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finch numbers, owl predation and plant dispersal on isla daphne major, galápagos.populations of 4 geospizine finches were studied on isla daphne major in april and december 1973. finches were captured, banded, measured and released in both months, and censused in december. 1640±711 finches were estimated to be present in december, of which probably more than 1000 belonged to geospiza fortis. g. fortis were 4 times more numerous than g. scandens. the overal density at this time was 27-54/ha. this is the first quantitative estimate of finch population sizes for a whole island ...197528309237
avian cholera in common crows, corvus brachyrhynchos, from the central texas panhandle.an epornitic of avian cholera involving approximately 150 birds is described from a flock of common crows, corvus brachyrhynchos, on a single playa lake utilized as a roost in castro county, texas, during early spring of 1980. there was a concomitant epornitic of avian cholera involving several hundred ducks and geese of several species on adjacent lakes in he same area. crows scavenged extensively on waterfowl carcasses. gross and histopathologic lesions in waterfowl were typical of acute avian ...19817338973
[parasite fauna of austrian owls (strigiformes)].during the examination of 182 owls--asio otus (51), strix aluco (44), bubo bubo (34), nyctea scandiaca (15), athene noctua (14), otus scops (9), tyto alba (4), aegolius funereus (3), glaucidium passerinum (2), asio flammeus (2), indigenous "owls" (4)--5 protozoan species, 3 trematode species, 1 cestode species, 6 nematode species, 3 acanthocephalan species, 2 acaride species and 7 insect species could be discovered. dermanyssus hirundinis was proved on the long-eared owl and carnus hemapterus on ...19827165130
causes of owl mortality in hawaii, 1992 to 1994.eighty-one barn owls (tyto alba) and five hawaiian owls or pueo (asio flammeus sandwichensis) from kauai, oahu, lanai, molokai, maui and hawaii (usa) were evaluated for cause of death, november 1992 through august 1994. the most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of deat ...19968722264
effects of military training activities on shrub-steppe raptors in southwestern idaho, usa./ between 1991 and 1994, we assessed relative abundance, nesting success, and distribution of ferruginous hawks (buteo regalis), northern harriers (circus cyaneus), burrowing owls (athene cunicularia), and short-eared owls (asio flammeus) inside and outside a military training site in the snake river birds of prey national conservation area, southwestern idaho. the orchard training area is used primarily for armored vehicle training and artillery firing by the idaho army national guard. relative ...19999950702
clinical and pathologic features of west nile virus infection in native north american owls (family strigidae).since the initial report of west nile virus in the northeastern united states in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly westward and southward across the country. in the summer of 2002, several midwestern states reported increased cases of neurologic disease and mortality associated with west nile virus infection in various native north american owl species. this report summarizes the clinical and pathologic findings for 13 captive and free-ranging owls. affected species were all in the family strig ...200314562887
the complete mitochondrial genomes sequences of asio flammeus and asio otus and comparative analysis.the complete mitochondrial genomes of asio flammeus and asio otus were sequenced and found to span 18858 bp and 18493 bp, respectively. it is surprising to find the former to be the largest among all avian mitochondrial genomes sequenced so far. the two genomes have very similar gene order with that of gallus gallus, neither contains the pseudo control region, but both have a single extra base, namely cytidine, at position 174 in nd3 gene. the control regions of asio flammeus and asio otus' mito ...200415620107
comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial dna control region of four species of strigiformes.the sequence of the whole mitochondrial (mt) dna control region (cr) of four species of strigiformes was obtained. length of the cr was 3,290 bp, 2,848 bp, 2,444 bp, and 1,771 bp for asio flammeus, asio otus, athene noctua, and strix aluco, respectively. interestingly, the length of the control region was maximum in asio flammeus among all the avian mtdna control regions sequenced thus far. in addition, the base composition and organization of mtdna cr of asio flammeus were identical to those re ...200617112967
assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using eastern screech-owls (megascops asio).in the united states, new regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. this action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds (e.g., diphacinone; dpn). single-day acute oral exposure of adult eastern screech-owls (megascops asio) to dpn evoked overt signs of intoxication, coagulopathy, histopathological lesions (e.g., hemorrhage, hepatocellular vacuolation), and/or lethality at doses as low as 130 mg/kg body weight, al ...201222227859
genetic divergence analysis of the common barn owl tyto alba (scopoli, 1769) and the short-eared owl asio flammeus (pontoppidan, 1763) from southern chile using coi sequence.in this paper new mitochondrial coi sequences of common barn owl tyto alba (scopoli, 1769) and short-eared owl asio flammeus (pontoppidan, 1763) from southern chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the world. the intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the common barn owl in comparison with specimens from northern europe and australasia and 3.1% for the short-eared owl with respect to samples from north america, northern europe and north ...201526668551
laboratory blood analysis in strigiformes-part i: hematologic reference intervals and agreement between manual blood cell counting techniques.while hematologic reference intervals (ri) are available for multiple raptorial species of the order accipitriformes and falconiformes, there is a lack of valuable hematologic information in strigiformes that can be used for diagnostic and health monitoring purposes.201525627556
laboratory blood analysis in strigiformes-part ii: plasma biochemistry reference intervals and agreement between the abaxis vetscan v2 and the roche cobas c501.limited plasma biochemical information is available in strigiformes. only one study investigated the agreement between a point-of-care with a reference laboratory analyzer for biochemistry variables in birds.201525613649
complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of asio flammeus (strigiformes, strigidae).the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for asio flammeus, which is distributed widely in geography. the length of the complete mitochondrial genome was 18,966 bp, containing 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes, 13 protein-coding genes (pcgs), and 1 non-coding region (d-loop). all the genes were distributed on the h-strand, except for the nd6 subunit gene and eight trna genes which were encoded on the l-strand. the d-loop of a. flammeus contained many tandem repeats of varying l ...201625980662
owls lack uv-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see uv light at night: retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance.most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive uv/v cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (sws1), s cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (sws2), m cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (rh2) and l cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (lws). double cones (d) express lws but do not contribute to colour vision. each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in uv/v c ...201930825468
acoustic discrimination of predators by black-capped chickadees (poecile atricapillus).smaller owls and hawks are high-threat predators to small songbirds, like chickadees, in comparison to larger avian predators due to smaller raptors' agility (templeton et al. in proc natl acad sci 104:5479-5482, 2005). the current literature focuses only on high- and low-threat predators. we propose that there may be a continuum in threat perception. in the current study, we conducted an operant go/no-go experiment investigating black-capped chickadees' acoustic discrimination of predator threa ...202032107658
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