the potential for using entomopathogenic nematodes to control darkwinged fungus gnats bradysia coprophila (lintner) on succulents in glass houses.darkwinged fungus gnat bradysia coprophila lintner (diptera: sciaridae) is known as a pest of ornamental plants in commercial green and glass houses in nurseries worldwide. there have been reports about significant bradysia coprophila damage of succulent plants in five botanical gardens in ukraine, including academician fomin's botanical garden (kiev) for the last three years. in pot experiments the commercial strain of s.feltiae to control b. coprophila was tested on mammilaria, opuntia, echino ...201527145569
efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes and sprayable polymer gel against crucifer flea beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) on canola.the crucifer flea beetle, phyllotreta cruciferae (goeze), is a key pest of canola (brassica napus l.) in the northern great plains of north america. the efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernema spp. and heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row ...201627329629
infectivity of steinernema carpocapsae and s. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, curculio nucum: differential virulence and entry routes.we investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, curculio nucum l. (coleoptera:, curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, steinernema carpocapsae strain b14 and s. feltiae strain d114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. our results suggested that s. carpocapsae b14 and s. feltiae d114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. larvae were more susceptible to s. ...201425276002
the influence of humidity on the effect of steinernema feltiae against diapausing codling moth larvae (cydia pomonella l.) (lepidoptera: tortricidae).codling moth (cm) is a serious and global pest of pome fruit. it overwinters in cryptic habitats as cocooned diapausing larvae. field trials with the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae (rhabditida: steinernematidae) report control of diapausing cm of up to 70%, but results are variable. the objective of this study was to define environmental conditions favouring the performance of the nematodes. cocooned larvae were more susceptible than non-cocooned larvae. s. feltiae was unable to i ...201021539244
factors affecting entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernematidae) for control of overwintering codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in fruit bins.fruit bins infested with diapausing codling moth larvae, cydia pomonella (l.), are a potential source of reinfestation of orchards and may jeopardize the success of mating disruption programs and other control strategies. entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) were tested as a potential means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks. diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae in miniature fruit bins were highly susceptible to infective juveniles (ijs) of steinernema ...200516539105
improving the biocontrol potential of steinernema feltiae against delia radicum through dosage, application technique and timing.the potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (epn) steinernema feltiae filipjev as a biocontrol agent against the cabbage maggot delia radicum (l.), was assessed in three field tests, focusing on epn dosage, application technique and timing.201423943630
phoresy of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae by the earthworm eisenia fetida.the free-living stage of entomopathogenic nematodes occurs in soil, and is an environmental-friendly alternative for biological control. however, their dispersal capability is limited. earthworms improve soil characteristics, changing soil structure and influencing many edaphic organisms. thus, earthworms could be used as vectors to introduce/disperse beneficial organisms. nevertheless this interaction has not been studied in detail. this study presents the infectivity results of steinernema fel ...200616542677
molecular detection of predation by soil micro-arthropods on nematodes.the relative importance of the factors driving change in the population dynamics of nematodes in the soil is almost completely unknown. top-down control by micro-arthropod predators may have a significant impact on nematode population dynamics. we report experiments showing that mites and collembola were capable of reducing nematode numbers in the laboratory and were feeding on a targeted nematode species in the field. a pcr-based approach was developed for the detection of predation on three sp ...200616689911
ammonia concentration at emergence and its effects on the recovery of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes.the life cycle of entomopathogenic nematodes (epn) occurs inside an insect cadaver and an accumulation of ammonia initiates as a consequence of the nematodes defecation. this accumulation reduces the food resources quality and creates a detrimental environment for nematodes. when a given ammonia concentration is reached, the nematodes start their emergence process, searching for a new host. in the present work, this parameter, ammonia triggering point (atp) was measured in 7 steinernema species/ ...201424880156
