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use of randomly cloned dna fragments for the identification of oral spirochetes.dna probes were produced for the detection and identification of 4 cultivable species of oral spirochetes, treponema denticola, treponema socranskii, treponema vincentii and treponema pectinovorum. to obtain probe sequences, chromosomal dna, isolated from representative strains within each species, was cloned in escherichia coli k-12. cloned dna fragments were screened for the ability to hybridize to dna only from homologous strains. several such fragments were identified and shown to be specifi ...19911682869
comparison of three dispersion procedures for quantitative recovery of cultivable species of subgingival spirochetes.spirochetes are usually the predominant organisms observed microscopically in subgingival plaques removed from tooth sites associated with periodontitis, but these organisms are rarely isolated by cultural means, presumably because the media do not support their growth and/or because these fragile organisms are disrupted by the various procedures used to disperse plaque samples. in the present investigation, three dispersal procedures, sonification, mechanical mixing, and homogenization, were co ...19873320092
bacteriology of experimental gingivitis in children.children are more resistant to gingivitis than are adults. to determine possible differences in their periodontal floras, an experimental gingivitis study, identical in design to one reported earlier with young adults, was conducted with four 4- to 6-year-old children. the incidence of sites that developed gingival index scores of 2 in children was less than one-third of the incidence observed in adults. the composition of the flora of each child was statistically significantly different from th ...19846480100
heat shock proteins in the human periodontal disease process.the production of hsp by periodontopathic gram-negative bacteria was examined by sds-page, two dimensional gel electrophoresis, and western blotting using monoclonal antibodies against hsps. strains of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, eikenella corrodens, fusobacterium nucleatum, prevotella intermedia, prevotella nigrescens, prevotella melaninogenica, and treponema socranskii species produced hsp which reacted with anti-yersinia enterocolitica hsp 60 and/or mycobacterial 65-kda hsp monoclon ...19957565172
evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of sodium benzoate and dichlorobenzyl alcohol against dental plaque microorganisms. an in vitro study.evaluation of antimicrobial agents is based on in vivo and in vitro studies. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of sodium benzoate and dichlorobenzyl alcohol to 115 strains of plaque microorganisms were determined by a broth-dilution method. sodium benzoate did not inhibit growth of any gram-positive cocci (mic > 106,590 microm). mics for porphyromonas gingivalis and two strains of treponema socranskii were 26,650 microm. the mic of dichlorobenzyl alcohol to the reference strain of act ...19947887143
diversity of cultivable and uncultivable oral spirochetes from a patient with severe destructive periodontitis.to determine the genetic diversity of cultivable and uncultivable spirochetes in the gingival crevice of a patient with severe periodontitis, partial 16s rrna genes were cloned from pcr-amplified products of dna and rna extracted from a subgingival plaque sample. approximately 500 bp were amplified in pcrs by using universally conserved primers with polylinker tails. purified pcr products were cloned into escherichia coli by using the plasmid vector puc19. the resultant clone library was screene ...19948168954
viscosity-dependent locomotion of oral spirochetes.spirochetes are thought to remain motile in environments (such as intercellular spaces) that immobilize extracellularly flagellated eubacteria. this attribute suggests that the viscosity of the milieu is of importance to locomotion. we sought to determine the interdependence of oral spirochete locomotion with media viscosity. video time-lapse microscopy using darkfield optics was used. the motility of the spirochetes in media of different viscosities (various concentrations of noble agar) was me ...19938247612
binding of hemin and congo red by oral hemolytic spirochetes.colony-forming units or cells in suspension of oral anaerobic spirochetes (treponema denticola, treponema vincentii and treponema socranskii) bind hemin and congo red. hemin or congo red binds to a hydrophobic polypeptide receptor that is located in the outer membrane of the bacterial cells and it has a relative molecular mass of 47 kda. these oral spirochetes also lyse sheep erythrocytes to produce beta-hemolytic zones around colony-forming units. the oral spirochetes may acquire iron for growt ...19938247613
a successful method for quantifying viable oral anaerobic spirochetes.spirochetes are markedly prevalent in periodontal disease but are not included as predominant cultivable organisms because of the inability to quantify them by viable count. a successful method was developed for enumerating viable oral spirochetes as colony-forming units (cfu) in an agarose-based medium. treponema denticola, treponema vincentii and treponema socranskii in log-phase growth in new oral spirochete (nos) broth were used for evaluation of the method. critical components of the method ...19938355989
