avian prey (sharp-shinned hawk accipiter striatus: n = 113; 4.35 ± 0.45 µg/g dw, peregrine f ...201930761431
mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on hispaniola.despite growing concerns over mercury (hg) exposure to humans and wildlife on a global scale, little is known about hg bioaccumulation in the new world tropics. from 2005 to 2011, we monitored hg concentrations in blood of nine avian species occupying a geographic range of tropical wet broadleaf sites on the island of hispaniola, including eight passerines (two nearctic-neotropical migrant and six resident species) and one top order predatory accipiter. invertivorous songbirds were further diffe ...201323076839
chlorinated hydrocarbons and shell thinning in eggs of (accipiter) hawks in ontario, 1986-1989.eggs of sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), cooper's hawks (a. cooperii), and northern goshawks (a. gentilis) were collected from nests in south-central ontario from 1986 to 1989. detectable levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons dde, ddt, ddd, mirex, photomirex, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hcb and pcb were present in all the eggs analyzed. mean contaminant levels were highest in sharp-shinned hawks, slightly lower in cooper's hawks, and sig ...199415091636
use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: purposeful unpredictability?the use of space by predators in relation to their prey is a poorly understood aspect of predator-prey interactions. classic theory suggests that predators should focus their efforts on areas of abundant prey, that is, prey hotspots, whereas game-theoretical models of predator and prey movement suggest that the distribution of predators should match that of their prey's resources. if, however, prey are spatially anchored to one location and these prey have particularly strong antipredator respon ...200717211809
oral capillariosis due to eucoleus dispar in migrating sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus) in new york, usa, 2016-18.oral lesions focused around the oral commissures were documented in several sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus) in the 2016-18 spring migration season at a banding station located on the southern shore of lake ontario, new york, us. samples of the inflamed and caseous lesions repeatedly tested negative for trichomonas gallinae and poxvirus; however, large numbers of capillariid eggs and embedded worms were consistently present. morphologically, the nematodes were identified as eucoleus disp ...201931009308
pupipara (diptera, hippoboscidae) in wild birds attended at a rehabilitation center in southern brazil.the hippoboscids are cosmopolitan permanent obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of birds, domestic and wild mammals and, occasionally, humans. some species may act as vectors or hosts of etiological pathogenic agents. the aims of this study were to report on the first cases of hippoboscidae in crax blumenbachii and parabuteo unicinctus; to provide new reports from brazil on tyto furcata and asio stygius parasitized by icosta americana; to report on individuals of bubo virginianus, falco sparver ...201931166378
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