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treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows.log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. this study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (elymus repens) and willows (salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a norway spruce (picea abies) log yard. the purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-l lysimeters ...200615996802
root-associated n(2) fixation (acetylene reduction) by enterobacteriaceae and azospirillum strains in cold-climate spodosols.n(2) fixation by bacteria in associative symbiosis with washed roots of 13 poaceae and 8 other noncultivated plant species in finland was demonstrated by the acetylene reduction method. the roots most active in c(2)h(2) reduction were those of agrostis stolonifera, calamagrostis lanceolata, elytrigia repens, and phalaris arundinacea, which produced 538 to 1,510 nmol of c(2)h(4).g (dry weight). h when incubated at po(2) 0.04 with sucrose (ph 6.5), and 70 to 269 nmol of c(2)h(4). g (dry weight).h ...198116345687
[pantoea agglomerans--pathogen of elytrigia repens and arrhenatherum elatius diseases].strains of pantoea agglomerans were isolated from the samples with symptoms of bacterial damage of various organs of elytrigia repens and arrhenatherum elatius. the isolated bacteria are aggressive to different extent for a host-plant and a number of cultivated plants. some problems of evolution of this bacterial species parasitism are discussed.200717427410
wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the polish countryside: a review.this paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of poland.200717433114
recent natural hybridization between two allopolyploid wheatgrasses (elytrigia, poaceae): ecological and evolutionary implications.natural hybridization was investigated between two predominantly allohexaploid wheatgrasses, weedy elytrigia repens and steppic e. intermedia, with respect to habitats characterized by different degrees of anthropogenic disturbance.200717562679
ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in british columbia, canada.this paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in british columbia, canada. ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. the majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. the following plants were used as anthelmintics: artemisi ...200717628343
reproduction of pratylenchus penetrans on 24 common weeds in potato fields in québec.twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. brown mustard (brassica juncea) and rye (secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. cfpm 101 (pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (pf/pi >/= rye or brown mustard). cirsium arvense, leucanthe ...200719259506
[phytopathogenic bacteria of couch-grass in the crops of wheat].bacterialdiseases of weeds in the crops of wheat on the fields of kyiv and vinnytsya regions of ukraine elytrigia repens (l.) nevski agropyrum repens l. were revealed. the following symptoms of bacterial affections: the leaves wither, oval or hatched necrotic spots on green leaves, necroses on the stalks, empty-ears, partial blackening of the ear axes, awns, caryopsises, scales, water-soaked or dark brown with violet shade spots on the rhizomes were found. during the vegetation period bacteria w ...200919938603
a comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy.six plant species in the family gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu grime (1979: plant growth strategies and vegetation processes, john wiley). the roots of 66 day old elymus repens (l.) gould., bromus sterilis l., agrostis stolonifera l., anthoxanthum odoratum l., festuca ovina l. and nardus stricta l. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable cs at 0. ...199715093445
agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of elitrigia repens.a strain of ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of the perennial weed elytrigia repens, produced several toxins in a liquid medium, and its primary toxin, named agropyrenol, was characterized as a substituted salicylaldehyde on the basis of its chemical and spectroscopic properties. its absolute stereochemistry was determined by mosher's method. two other minor metabolites were isolated from the same culture and named agropyrenal and agropyrenone, respectively. they were characteri ...201222525222
impact of field margin vegetation and herbage removal on ingrowing and anemochorous weeds.this research studies the effect of different ways to establish and to maintain unfertilised field margins on the development of potential weed plants and seed dispersal into adjacent crops. plant communities in field margins either developed spontaneously or were sown with different seed mixtures of grasses and forbs. margins were mown twice a year and the cuttings were either removed or not. three years after establishment, the importance of important weeds elymus repens, cirsium arvense and u ...200617390818
change in acceptability of barley plants to aphids after exposure to allelochemicals from couch-grass (elytrigia repens).the response of the bird cherry-oat aphid, rhopalosiphum padi, to barley plants was investigated following exposure of the plants to root allelochemicals from the aggressive weed couch-grass, elytrigia (agropyron) repens. plants were treated either with root exudates from living couch-grass plants or with previously identified couch-grass root compounds 15-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, dl-5-hydroxytryptophan, l-5-hydroxytryptophan hydrate, and 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxy ...200312737257