coaggregation between porphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola.to elucidate an ecological profile of several periodontopathogens, the authors examined the coaggregation between cells of porphyromonas gingivalis and oral bacterial strains including treponema denticola in vitro. coaggregation between cells of plaque bacteria was examined by visual assay and phase-contrast microscope. p. gingivalis cells coaggregated with strains of t. denticola and treponema socranskii subspecies socranskii, but did not coaggregate with t. socranskii subspecies buccale, t. so ...19948689730
an extracellular enzyme with hyaluronidase and chondroitinase activities from some oral anaerobic spirochaetes.treponema denticola, treponema vincentii and treponema socranskii produce an enzyme that hydrolyses hyaluronic acid (ha) and chondroitin sulphate (cs). the secreted enzyme is specifically inhibited by gold sodium thiomalate and anti-bee-venom antibodies. the use of saturated substrate (ha or cs) transblots allowed the visualization of active enzyme directly from culture supernatants and is a useful tool in clarification of complex polysaccharide-degrading enzyme specificities. the affinity-purif ...19968828225
associations between porphyromonas gingivalis and oral treponemes in subgingival plaque.colonization and/or proliferation of treponema denticola may depend on the presence of porphyromonas gingivalis. the aims of this study were to confirm this synergistic relationship, to determine whether other oral bacteria were similarly associated with p. gingivalis and to relate coinfection to the periodontal status of plaque donors. subgingival plaque was collected from every tooth except third molars in 106 subjects who were grouped by their worst periodontal condition. in addition to p. gi ...19968941768
treponema medium sp. nov., isolated from human subgingival dental plaque.a new treponema species, for which we propose the name treponema medium, was isolated from subgingival plaque from an adult with periodontal disease. the morphological characteristics, differential biochemical characteristics, and protein profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of this organism are described. the guanine-plus-cytosine content of the dna of t. medium is 51 mol%. the levels of dna-dna relatedness of the new species to other treponema species, inc ...19978995804
association of oral spirochetes from sites of periodontal health with development of periodontitis.the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of disease-associated bacteria in health-associated plaque correlated with susceptibility to periodontitis over time. sites of periodontal health were identified in 65 adults. six months later (recall 1), plaque was collected from sites that remained in periodontal health, and specific bacteria were detected using monoclonal antibodies in a microscopic assay. the spirochete morphogroup was identified by phase contrast micros ...19979444597
genetic characterization of an oral treponeme isolated from human subgingival plaque.we examined the genetic characteristics of a human oral treponeme isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontal disease that could not be assigned to any of the previously described oral treponema species. the guanine-plus-cytosine content of its dna was 51 mole%. the levels of dna-dna relatedness of the organism to other treponema species, including treponema denticola, treponema vincentii, treponema socranskii, treponema pallidum and treponema phagedenis, were less than 30%. t ...19979467407
association of oral spirochetes from periodontally healthy sites with development of gingivitis.the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of selected disease-associated bacteria in health-associated plaque correlated with future gingivitis. sites of periodontal health were identified in 65 adults. six months later (recall 1) plaque was collected from sites that remained in periodontal health, and 5 species of specific bacteria and pathogen-related oral spirochetes were detected using monoclonal antibodies in a microscopic assay. members of the spirochete morph ...19989609381
identification of seven treponema species in health- and disease-associated dental plaque by nested pcr.species-specific nested pcr was used to detect treponema amylovorum, treponema denticola, treponema maltophilum, treponema medium, treponema pectinovorum, treponema socranskii, and treponema vincentii in dental plaque. subjects with periodontitis harbored all species, but t. pectinovorum and t. vincentii were not found in plaque from disease-free subjects.19999986879
phylogenetic analysis of saccharolytic oral treponemes isolated from human subgingival plaque.a total of 74 strains of oral treponemes, which were isolated from subgingival plaque samples from patients with periodontitis, were taxonomically studied on the basis of biochemical characteristics, dna-dna hybridization, and 16s rrna gene sequences. these organisms fermented carbohydrates and required rumen fluid or short-chain volatile fatty acids for growth. the isolates were divided into seven subgroups based on their biochemical characteristics. the levels of dna relatedness among the repr ...199910529113
