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[on the biogenesis of 5-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone (juglone) in juglans regia l]. 19684385984
depression of lymphocyte transformation and exacerbation of behcet's syndrome by ingestion of english walnuts. 19734584788
vasoactive effects of aqueous extracts from five mexican medicinal plants on isolated rat aorta.the present investigation describes the effects of aqueous extracts from chiranthodendron pentadactylon flowers, galphimia glauca leaves and flowers, ipomoea stans roots, juglans regia leaves and taxodium mucronatum aerial parts on isolated rat thoracic aorta precontracted by noradrenaline (na). in all cases, the aqueous extracts (0.5-12 mg/ml) significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal contractile response induced by na in rat aorta. the most active extract was th ...19957475125
[biological effect of wood dust].the biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. the irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. the allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (thuja plicata), redwood (sequoia sempervirens), obeche (triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (dalbergia retusa) and others. trees growing in the european climate such as: ...19938231799
mycoflora and mycotoxin of hazelnut (corylus avellana l.) and walnut (juglans regia l.) seeds in egypt.fifty-one species and 3 varieties appertaining to 20 genera were collected from 20 samples of each of hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose- and 40% (w/v) sucrose-czapek's agar at 25 degrees c and 45 degrees c with the most common mesophiles were aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, c. herbarum, penicillium chrysogenum, p. citrinum and p. oxalicum. fusarium (represented by f. equiseti, f. moniliforme and f. oxysporum) was recovered from walnut seeds in moderat ...19938480455
first findings of plum pox virus in walnut trees (juglans regia l.)plum pox virus (ppv) was transmitted from infected buds and leaves of walnut tree (juglans regia l.) on the following herbaceous indicators: chenopodium foetidum schrad., nicotiana bigelovii var. quadrivalvis fuchs., n. clevelandii x n. glutinosa. a positive elisa reaction with antisera against ppv was obtained from infected buds and leaves of juglans regia l. and from attacked leaves of indicator plants.19968886101
studies on the antimicrobial activity of juglans regia.juglans regia l. bark is used in some countries as a toothbrush and as a dye for coloring the lips for cosmetic purposes. its extract showed a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in a dose dependent manner. it inhibited the growth of several species of pathogenic micro-organisms representing gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus mutans), gram-negative bacteria (esherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a pathogenic yeast (candida albicans). the extract has eithe ...19979288364
pollen calendar of the city of salamanca (spain). aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.we report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of salamanca (spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. the pollen was captured with burkard spore-traps, based on hirst's volumetric method. determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously st ...19989885728
active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of rhodiola sacra.the active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in china and japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (esr) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. areca catechu (methanol extract), dendrobium plicatile (methanol extract), juglans regia (water extract), paeon ...199910616967
traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in central italy.the uses of 51 plants of marche, abruzzo and latium, distributed in 28 families, are listed here. memories and news of continued use of the plants in these sectors were collected from farmers and shepherds in person (mostly old people). the plants most frequently used as antiparasitics and repellents are juglans regia, lupinus albus, ruta graveolens, fraxinus ornus, datura stramonium, artemisia absinthium, allium cepa, while r. graveolens, cucurbita maxima, a. absinthium, allium sativum are the ...199910624877
antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.the aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) against nine isolates of microsporum canis, trichophyton mentagrophytes and trichophyton violaceum. the extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatop ...199910680445
regulation of aflatoxin production by naphthoquinones of walnut (juglans regia).walnuts are a valuable crop the sale and export potential of which may be severely limited by contamination with aflatoxins, metabolites produced on infection with aspergillus flavus. the effect of a series of four naphthoquinones [1,4-naphthoquinone (1); juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) (2); 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone (3); and, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone) (4)] (figure 1), which occur in walnut husks, on fungal viability and aflatoxigenesis was studied in vitro. th ...200010995372
temperature response of leaf photosynthetic capacity in seedlings from seven temperate tree species.seedlings of seven temperate tree species (acer pseudoplatanus l., betula pendula roth, fagus sylvatica l., fraxinus excelsior l., juglans regia l., quercus petraea matt. liebl. and quercus robur l.) were grown in a nursery under neutral filters transmitting 45% of incident global irradiance. during the second or third year of growth, leaf photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximal carboxylation rate, vcmax, maximal photosynthetic electron transport rate, jmax, and dark respiration, rd) was estimate ...200111276416