host resistance reverses the outcome of competition between microparasites.predators and parasites can control the abundance or biomass of herbivores with indirect effects on producer communities and ecosystems, but the interplay of multiple natural enemies may yield unexpected dynamics. we experimentally examined interactions between two microparasites (entomopathogenic nematodes) isolated from sandy grassland soils of coastal california: heterorhabditis marelatus (heterorhabditidae) and steinernema feltiae (steinernematidae). heterorhabditis marelatus drives trophic ...200919694121
cuticular surface lipids are responsible for disguise properties of an entomoparasite against host cellular responses.entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used as alternatives to chemicals for the biological control of insects. these endoparasites are symbiotically associated with bacteria that are lethal for the host; however, parasites need to overcome the host immune defences to complete a successful life cycle. the processes parasites employ to escape or depress host immunity are targeted at deceiving non-self recognition as well as inactivating defence reactions. the purpose of this paper is to investigat ...200818374979
dynamics of carbon dioxide release from insects infected with entomopathogenic nematodes.the quality of an insect as a host to an entomopathogenic nematode infective juvenile depends in part on whether or not the insect is already infected and on the stage of that infection. previous research has shown that nematode response to hosts can change after infection and that, for uninfected hosts, co(2) can be an important cue used by infective stage juveniles during attraction. we hypothesized that co(2) production from an insect changes after it is infected, and that these changes could ...200717054978
soil mediates the interaction of coexisting entomopathogenic nematodes with an insect host.we tested for soil substrate effects on the movement and infectivity of naturally co-occurring entomopathogenic nematodes steinernema feltiae and heterorhabditis marelatus, alone and in combination. we manipulated the presence and bulk density of soil and added galleria mellonella baits within capped and perforated 15ml centrifuge tubes. sampling tubes were then deployed in situ into field and laboratory settings as experimental traps for infective juveniles. in comparisons with standard soil co ...200717005194
emergence and dispersal patterns of two isolates of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae.few studies have addressed the role of the sexes in the emergence and dispersal of entomopathogenic nematodes from host insects. individuals of two isolates of steinernema feltiae, uk76 and sbil, emerging from galleria mellonella cadavers were classed as non-dispersed (remaining on the cadaver for up to nine days) and dispersed (actively moving away from the cadaver). sex ratios within both classes were examined in infective (individuals that successfully invaded bait g. mellonella) and entire ( ...200619259450
morphological and ecological characterization of steinernema feltiae (rhabditida: steinernematidae) rioja strain isolated from bibio hortulanus (diptera: bibionidae) in spain.a new strain of steinernema feltiae (rhabditida: steinernematidae) was isolated in la rioja (spain) from larvae of bibio hortulanus (diptera: bibionidae). a comparative morphometric analysis of this new strain and four additional s. feltiae isolates was performed. although significant differences in morphometric measurements were observed, pcr-rflp profiles and sequence analysis of the its region of rdna confirmed the identity of the new strain as a2 rflp type of s. feltiae. a comparative morpho ...200619259432
the role of steinernema feltiae body-surface lipids in host-parasite immunological interactions.interactions between entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernema feltiae) and insect host (galleria mellonella) immune system were investigated. we focused on the immunosuppressive properties of the parasite cuticle and on its interaction with hemolymph humoral components. effects of parasite cuticle against host propo system enzymatic cascade were evaluated a short time after infection. the presence of parasite cuticles decreased both normal and lps-elicited propo system activity, suggesting that s ...200415287592
acclimation of entomopathogenic nematodes to novel temperatures: trehalose accumulation and the acquisition of thermotolerance.the effect of thermal acclimation on trehalose accumulation and the acquisition of thermotolerance was studied in three species of entomopathogenic nematodes adapted to either cold or warm temperatures. all three steinernema species accumulated trehalose when acclimated at either 5 or 35 degrees c, but the amount of trehalose accumulation differed by species and temperature. the trehalose content of the cold adapted steinernema feltiae increased by 350 and 182%, of intermediate steinernema carpo ...200312633652
immune suppression of galleria mellonella (insecta, lepidoptera) humoral defenses induced by steinernema feltiae (nematoda, rhabditida): involvement of the parasite cuticle.immune depression of galleria mellonella larvae was evaluated a short time after infection with the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae. in the host the activity of the enzymatic cascade known as the propo system was significantly reduced by the presence of either live or dead parasites. the presence of parasites decreased the lps-elicited propo system activity. in addition, this process seems to be related to a decrease in the activity of hemolymph proteases, more than to phenoloxidas ...200712427469