identification of a treponema denticola oppa homologue that binds host proteins present in the subgingival environment.proteins secreted or exported by treponema denticola have been implicated as mediators of specific interactions between the spirochete and subgingival tissues in periodontal diseases. however, limited information is available on the ability of this peptidolytic organism to bind or transport soluble peptides present in the subgingival environment. a prominent 70-kda protein was isolated from surface extracts of t. denticola atcc 35405. a clone expressing a portion of the protein was identified in ...200010722578
taxonomic study of spirochetes isolated from human periodontal lesions.nineteen strains of spirochetes obtained from subgingival plaque of 19 patients with advanced periodontitis were studied morphologically, biochemically, and genetically and compared with type strains of treponema denticola and treponema socranskii. the results showed that 16 strains which biochemically resembled t. denticola could be divided into two groups based on g + c content and dna homology. two isolates appeared to belong to the t. socranskii species. one intermediate size isolate did not ...198710870473
comparison of the oral bacterial flora in saliva from a healthy subject and two periodontitis patients by sequence analysis of 16s rdna libraries.the oral bacterial flora in the saliva from two patients with periodontitis and from a periodontally healthy subject were compared using a sequence analysis of 16s rdna libraries without cultivation. 16s rdnas were amplified from salivary dna by pcr and cloned. randomly selected clones were partially sequenced. on the basis of sequence similarities, the clones were classified into several clusters corresponding to the major phylum of the domain bacteria. the major phylum in the libraries was the ...200011021394
rapid detection and quantification of five periodontopathic bacteria by real-time pcr.the quantity of periodontopathic bacteria in plaque samples is an important determinant for understanding the etiologic role of bacteria. the real-time pcr method was used to detect and quantify periodontopathic bacteria, such as actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, bacteroides forsythus, porphyromonas gingivalis, treponema denticola, and treponema socranskii, in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. there was good agreement between the results of conventional pcr and real-time pcr methods. us ...200111270605
cloning and expression of two novel hemin binding protein genes from treponema denticola.treponema denticola does not appear to produce siderophores, so it must acquire iron by other pathways. indeed, t. denticola has been shown to have an iron-regulated 44-kda outer membrane protein (hbpa) with hemin binding ability. to characterize the hbpa protein, its gene was cloned from genomic dna libraries of t. denticola. sequence analysis of the hbpa open reading frame indicated that it encoded a 42.8-kda protein with a 23-amino-acid signal peptide. hbpa has no significant homology to any ...200111401987
proteolytic activity among various oral treponema species and cloning of a prtp-like gene of treponema socranskii subsp. socranskii.the proteolytic activity of 11 treponemal strains representing different phylogenetic groups was investigated by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerised casein, gelatin and fibrinogen as substrates. the activity was specified to be trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like by the cleavage of synthetic substrates bapna and saapfna, respectively. nine strains degrade casein and the synthetic substrate bapna. chymotrypsin-like activity specifically inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride ...200111470357
identification of oral spirochetes at the species level and their association with other bacteria in endodontic infections.recent molecular approaches have revealed that fastidious organisms such as bacteroides forsythus and oral treponemes were frequently found in root canals with apical periodontitis. the purpose of this study was to identify the isolates of oral spirochetes at the species level in endodontic infections and to determine their association with b forsythus and porphyromonas gingivalis.200111552154
treponema socranskii, treponema denticola, and porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with severity of periodontal tissue destruction.the aim of the present study was to identify treponema socranskii in addition to treponema denticola and porphyromonas gingivalis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and to clarify the relationship between the presence of these microorganisms and the severity of clinical periodontal parameters.200111699477
molecular analysis of bacteria in periodontitis: evaluation of clone libraries, novel phylotypes and putative pathogens.subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 26 subjects with advanced periodontal lesions. bacterial diversity was analysed by amplification of the 16s rrna genes with two different primer sets, and subsequent cloning and sequencing. a total of 578 sequences was analysed after the exclusion of chimeras. the authors found 148 phylotypes with the clone library 27f/519r (number of clones n=322; coverage, c=66 %) and 75 phylotypes with the clone library 515f/1525r (n=256; c=84 %). comparative sequ ...200312576581