morphological and aflp variation of elymus repens (l.) gould (poaceae).combined morphological and molecular techniques were used to characterize variation in elymus repens. we studied the morphological variability of e. repens in relation to the degree of its genetic differentiation, in order to unravel the causes of conspicuous intraspecific morphological variation. four populations of e. repens from different habitats were analyzed for 35 morphological characters, and their genetic differentiation was assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp). fou ...200212378260
reticulate evolution, introgression, and intertribal gene capture in an allohexaploid grass.recent molecular phylogenetic studies of polyploid plants have successfully clarified complex patterns of reticulate evolution. in this study of elymus repens, an allohexaploid member of the wheat tribe triticeae, chloroplast and nuclear dna data reveal an extreme reticulate pattern, revealing at least five distinct gene lineages coexisting within the species, acquired through a possible combination of allohexaploidy and introgression from both within and beyond the triticeae. earlier cytogeneti ...200414965898
allohexaploidy, introgression, and the complex phylogenetic history of elymus repens (poaceae).the phylogenetic position of hexaploid elymus repens within the tribe triticeae (poaceae) was examined using cloned sequences from the low-copy nuclear genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) and beta-amylase. a previous analysis of e. repens using data from the nuclear granule-bound starch synthase i (gbssi) gene had yielded five phylogenetically distinct gene copies, two more than expected from hexaploidy alone. the three gene trees share three distinct e. repens clades, suggesti ...200818372193
a contribution to characterisation of genetic variation in some natural polish populations of elymus repens (l.) gould and elymus hispidus (opiz) melderis (poaceae) as revealed by rapd markers.to determine the relative importance of clonal growth and sexual reproduction, the randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) method was used to study genetic diversity and clonal structure of six populations of elymus repens and four populations of elymus hispidus from poland. these outbreeding species are virtually self-sterile and form widely spreading and long-lived rhizomes. using 12 primers, a total of 150 unambiguous rapd fragments were amplified and scored. results of amova showed no sign ...200919689785
gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid elymus repens (l.) gould (poaceae, triticeae) as evidenced by its, gbssi, and molecular cytogenetics.four accessions of hexaploid elymus repens from its native central european distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, its) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase i, gbssi) dna in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (gish and fish) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. despite extensive its homogenization, nrdna in e. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. apart from pseudoroegneria and hor ...201020106909
polymorphic nuclear gene sequences indicate a novel genome donor in the polyploid genus thinopyrum.for decades, the wheatgrass genus thinopyrum has been of interest to plant breeders as a source of genes that confer competitive traits. this genus has been a considerable challenge to plant systematists because of the impacts of polyploidization on the evolution of this group. this study was aimed to augment existing cytogenetic data with a sequence-based investigation of the genomes of these species. sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1), introns 9 through 11 of the granule-bou ...201121410467
agropyrenol, a phytotoxic fungal metabolite, and its derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.agropyrenol is a phytotoxic substituted salicylic aldehyde produced in liquid culture by ascochyta agropyrina var. nana , a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the perennial weed elytrigia repens. in this study, six derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and zootoxic activities, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. each compound was tested on non-host weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, gram-positiv ...201323360387
molecular cytogenetic analysis of wheat - elymus repens introgression lines with resistance to fusarium head blight.elymus repens (l.) gould (2n = 6x = 42, ststststhh) is a hexaploid perennial wheatgrass species from the tribe triticeae, distantly related to bread wheat triticum aestivum l. (2n = 6x = 42, aabbdd). as a potential source of resistance to fusarium head blight (fhb), e. repens was crossed to common wheat to transfer resistance genes. the progeny were advanced to homozygosity by single seed descent. a total of eight bc(1)f(9) progeny lines were selected and characterized in this study. the chromos ...201323379340
phylogeny and molecular evolution of the acc1 gene within the sth genome species in triticeae (poaceae).to estimate the phylogeny and molecular evolution of a single-copy gene encoding plastid acetyl-coa carboxylase (acc1) within the sth genome species, two acc1 homoeologous sequences were isolated from nearly all the sampled sth genome species and were analyzed with those from 35 diploid taxa representing 19 basic genomes in triticeae. sequence diversity patterns and genealogical analysis suggested that (1) the sth genome species from the same areas or neighboring geographic regions are closely r ...201323911302
an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of alaşehir (manisa) in turkey.this paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the alaşehir and its surrounding (manisa/turkey). there are scarcely any studies for using plants. there is urgency in recording such data. this is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by icf (informant consensus factor) method. this study aimed to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the local people of alaşehir, located in the aegean region of turkey, and to docu ...201324126062
