b-chromosome origin in the endemic new zealand frog leiopelma hochstetteri through sex chromosome devolution.the endemic new zealand frog leiopelma hochstetteri has variable numbers of mitotically stable b chromosomes. to assess whether the b chromosomes were derived from the autosome complement, they were isolated by micromanipulation and their dna amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed pcr. southern hybridizations of b chromosome dna probes to genomic dna from males and females characterized by differing numbers of b chromosomes demonstrated that the b chromosomes were derived from the unival ...19989549055
vascularization of respiratory surfaces in leiopelma hochstetteri fitzinger and xenopus laevis (daudin). 195513301204
supernumerary chromosome variation and heterochromatin distribution in the endemic new zealand frog leiopelma hochstetteri.specimens of the endemic new zealand frog leiopelma hochstetteri from tapu on north island were found to have six, nine or ten supernumerary chromosomes in their karyotypes. in comparison with previously published data, these results further indicate probable geographic variation in supernumerary chromosome number between populations. increased numbers of supernumeraries in these frogs is correlated with apparent decrease of centromeric heterochromatin in the five large metacentric chromosomes o ...20133652816
structure and evolution of b chromosomes in amphibians.b chromosomes are known from 26 species of salamanders and frogs, equivalent to about 2% of amphibian species that have been karyotyped. in most cases, the structure of amphibian b chromosomes has not been extensively investigated. the exceptions are the b chromosomes of hochstetter's frog, leiopelma hochstetteri, from new zealand, and the coastal giant salamander, dicamptodon tenebrosus, from north america. dicamptodon tenebrosus carries from 0 to 10 non-heterochromatic, telocentric b chromosom ...200415292597
selection on mhc class ii supertypes in the new zealand endemic hochstetter's frog.the new zealand native frogs, family leiopelmatidae, are among the most archaic in the world. leiopelma hochstetteri (hochstetter's frog) is a small, semi-aquatic frog with numerous, fragmented populations scattered across new zealand's north island. we characterized a major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii b gene (dab) in l. hochstetteri from a spleen transcriptome, and then compared its diversity to neutral microsatellite markers to assess the adaptive genetic diversity of five popula ...201525886729
fluorosis as a probable factor in metabolic bone disease in captive new zealand native frogs (leiopelma species).this report describes the investigations into the cause and treatment of metabolic bone disease (mbd) in captive native new zealand frogs (leiopelma spp.) and the role of fluoride in the disease. mbd was diagnosed in leiopelma archeyi and leiopelma hochstetteri in 2008 at three institutions: auckland zoo, hamilton zoo, and the university of otago. most of these frogs had originally been held at the university of canterbury for several years (2000-2004) but some were collected directly from the w ...201223082519
baseline cutaneous bacteria of free-living new zealand native frogs (leiopelma archeyi and leiopelma hochstetteri) and implications for their role in defense against the amphibian chytrid (batrachochytrium dendrobatidis).abstract knowledge of baseline cutaneous bacterial microbiota may be useful in interpreting diagnostic cultures from captive sick frogs and as part of quarantine or pretranslocation disease screening. bacteria may also be an important part of innate immunity against chytridiomycosis, a fungal skin disease caused by batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (bd). in february 2009, 92 distinct bacterial isolates from the ventral skin of 64 apparently healthy leiopelma archeyi and leiopelma hochstetteri nativ ...201425121401
anatomical features of leiopelma embryos and larvae: implications for anuran evolution.a controversial issue in anuran systematics is the relationship of leiopelma to other anurans because recent phylogenetic constructions imply different relationships among the basal frogs. of particular evolutionary interest is whether early development of leiopelma resembles an ancestral salamander-like larva, an anuran tadpole, or neither. in the 1950s, neville g. stephenson hypothesized that direct development is the primary mode of development in amphibians, based on the fact that leiopelma ...200312635108
protamine-like sperm nuclear basic proteins in the primitive frog ascaphus truei and histone reversions among more advanced frogs.sperm nuclear basic proteins (snbps) that condense chromatin are very diverse. in animals, evolution of snbps has proceeded from lysine-rich histone h type in sponges to more arginine-rich protamine-like pl and protamine p types. yet sporadic pl/p to h reversions are known to occur in both protostomes and deuterostomes. to determine why this is the case, we have examined snbps in eleven anuran species. we find that sperm of the primitive, internally fertilizing archeobatrachian frog a. truei (fa ...199910589504
cranial muscles of the anurans leiopelma hochstetteri and ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.the frogs ascaphus truei and leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of anura. a new muscle is defined ...201121845732
parallel tagged next-generation sequencing on pooled samples - a new approach for population genetics in ecology and sequencing (ngs) on pooled samples has already been broadly applied in human medical diagnostics and plant and animal breeding. however, thus far it has been only sparingly employed in ecology and conservation, where it may serve as a useful diagnostic tool for rapid assessment of species genetic diversity and structure at the population level. here we undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy, practicality and limitations of parallel tagged amplicon ngs on pooled popu ...201323637841
heteromorphism for a highly repeated sequence in the new zealand frog leiopelma hochstetteri.a satellite dna sequence, lhl, was cloned from the new zealand endemic frog leiopelma hochstetteri. large tandem arrays of lh1 were localized by in situ hybridization to the long arm of a small telocentric autosome in some individuals, but these arrays were absent from other individuals. lh1 is also present in varying amounts on some supernumerary chromosomes in some individuals. heteromorphism for the presence of lh1 exists in two populations that have been separated by a sea channel since the ...199228567762
the carotid labyrinth in hyla aurea, with a note on that in leiopelma hochstetteri. 195513278301
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