changes in oral microbial profiles after periodontal treatment as determined by molecular analysis of 16s rrna genes.terminal rflp (t-rflp) analysis was used to investigate changes in the oral microbiota in saliva and subgingival plaque samples from one patient with aggressive periodontitis (subject a) and two patients with chronic periodontitis (subjects b and c) before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. substantial changes in the t-rflp patterns of subgingival plaque samples of subjects b and c were noted after 3 months of improved oral hygiene and full-mouth supra- and subgingival scaling and root pl ...200415150339
treponema species associated with abscesses of endodontic origin.spirochetes have been frequently observed in abscesses of endodontic origin, but they have rarely been identified. this study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral treponemes in acute periradicular abscesses using a species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assay. purulent exudate was collected by aspiration from 19 cases diagnosed as acute periradicular abscesses and dna extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16s rdna primers. a second round of a ...200415327648
prostaglandin e(2) is a main mediator in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappab ligand-dependent osteoclastogenesis induced by porphyromonas gingivalis, treponema denticola, and treponema socranskii.periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that often leads to destruction of alveolar bone; a number of bacteria in subgingival plaque are associated with bone destruction in periodontitis. to understand the mechanism of how periodontopathogens induce osteoclastogenesis, we determined which mediators are involved in the osteoclastogenesis.200515898943
nutritional analysis and an enriched medium for fermentative treponemes isolated from subgingival plaque.in order to cultivate fermentative treponemes isolated on medium 10 with the plate-in-bottle method from subgingival plaque, we developed the enriched medium 10. enriched medium 10 broth consisted mainly of trypticase peptone (2 g/l), yeast extract (10 g/l), glucose (5 g/l) and volatile fatty acids mixture (3.1 ml/l). the growth curves in enriched medium 10 broth showed that clinical isolates of treponema socranskii reached the early stationary phase on the 3rd-5th day, and the doubling times av ...19968941771
antimicrobial therapy using a local drug delivery system (arestin) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. i: microbiological outcomes.to assess the microbiological outcome of local administration of minocycline hydrochloride microspheres 1 mg (arestin) in cases with peri-implantitis and with a follow-up period of 12 months.200616907769
capillary zone electrophoresis as a new tool in the chemotaxonomy of oral treponemes.the existing taxonomy of oral treponemes is not satisfactory. this is due to the fact that these strict anaerobic bacteria are not easily cultivated or differentiated. therefore, new techniques that can contribute to improved cultivation, classification, and identification of these fastidious organisms should be welcomed. in the present study capillary zone electrophoresis (cze) was used to distinguish oral treponemes by their metabolic product patterns generated in a liquid medium. to our knowl ...19957663679
molecular analysis of the subgingival microbiota in health and disease.this investigation provides molecular analyses of the periodontal microbiota in health and disease. subgingival samples from 47 volunteers with healthy gingivae or clinically diagnosed chronic periodontitis were characterized by pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) with primers specific for the v2-v3 region of the eubacterial 16s rrna gene. a hierarchical dendrogram was constructed from band patterns. all unique pcr amplicons (dgge bands) were sequenced for identity. samples were a ...200717085691
fatty acids synthesized by oral treponemes in chemically defined media.omiz-w68, a chemically defined medium that contains no long-chain fatty acids and yet supports in vitro proliferation of a wide range of fastidious oral anaerobes, is described. the type strains of treponema denticola, treponema lecithinolyticum, treponema maltophilum, treponema pectinovorum, treponema socranskii, and an as yet unpublished canine treponema species could be propagated indefinitely in this medium with sugar supplements for the saccharolytic species. analysis of the cellular fatty ...200717229060
evaluation of the microbiota of primary endodontic infections using checkerboard dna-dna hybridization.the aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of the microbiota of primary endodontic infections in 111 selected cases of single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulp.200717949342
a microbiological profile of symptomatic teeth with primary endodontic infections.the aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of the microbiota of primary endodontic infections associated with symptomatic teeth. samples were collected by means of a #15 h-type file and 2 sterile paper points from 60 symptomatic (n = 30) or asymptomatic (n = 30) single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulp. the presence of 40 bacterial species was determined by the checkerboard dna-dna hybridization method. the species found in higher counts (x10(5)) in symptomatic cases were fusobacterium ...200818436031