genetic control of rhizomes and genomic localization of a major-effect growth habit qtl in perennial wildrye.rhizomes are prostrate subterranean stems that provide primitive mechanisms of vegetative dispersal, survival, and regrowth of perennial grasses and other monocots. the extent of rhizome proliferation varies greatly among grasses, being absent in cereals and other annuals, strictly confined in caespitose perennials, or highly invasive in some perennial weeds. however, genetic studies of rhizome proliferation are limited and genes controlling rhizomatous growth habit have not been elucidated. qua ...201424509730
plant traits respond to the competitive neighbourhood at different spatial and temporal scales.clonal plants can plastically modify their traits in response to competition, but little is known regarding the spatio-temporal scale at which a competitive neighbourhood determines the variability in species traits. this study tests the hypothesis that the local neighbourhood can be expected to influence the processes that are involved in competition tolerance and avoidance, and that this effect depends on organ lifespan.201525429007
an ethnobotany of the lukomir highlanders of bosnia & herzegovina.this aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the highlanders of lukomir, bjelašnica, bosnia and herzegovina (b&h). the highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak bosnian (bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of europe. this paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the balkans.201526607753
change in abundance of three phytophagous mite species (acari: eriophyidae, tetranychidae) on quackgrass in the presence of choke disease.phytophagous mites and endophytic fungi may interact when sharing a host plant, potentially influencing one another's growth or population dynamics; however, interactions between them are poorly known and remain largely unexplored. in this study, quantitative associations between three species of phytophagous mites and the endophytic fungus epichloë bromicola leuchtm. & schardl (clavicipitaceae, ascomycotina) on quackgrass, elymus repens (l.) gould are reported. the mites' abundance was assessed ...201627388448
elymus repens biomass allocation and acquisition as affected by light and nutrient supply and companion crop competition.competitive crops are a central component of resource-efficient weed control, especially for problematic perennial weeds such as elymus repens competition not only reduces total weed biomass, but denial of resources can also change the allocation pattern - potentially away from the underground storage organs that make perennial weeds difficult to control. thus, the competition mode of crops may be an important component in the design of resource-efficient cropping systems. our aim was to determi ...201728025285
functionally dissimilar neighbors accelerate litter decomposition in two grass species.plant litter decomposition is a key regulator of nutrient recycling. in a given environment, decomposition of litter from a focal species depends on its litter quality and on the efficiency of local decomposers. both may be strongly modified by functional traits of neighboring species, but the consequences for decomposition of litter from the focal species remain unknown. we tested whether decomposition of a focal plant's litter is influenced by the functional-trait dissimilarity to the neighbor ...201728205289
herbasl remedies for urinary stones used in india and china: a review.the process of formation or appearance of a urinary stone anywhere in the renal tract is known as urolithiasis. it is a longstanding health problem, known to exist since early age of civilization. records about symptoms, signs and treatment strategies of urinary stones diseases are found in the several ancient texts of traditional medicines such as ayurveda, traditional chinese medicine (tcm), siddha and unani. in ayurveda, urolithiasis has been considered as one of the eight most troublesome di ...201728344029
poaceae in the natural diet of the snail helix aspersa müller (gastropoda, pulmonata).the natural diet of helix aspersa was studied in two populations by analysing faeces. picris echioides, carduus tenuifloris, urtica dioica, galium molugo (dicotyledons) and poaceae (monocotyledons) were the principal resources of the studied populations. the species of poaceae ingested by helix aspersa in july were determined by analysing the phytoliths present in the faeces. festuca rubra, dactylis glomerata and bromus hordeaceus seemed to be attractive for the snails whereas elytrigia repens w ...200111725705
zymoseptoria ardabiliae and z. pseudotritici, two progenitor species of the septoria tritici leaf blotch fungus z. tritici (synonym: mycosphaerella graminicola).zymoseptoria is a newly described genus that includes the prominent wheat pathogen zymoseptoria tritici (synonyms mycosphaerella graminicola and septoria tritici). studies indicated that the center of origin of z. tritici is in the middle east where this important pathogen emerged during the domestication of wheat. several zymoseptoria species have been found on uncultivated grasses in the middle east, and in this article we describe two new zymoseptoria species from iran. these species, isolate ...201222675045
morphological variation in different host populations of abacarus hystrix (acari: prostigmata: eriophyoidea).the present systematic classification of eriophyoidea is widely recognised as artificial and not reflecting plant-herbivore linkage. quantitative description of host-related morphological variation can provide the basic information needed to improve the eriophyoid taxonomic system and enhance our understanding of mechanisms generating this variation. the purpose of this study was to investigate quantitative morphological traits of populations of cereal rust mite abacarus hystrix (nalepa 1896) li ...200212537292