pesticide applications of copper on perennial crops in california, 1993 to 1998.inorganic copper is used as a broad-spectrum fungicide and bacteriocide on a variety of agricultural crops. after application, the copper residue typically accumulates in the upper 15 cm of soil. data from the california pesticide use reports were used to estimate the augmentation of copper in the soil that resulted from pesticide applications for the six years from 1993 to 1998 on 12 crops that are grown without rotation. the estimated mean mg cu kg(-1) soil added to the upper 15 cm during the ...200111577894
walnut polyphenolics inhibit in vitro human plasma and ldl oxidation.recent epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular mortality. however, little is known about the contribution of nut polyphenols to antioxidant and cardiovascular protection. in this investigation, polyphenol-rich extracts from english walnuts (juglans regia) were studied and compared with ellagic acid for their ability to inhibit in vitro plasma and ldl oxidation, as well as their effects on ldl alpha-tocopherol during oxidative stress. in ad ...200111694605
transient gene expression of antisense rna and coat protein-encoding sequences reduced accumulation of cherry leafroll virus in tobacco protoplasts.cherry leafroll nepovirus (clrv) is the causative agent of blackline disease, which results in a fatal necrosis of the graft union of english walnut scion on certain rootstocks. tobacco suspension cell protoplasts were electroporated with plasmid constructions, bearing or not bearing rna-derived sequences, and, subsequently, were electroporated with clrv virions or virion rna replication of clrv in protoplasts was demonstrated by accumulation of both positive- and negative-sense clrv genomic rna ...199511831693
the atopic dog as a model of peanut and tree nut food allergy.animal models are needed that mimic human ige-mediated peanut and tree nut allergy. atopic dogs have been previously used in a model of food allergy to cow's milk, beef, wheat, and soy, with the demonstration of specific ige production and positive oral challenges similar to those seen in human subjects.200212464960
indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.india is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. with this in view, the bark powder of acacia auriculiformis, a. nilotica, juglans regia, and the fruit powder of terminalia bellerica, t. chebula, emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "triphala," which are known to be ri ...200312616620
biochemical and physical properties of some walnut genotypes (juglans regia l.).walnut (juglans regia l.) is a plant that has significant economical value and medicinal importance for human health. it is consumed in large quantities by people, therefore, it has a very important place in the public nutritive habits. turkey has a very good walnut population of walnut varieties when compared to other parts of the world. our objective was to investigate kernel properties and fatty acid composition, proximate composition and minerals of genotypes that are commonly grown in turke ...200312653433
studies on correlation of antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of juglans regia l.we investigated the effect of water and acetone extract of juglans regia l. to evaluate its antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. the antimutagenic study using ta98 and ta100 tester strains of salmonella revealed the water and acetone extracts to be more effective than the benzene and chloroform extracts in inhibiting the revertants induced by 2-aminoflourene (2af) in ta100 tester strains. the most effective extracts in the ames assay were further evaluated using the lucifer luciferase ...200312678406
[antibiotic action of the english walnut]. 195613343764
anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in turkish folk medicine.ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; helleborus orientalis lam. roots and herbs, juglans regia l. leaves, laurocerasus officinalis roemer leaves, nerium oleander l. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, rhododendron ponticum l. leaves, rubus hirtus walds. et kit aerial parts and rubus sanctus schreber aerial parts and roots. all the plant extracts, except the aqueous ...200314522443
plasma membrane aquaporins are involved in winter embolism recovery in walnut tree.in perennial plants, freeze-thaw cycles during the winter months can induce the formation of air bubbles in xylem vessels, leading to changes in their hydraulic conductivity. refilling of embolized xylem vessels requires an osmotic force that is created by the accumulation of soluble sugars in the vessels. low water potential leads to water movement from the parenchyma cells into the xylem vessels. the water flux gives rise to a positive pressure essential for the recovery of xylem hydraulic con ...200314526109
aqueous extract of walnut (juglans regia l.) protects mice against cyclophosphamide-induced biochemical toxicity.walnut (juglans regia l.) is extensively used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of various ailments. it is described as an anticancer, tonic, blood purifier and detoxifier agent. the present study was undertaken to investigate modulatory effects of walnut extract on the toxicity of an anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (cp) with special reference to protection against disruption of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes. plant extract+cp group animals showed restoration in the l ...200314580007