comparative analysis of endodontic pathogens using checkerboard hybridization in relation to culture.the purpose of this study was to detect bacterial species and to quantify the total number of bacteria from samples of infected root canals before (s1) and after chemo-mechanical preparation using 2% chlorhexidine (chx) gel as auxiliary chemical substance (s2) and after 7 days of intracanal dressing (s3) to compare microbial changes.200818582327
characterization of oral treponemes isolated from human periodontal pockets.a total of 90 clinical strains of oral treponemes was isolated from subgingival plaque in patients with periodontal disease. they were characterized by biochemical means as well as cell enzyme, protein analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and dna dot blot hybridization. sixty strains were isolated on medium 10 (m10), which was fundamentally serum-free. the remainder were isolated on serum-containing media. isolates were divided into 6 groups according to their ...19958596668
population genetic analysis of oral treponemes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.seventeen treponemes recently isolated from necrotic pulps, periodontal and periapical infections and 17 previously well characterized oral treponemal strains were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. ten genetic loci were characterized on the basis of the electrophoretic mobilities of their enzymatic products. all loci were polymorphic. the average number of alleles per locus was 7.8. the genetic diversity among the electrophoretic types at each locus ranged from 0.624 to 0.836 with a ...19958596667
subgingival distribution of treponema denticola, treponema socranskii, and pathogen-related oral spirochetes: prevalence and relationship to periodontal status of sampled sites.aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the intraoral distribution of the spirochete morphogroup and of 7 antigenically distinct oral treponema, and to relate their presence to periodontal status. periodontal tissues were evaluated at 4 sites on every tooth except third molars and 76 subjects were classified according to the worst periodontal condition at any one site: group 1, gingivitis (n = 13); group 2, early periodontitis (n = 38); and group 3, advanced periodontitis (n = 25). s ...19958537864
antigenic activity of bacterial endodontic contents from primary root canal infection with periapical lesions against macrophage in the release of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.periradicular tissue chronic stimulation by endotoxin may cause apical periodontitis. this study investigated the microbial profile and the levels of endotoxin found in primary root canal infection with apical periodontitis, determined their antigenicity against macrophages through the levels of interleukin (il)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha), and evaluated their relationship with clinical and radiographic findings.201020728711
subgingival microbial profiles of smokers with periodontitis.the subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. we tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16s sequencing. smokers ...201020739702
phylogenetic analysis of cultivable oral treponemes from the smibert collection.dr. robert smibert from the virginia polytechnic institute, usa, isolated and collected over 200 strains of oral treponemes over a 20-year period. dr. smibert, dr. w.e.c. moore and dr. l.v. moore separated these isolates and reference strains into different groups on the basis of cellular fatty acid analysis. in this study, the 16s rrna genes were sequenced for 47 strains that were representative of these groups. five distinct species were identified on the basis of 16s rrna sequence comparisons ...19989734025
gram-negative periodontal pathogens and bacterial endotoxin in metallic orthodontic brackets with or without an antimicrobial agent: an in-vivo study.high levels of periodontal pathogens can cause periodontal alterations. the presence of endotoxin might be responsible for the occurrence and progression of tissue inflammation and bone resorption. the aims of this study were to use checkerboard dna-dna hybridization and limulus amebocyte lysate assay to evaluate in metallic orthodontic brackets (1) the presence of 16 gram-negative periodontal pathogenic microorganisms of the orange complex and red complex +treponema socranskii, (2) the amount o ...201122133962
molecular detection of in-vivo microbial contamination of metallic orthodontic brackets by checkerboard dna-dna hybridization.knowing the microbiota that colonizes orthodontic appliances is important for planning strategies and implementing specific preventive measures during treatment. the purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate in vivo the contamination of metallic orthodontic brackets with 40 dna probes for different bacterial species by using the checkerboard dna-dna hybridization (cddh) technique.201222196182
analysis of the complement sensitivity of oral treponemes and the potential influence of fh binding, fh cleavage and dentilisin activity on the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.treponema denticola, a periopathogen, evades complement-mediated killing by binding the negative complement regulatory protein factor h (fh) to its surface via the fhbb protein. paradoxically, bound fh is cleaved by t. denticola's dentilisin protease, a process hypothesized to trigger localized dysregulation of complement activation in periodontal pockets. the ability of other oral treponemes to evade complement-mediated killing and bind and cleave fh has not been assessed. in this report, we de ...201424815960