re-assessing the infection strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae (rhabditidae; steinernematidae).previous studies have indicated that between 60 and 80% of a population of entomopathogenic nematodes do not infect their insect hosts at any one period in time. two hypotheses explain this behaviour: the first that there is a subpopulation of non-infectious nematodes and the second that the non-infectious group is created by inhibitory cues derived from infected insects. through an experimental approach with the galleria mellonella-steinernema feltiae system we show that both mechanisms operate ...200011085241
influence of insect larvae and seedling roots on the host-finding ability of steinernema feltiae (nematoda: steinernematidae).the ability of nematode foragers to locate appropriate insect hosts is essential to their performance as successful biological control agents. we investigated the host-finding ability and chemotaxis of steinernema feltiae in the presence of cues from galleria mellonella larvae and tomato and radish seedling roots, given individually and in combination, over 120 min. in agar arena tests, infective juveniles of s. feltiae responded positively to unsterilized and sterilized larvae and tomato seedli ...200010772328
effects of two carbamates on infective juveniles of stemernema carpocapsae all strain and steinernema feltiae umeå strain.laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of two carbamates, carbofuran (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) and fenoxycarb (a juvenile hormone analog), on survival and infectivity of the infective juveniles (ij) of steinernema feltiae umeå strain and steinernema carpocapsae all strain. both insecticides caused mortality of ij in a dose-related fashion. the two nematode species were equally sensitive to fenoxycarb (ld ca. 0.03mg/ml). whereas ij of s. feltiae were several orders ...199619277148
escape of steinernema feltiae from alginate capsules containing tomato seeds.the entomogenous nematode steinernema feltiae was encapsulated in an alginate matrix containing a tomato seed. when these capsules were placed on 0.8% agar for 7 days, the seed germinated and ca. 20% of the nematodes escaped from the capsules, whereas only 0.1% escaped from capsules without seeds. when capsules containing nematodes and a seed were planted into sterilized or nonsterilized soil, nematodes escaped to infect galleria mellonella larvae. when seed in capsules containing ca. 274 nemato ...198719290145
steinernema feltiae (dd-136) and s. glaseri: persistence in soil and bark compost and their influence on native nematodes.infective juveniles (j3) of the entomogenous nematodes steinernema feltiae dd-136 (ca. 10,000 j3/100 ml) and s. glaseri (ca. 2,500 j3/100 ml) were incubated in steam-sterilized and nonsterilized sandy soil and bark compost for 8 weeks at 25 c. the nematodes were recovered by a two-step extraction procedure at 1-week intervals, and their infectivity to lepidopterous larvae (spodoptera litura and galleria mellonella) and their effect on the population and community of native nematodes in soil were ...198619294183
effect of inoculum age and physical parameters on in vitro culture of the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema feltiae.entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) of the families steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae have a symbiotic association with bacteria which makes them virulent against insects. epns have been mass produced using in vivo and in vitro methods, including both solid and liquid fermentation. this study assessed the effect of nematode inoculum age on the production of steinernema feltiae in liquid, solid and biphasic processes. several physical parameters were also assessed: the effect of medium viscosi ...201627866481
steinernema xueshanense n. sp. (rhabditida, steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of yunnan, southeast tibetan mts., china.during a random epn survey in the northern part of the yunnan province (southeastern tibet, dequen district, town of dequen) in 2005, soil samples containing an unknown epn species were collected. the new species is described herein as steinernema xueshannense n. sp. named after the xue shan mts. a mountain range between yunnan and tibet where the nematode was collected. the isolate is a new species belonging to the steinernema feltiae /kraussei group. s. xueshanense n. sp. is characterized by m ...200919460386
steinernema akhursti sp. n. (nematoda: steinernematidae) from yunnan, china.a new species of entomopathogenic nematode, herein described as steinernema akhursti sp. n., was recovered from soil samples collected from yunnan province, the people's republic of china. both morphological and molecular data show congruently that s. akhursti sp. n. belongs to the steinernema feltiae group. it can be separated from all described steinernema species by the combined morphological and morphometrical characters of various stages of the nematodes. for the first generation male, the ...200516289544
virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to the western masked chafer cyclocephala hirta (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).predictability is a key challenge in biological control of white grubs with entomopathogenic nematodes. most field test failures have been attributed to the use of inappropriate nematode strains. we evaluated several species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (heterorhabditidae and steinernematidae) against chafer cyclocephala hirta in a soil and pot bioassay at 25 degrees c. the nj65 strain of steinernema glaseri, isolated from new jersey, outperformed all other steinernematid and hetero ...19989589628
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