plant species differ in their ability to reduce allocation to non-beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.theory suggests that cheaters threaten the persistence of mutualisms, but that sanctions to prevent cheating can stabilize mutualisms. in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, reports of parasitism suggest that reductions in plant carbon allocation are not universally effective. i asked whether plant species differences in mycorrhizal responsiveness would affect both their susceptibility to parasitism and their reduction in allocation to non-beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in high- ...201222690621
alternethanoxins c-e, further polycyclic ethanones produced by alternaria sonchi, a potential mycoherbicide for sonchus arvensis biocontrol.three new polycyclic ethanones, named alternethanoxins c-e, were isolated together with the well-known and closely related alternethanoxins a and b, from the solid culture of alternaria sonchi, a fungal pathogen proposed for perennial sowthistle (sonchus arvensis l.) biocontrol. alternethanoxins c-e were characterized by spectroscopic methods (essentially nmr and hresi ms) as 2'-dihydroxymethyl-2,5,6,6'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxy-biphenyl-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, 1,4,6,9,10-pentahydroxy-7-me ...201525623801
papyracillic acid, a phytotoxic 1,6-dioxaspiro[4,4]nonene produced by ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a potential mycoherbicide for elytrigia repens biocontrol.a strain of ascochyta agropyrina var. nana was isolated from elytrigia repens (quack grass), a noxious perennial weed widespread through the cold regions of the northen and southern hemispheres. papyracillic acid was isolated for the first time from the fungal solid culture and identified using spectroscopic methods, including x-ray diffractometric and cd analysis for the assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistries. some key derivatives were prepared and used in a structure-activit ...200919891481
stimulation of soil nitrification and denitrification by grazing in grasslands: do changes in plant species composition matter?stimulation of nitrification and denitrification by long term (from years to decades) grazing has commonly been reported in different grassland ecosystems. however, grazing generally induces important changes in plant species composition, and whether changes in nitrification and denitrification are primarily due to changes in vegetation composition has never been tested. we compared soil nitrification- and denitrification-enzyme activities (nea and dea, respectively) between semi-natural grassla ...200312955489
inoculum sources of the tan spot fungus pyrenophora tritici-repentis in the netherlands.since 1994 the importance of tan spot of wheat has increased in the wheat growing areas of the netherlands. the purpose of the present study was to determine inoculum sources of this disease caused by pyrenophora tritici-repentis. both in 1999 and 2000, the incidence of tan spot was assessed in 40 commercial fields of winter wheat scattered over the main wheat growing areas of the netherlands. adjoining fields were checked for presence of stubble or crops with straw covers and the surrounding ve ...200212701430
genome discrimination by in situ hybridization in icelandic species of elymus and elytrigia (poaceae: triticeae).the genome constitution of icelandic elymus caninus, e. alaskanus, and elytrigia repens was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization using genomic dna and selected cloned sequences as probes. genomic in situ hybridization (gish) of hordeum brachyantherum ssp. californicum (diploid, h genome) probe confirmed the presence of an h genome in the two tetraploid elymus species and identified its presence in the hexaploid elytrigia repens. the h chromosomes were painted uniformly except for some ...200111341738
factors affecting population trends of plant-parasitic nematodes on rangeland grasses.the effects of environmental conditions on population trends of plant-parasitic nematodes were studied in experimental plots of five wheatgrasses in the western utah desert. in a 3-year (1984-86) field study, soil water and temperature affected the population trends of the ectoparasites, tylenchorhynchus acutoides and xiphinema americanum, and the migratory endoparasite, pratylenchus neglectus, on fairway crested wheatgrass, agropyron cristatum; 'hycrest' crested wheatgrass, a. cristatum x a. de ...199619277352
genetic variation for waterlogging tolerance in the triticeae and the chromosomal location of genes conferring waterlogging tolerance in thinopyrum elongatum.a number of triticeae species were tested for tiller production, shoot dry matter production, and root penetration in waterlogged soil, and thinopyrum elongatum and elytrigia repens were shown to have better tolerance than wheat using these criteria. tests of a number of wheat-alien amphiploids showed that there was at least partial expression of this exotic genetic variation in a wheat genetic background. the presence of chromosomes 2e and 4e of th. elongatum was associated with a positive effe ...199318470030
genome analysis of elytrigia caespitosa, lophopyrum nodosum, pseudoroegneria geniculata ssp. scythica, and thinopyrum intermedium (triticeae: gramineae).to elucidate the genome constitutions of the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) species elytrigia caespitosa, lophopyrum nodosum, and pseudoroegneria geniculata ssp. scythica and the hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) thinopyrum intermedium, meiotic pairing was studied in these species as well as 10 hybrids. karyotype analysis with aceto-orcein stained root-tip cells was performed for the four species and the hybrids of t. bessarabicum with e. caespitosa, p. geniculata ssp. scythica, and t. intermedium. karyotype ...199318469974
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