subgingival microbiota in adult down syndrome periodontitis.the subgingival microbiota in down syndrome and non-down syndrome adults receiving periodic dental care was examined for 40 bacterial species using checkerboard dna-dna hybridization and the results were related to clinical periodontal attachment loss.201222221039
does obesity influence the subgingival microbiota composition in periodontal health and disease?to evaluate whether obesity affects the subgingival microbial composition of patients with periodontal health or chronic periodontitis (cp).201627717180
cluster of bacteria associated with peri-implantitis.information on the microbiota in peri-implantitis is limited. we hypothesized that neither gender nor a history of periodontitis/smoking or the microbiota at implants differ by implant status.201423527870
microbial diversity in persistent root canal infections investigated by checkerboard dna-dna hybridization.the aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of the root canal microbiota in endodontic failures in order to identify and quantify these microorganisms.201424935532
an investigation of the presence of specific anaerobic species in necrotic primary teeth.different microbial identification methods have shown that the microbial community profiles in endodontic infections are diverse and assorted. the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of selected endodontic pathogens in the pulp chambers (pcs) and root canals (rcs) of infected primary teeth using pcr methods. paired pc and rc samples were collected from 15 subjects and analyzed by pcr for the presence of filifactor alocis, fusobacterium nucleatum, parvimonas micra, porphyromonas endod ...201323538426
comparison of endotoxin levels found in primary and secondary endodontic infections.this clinical study was conducted to compare the levels of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [lpss]) found in primary and secondary endodontic infections with apical periodontitis by correlating lps contents with clinical/radiographic findings. in addition, the presence of target gram-negative anaerobic bacteria was also investigated.201222794210
characterization of a 4.2-kb plasmid isolated from periodontopathic spirochetes.oral anaerobic treponemes are assoicated with active periodontal disease and may comprise up to 57% of the microbiota in periodontal pockets. four treponeme strains (designated u2a, u2b, u9b, and u9c) isolated from clincial cases were found to harbor a new 4.2-kb plasmid when plasmid dna was extracted and purified employing the qiagen plasmid kit. this plasmid differs from the smaller plasmids (2.0-, 2.6-, and 2.7-kb) reported previously by others in treponema denticola. the newly discovered 4.2 ...19969556407
detection of pathogen-related oral spirochetes, treponema denticola, and treponema socranskii in dental plaque from dogs.spirochetes have been observed in dental plaque from dogs, but specific spirochetes have not been identified. in particular, it is not known whether treponemes associated with periodontal diseases in humans also occur in dogs, and whether, like in humans, detection of specific treponemes correlates with periodontal status of dogs. forty-two dogs were grouped according to the worst periodontal condition in the mouth, as determined by overt signs of inflammation and pocket probing depths. a repres ...19969520788
identification, isolation, and characterization of the 42-kilodalton major outer membrane protein (mompa) from treponema pectinovorum atcc 33768.the major protein present in the isolated outer membrane of treponema pectinovorum atcc 33768, mompa, was identified, purified, and characterized. immuno-gold electron microscopy, using anti-mompa serum, and cell fractionation experiments confirmed the localization of mompa to the outer membrane. mompa was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to have a molecular mass of 42 kda when heat denatured, whereas native mompa formed a number of detergent-stable forms w ...19979335294
visualization of an extracellular mucoid layer of treponema denticola atcc 35405 and surface sugar lectin analysis of some treponema species.slime layers and capsules are common amongst medically relevant bacteria. we herein report that treponema denticola, which has been associated with periodontitis, synthesizes or acquires an extracellular polysaccharide layer that we have observed through electron microscopy using the polysaccharide-specific dye alcian blue and phosphotungstate. we have also visualized this extracellular layer by dark-field microscopy of alcian blue-stained spirochete cells. a representative strain of each of the ...19979227137
treponema maltophilum sp. nov., a small oral spirochete isolated from human periodontal lesions.a novel culture medium for cultivation of fastidious oral anaerobes is described. this medium, omiz-pat, consists of a rich chemically defined basal medium supplemented with asialofetuin, as well as yeast extract and neopeptone fractions. addition of 1 mg of rifampin per liter and 100 mg of fosfomycin per liter allowed routine isolation of spirochetes by a limit dilution method in 96-well plates containing liquid omiz-pat. in addition to members of the four previously recognized species of oral ...19968782684