a simple method to estimate photosynthetic radiation use efficiency of canopies.photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (phrue) over the course of a day has been shown to be constant for leaves throughout a general canopy where nitrogen content (and thus photosynthetic properties) of leaves is distributed in relation to the light gradient. it has been suggested that this daily phrue can be calculated simply from the photosynthetic properties of a leaf at the top of the canopy and from the par incident on the canopy, which can be obtained from weather-station data. the objec ...200415044212
phytochemical inhibition of aflatoxigenicity in aspergillus flavus by constituents of walnut (juglans regia).tulare walnut, a cultivar highly resistant to aflatoxin formation, was investigated for endogenous phytochemical constituents capable of inhibiting aflatoxigenesis in aspergillus flavus. the activity, located entirely in the pellicle (seed coat), was extractable to various degrees with polar solvents, although some activity remained unextractable, indicating that the bioactivity resided in a complex of hydrolyzable tannins. these tannins can be hydrolyzed by a fungal tannase present in a. flavus ...200415053524
anti-helicobacter pylori activities of six iranian plants.helicobacter pylori is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections in adults and children. antibiotic therapy and a combination of two or three drugs have been widely used to eradicate these infections. however, development of drug resistance in bacteria calls for new sources of drugs, and plants seem to be a logical source of new antibacterial compounds.200415068416
ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of acquapendente (latium, central italy).in the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the acquapendente district (viterbo, latium, central italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. the district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. in this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of ...200515619562
traditional phytotherapy in central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium).in this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium) have been reported and compared. the usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. among the wild plant mainly sti ...200515664457
the antimicrobial activities of psidium guajava and juglans regia leaf extracts to acne-developing organisms.this study aims to present the in vitro inhibitory effect of psidium guajava and juglans regia leaf extracts on the main developer of acne lesions, propionibacterium acnes (p. acnes), and other organisms that are isolated from acne lesions. thirty-eight subjects (males and females) who had various types of acne were enrolled in the study. the contents of the acne lesions were cultured and the frequency of p. acnes (alone and with staphylococci spp.) was 47%, whereas the frequencies for staphyloc ...200515974479
melatonin in walnuts: influence on levels of melatonin and total antioxidant capacity of blood.we investigated whether melatonin is present in walnuts (juglans regia l.) and, if so, tested whether eating walnuts influences melatonin levels and the total antioxidant status of the blood.200515979282
evaluation of genotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts by the comet and vitotox tests.we report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three medicinal plants acacia nilotica, juglans regia, and terminalia chebula and the herbal drug triphala employing the vitotox and comet tests.these tests detect dna damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. in the vitotox test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic. in the comet assay, extracts of acacia nilotica showed statistically significant dna damage only in a concentration of 2500 ppm ...200516050803
influence of selected fruit tree pollen on life history of euseius stipulatus (acari: phytoseiidae).euseius stipulatus (athias-henriot) is a predatory mite widespread in the mediterranean region considered to be important for the biological control of spider mites in citrus orchards. development, survival and reproduction of this phytoseiid mite feeding on seven commercially obtained pollen were studied under constant laboratory conditions (20 +/- 1 degrees c, rh 65 +/- 5%, photoperiod 16l: 8d h). mites were kept individually at rearing units with ample quantity of almond (prunus amygdalus bat ...200516082919
evaluation of medicinal plant hepatotoxicity in co-cultures of hepatocytes and monocytes.non-parenchymal cells might play an important role in the modulation of xenobiotic metabolism in liver and its pharmacological and toxicological consequences. therefore, the role of cell-to-cell interactions in herbal induced liver toxicity was investigated in monocultures of cells from the human hepatocyte cell line (hepg2) and in co-cultures of cells from the hepg2 cell line and cells from the human monocyte cell line (thp1). cells were treated with various concentrations (1-500 microg ml(-1)) ...200616550229
effects of extracts of miswak and derum on proliferation of balb/c 3t3 fibroblasts and viability of cariogenic bacteria.this study examined the effects of extracts of two chewing sticks on proliferation of fibroblasts and viability of cariogenic bacteria.200616637906
optical properties of bud scales and protochlorophyll(ide) forms in leaf primordia of closed and opened buds.the transmission spectra of bud scales of 14 woody species and the 77 k fluorescence emission spectra of the innermost leaf primordia of closed and opened buds of 37 woody species were studied. pigment concentrations were determined in some species. bud scales had low transmittance between 400 and 680 nm with a local minimum around 680 nm. transmittance increased steeply above 680 nm and was > 80% in the 700-800 nm spectral region. significant protochlorophyllide (pchlide) accumulation was obser ...200616651257