common and specific antigens of several treponemes detected by polyclonal antisera against major cellular proteins.thirteen polypeptide antigens with molecular weights ranging from 34 kda to 83 kda were selected and their antigenic behaviors and distribution were examined in 12 strains of microorganisms including treponema, borrelia, leptospira and leptonema. immunoblot analysis demonstrated that 45 kda and 83 kda polypeptides of treponema socranskii subsp. buccale atcc 35534, 53 kda antigen of treponema denticola atcc 33520 and 44 kda polypeptide of the strain g7201 were strain-specific. the 34, 62, 66 and ...19938265202
ribotyping on small-sized spirochetes isolated from subgingival plaque.in the present study dna restriction patterns and corresponding ribotypes of 17 subgingival small-sized spirochetes (1:2:1 and 2:4:2 isolates), 2 treponema socranskii strains and two treponema denticola strains were examined. purified chromosomal dna was digested by bamhi, hindiii, psti and clai. the dna fragments were separated in a horizontal slab of 0.7% agarose containing ethidium bromide and transferred by nylon membranes. hybridization was carried out with digoxigenin-labelled copy dna of ...19957543994
treponema socranskii in primary endodontic infections as detected by nested pcr.spirochetes have been frequently observed in root canal infections, but they were rarely identified. the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of treponema socranskii in primary endodontic infections using a species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assay. samples were collected from 60 teeth having carious lesions, necrotic pulps, and different forms of periradicular diseases. dna extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16s rdna primers. a se ...200312701771
molecular and immunological evidence of oral treponema in the human brain and their association with alzheimer's disease.the purpose of this investigation was to use molecular and immunological techniques to determine whether oral treponema infected the human brain. pieces of frontal lobe cortex from 34 subjects were analyzed with species-specific pcr and monoclonal antibodies. pcr detected treponema in 14/16 alzheimer's disease (ad) and 4/18 non-ad donors (p < 0.001), and ad specimens had more treponema species than controls (p < 0.001). pcr also detected treponema in trigeminal ganglia from three ad and two cont ...200211929559
treponema denticola (ex brumpt 1925) sp. nov., nom. rev., and identification of new spirochete isolates from periodontal pockets.standard growth and isolation methods were used to obtain five new treponema strains in pure culture from deep periodontal pockets. the strains were identified to the species level by various methods, including agglutination, immunofluorescence, a dot blot immunoassay, electron microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography of metabolic volatile fatty acids, and dna hybridization. two isolates were strains of treponema socranskii; the other three were strains of "treponema denticola," a species described ...19938494734
[isolation and characterization of oral treponemes].the oral treponemes were isolated on nine media and classified according to anaerobe laboratory manual (1977). the four media, which were used with the plate-in-bottle method, were medium 10 (m10), m10 supplemented with 10% rumen fluid, m10 supplemented with 10% rabbit serum and cocarboxylate, and m10 added with rifampicin. the five media with the anaerobic glove box method were new oral spirochetes (nos) medium, nos medium added with rifampicin, alternated modified oral treponemes isolation (ao ...19938482899
distribution and characterization of plasmids in oral anaerobic spirochetes.fifteen oral spirochete strains belonging to the species treponema denticola, treponema vencentii and treponema socranskii as well as 9 fresh clinical isolates were screened for the presence of extrachromosomal plasmid dna by a modified alkaline lysis procedure. a 2.6-kb plasmid was detected in both t. denticola atcc 33520 and t. denticola e'. the 2.6-kb plasmid from t. denticola e' was shown to be similar to ptd1, previously reported by ivic et al. in t. denticola atcc 33520 on the basis of mol ...19957644276
phenol/water extract of treponema socranskii subsp. socranskii as an antagonist of toll-like receptor 4 signalling.treponema socranskii is one of the most frequently found oral spirochaetes in periodontitis and endodontic infections. lps or glycolipids from bacteria are potent stimulators of innate immune and inflammatory systems. in this study the bioactivity of a phenol/water extract from t. socranskii subsp. socranskii (tss-p) was analysed. tss-p showed minimal endotoxicity and no inducing potential for proinflammatory cytokines (tnf-alpha and il-8) or for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in hum ...200616436441
[collagen-binding proteins of human oral spirochetes].to evaluate pathogenic effect of the collagen-binding proteins(cbp) of human oral spirochetes.199911776931
taxonomy and virulence of oral spirochetes.all oral spirochetes are classified in the genus treponema. this genus is in the family spirochaetaceae as in bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. other generic members of the family include spirochaeta, cristispira and borrelia. this conventional classification is in accord with phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes based on 16s rrna cataloguing. the oral spirochetes fall naturally within the grouping of treponema. only four species of treponema have been cultivated and maintained rel ...200011155157
detection of treponema socranskii associated with human periodontitis by pcr.a pcr technique was used to detect and identify treponema socranskii associated with periodontitis. a species-specific forward primer was designed for a variable region within its 16s rrna gene and was used in conjunction with a conserved reverse primer. this primer pair was tested for specificity against 44 oral bacterial strains. sensitivity was determined using a serial dilution of t. socranskii cells. amplification products were obtained from all t. socranskii strains tested, but not from ot ...199910449255
restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of 16s ribosomal rna genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction for rapid identification of cultivable oral treponemes.although oral treponemes are among the most frequently found bacteria in periodontal pockets, identification of these organisms can be difficult. in this study, restriction fragment-length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified 16s ribosomal rna genes (16s rrna gene pcr-rflp) was used to generate restriction profiles of reference strains of oral treponemes including treponema denticola, treponema socranskii, treponema vincentii. treponema pectinovorum and trepo ...199910219171
identification of four treponema species in subgingival samples by nested-pcr and their correlation with clinical diagnosis.the relationship between different species of oral treponemas and inflammation in periodontal disease progression is complex. the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the subgingival plaque samples collected from periodontally healthy subjects and from chronic gingivitis and periodontitis patients in order to detect the presence of t. denticola, t. pectinovorum, t. socranskii and t. vincentii using nested-pcr technology. after dna extraction from the samples using qiamp dna mini kit ...201222838219
differential attachment of oral treponemes to monolayers of epithelial cells.this in vitro study describes the attachment properties of several oral treponemes to monolayers of epithelial cells and the effect of epithelial cell confluence on treponeme attachment. four serotypes of treponema denticola, treponema scoliodontum, three subspecies of treponema socranskii, and treponema vincentii were tested with monolayers of epithelial cells of human and canine origin. attachment of oral treponemes were compared to attachment by t. pallidum subsp. pallidum, and by the non-pat ...19979358369
molecular epidemiology of oral treponemes in patients with periodontitis and in periodontitis-resistant subjects.the etiologic role of oral treponemes in human periodontitis is still under debate. although seen by dark-field microscopy in large numbers, their possible role is still unclear since they comprise some 60 different phylotypes, most of which are still uncultured. to determine their status as mere commensals or opportunistic pathogens, molecular epidemiological studies are required that include both cultured and as-yet-uncultured organisms. here we present such data, comparing treponemal populati ...200616954230
identity of 1:2:1 and 2:4:2 subgingival spirochetes by dna hybridization.a group of 1:2:1 and 2:4:2 subgingival spirochetes, well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid and carbohydrate analyses, and ribotyping, was recently suggested to represent new treponemal species. the present study used dna hybridization to examine this possibility. when dna of a representative strain (no. 16) of the 8 1:2:1 spirochetes examined was labeled by iodination, it showed, after s1 nuclease treatment, from 58 to 104% (average 76%) ho ...19958602347
short-term clinical and microbiological evaluations of peri-implant diseases before and after mechanical anti-infective therapies.the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of mechanical anti-infective therapies for mucositis and peri-implantitis.200919126114
isolation of spirochetes of genus treponema from pigs with ear necrosis.various ear lesions, often caused by ear biting, are common in pigs. some herds have a high frequency of ear necrosis, a syndrome characterized by necrotic lesions along the rim of the pinna, often bilateral and sometimes resulting in loss of the entire ear. in samples from such lesions spirochetes have been observed microscopically but never isolated or identified. in this study two herds with periodic outbreaks of ear necrosis among weaners were investigated. samples were collected from ear le ...200919556080
experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.the pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed.201121625744
the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birthweight: clinical and microbiological results.findings on the effect of periodontal disease on preterm low birthweight are inconclusive. the objective of this study was to compare periodontal clinical measures and the levels and proportions of 39 bacterial species in subgingival biofilm samples in puerperal women with preterm low birthweight and nonpreterm low birthweight.200818702632
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