physiological effects of kaolin applications in well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut and almond trees.kaolin applications have been used to mitigate the negative effects of water and heat stress on plant physiology and productivity with variable results, ranging from increased to decreased yields and photosynthetic rates. the mechanisms of action of kaolin applications are not clear: although the increased albedo reduces leaf temperature and the consequent heat stress, it also reduces the light available for photosynthesis, possibly offsetting benefits of lower temperature. the objective of this ...200616735404
lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in beijing, china: development of a metal accumulation index (mai).lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in beijing in this study. species having cd accumulation included populus tomentosa, sophora japonica and catalpa speciosa. p. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil cd (0.848), followed by s. japonica (0.536), c. speciosa (0.493), paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and juglans regia (0.415). pb levels were high in leaves of c. speciosa, j. regia and pa. tomentosa. s. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf p ...200716797111
jug r 4, a legumin group food allergen from walnut (juglans regia cv. chandler).allergy to walnut is the most frequently reported tree nut allergy in the united states. walnut 2s albumin, a vicilin-like protein, and a lipid transfer protein allergen have previously been described. our objective was to clone and express a cdna encoding a legumin group protein, assess ige-binding with sera from walnut allergic patients, and investigate cross-reactivity with selected nuts. primers were used to obtain the cdna by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends from walnut mrna. the ...200617032053
effects of kaolin application on light absorption and distribution, radiation use efficiency and photosynthesis of almond and walnut canopies.kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. this may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. the objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution ...200717138580
in vitro antioxidant activity of juglans regia l. bark extract and its protective effect on cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity in mice.walnut (juglans regia l.) bark has been claimed to possess anti-inflammatory, blood purifying, anticancer, depurative, diuretic and laxative activities. it contains several therapeutically active constituents, especially polyphenols. we studied the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of walnut bark and its modulatory effect on cyclophosphamide (cp)-induced urotoxicity in swiss albino male mice. free radical-scavenging activity of extract was assessed in four in vitro assays. the phenolic an ...200617207309
fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of heartnut (juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) and persian walnut (juglans regia l.).the fatty acid and tocopherol compositions of three heartnut (juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (imshu, campbell cw1, and campbell cw3) were examined and compared with those of two persian walnut (juglans regia l.) varieties (combe and lake). the major fatty acids found in heartnuts and walnuts were identified by gas chromatography as linoleic (18:2n-6), alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3), oleic (18:1n-9), palmitic (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0). polyunsaturated fatty acids were the main ...200717253708
medicinal plants used in kirklareli province (turkey).in this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from kirklareli province in turkey have been reported. one hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. most used families were rosaceae, labiatae, compositae and the most used plants were cotinus coggyria, sambucus ebulus, achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, hypericum perforatum, matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, melissa officinalis subsp. officinali ...200717257791
the effects of walnut and pine leaves on bread wheat growth and frequence of common weed species in the east-mediterranean region.a field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of walnut (juglans regia l.) and pine (pinus sp.) leaves on bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) growth and weed control, during 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing seasons in east mediterranean region of turkey. in this research, the treatments were: applications of ground walnut leaves (gwl) and ground pine leaves (gpl) at 19 g/m2 dose at zadoks-11, applications of 200, 400 and 800 cc/m2 of walnut leaves extract (wle2, wle4 and wle8 respectivel ...200617402244
walnut (juglans regia l.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.different cultivars of walnut (juglans regia l.) leaves (cv. lara, franquette, mayette, marbot, mellanaise and parisienne) grown in portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase hplc/dad and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, querceti ...200717637491
characterization of buckwheat 19-kd allergen and its application for diagnosing clinical reactivity.the 19-kd protein of buckwheat (bw) has been suggested to be a major allergen, but its characteristics and clinical significance are poorly defined.200717641547
walnut extract (juglans regia l.) and its component ellagic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aorta endothelial cells and osteoblastic activity in the cell line ks483.epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of cvd and postmenopausal osteoporosis is low in the mediterranean area, where herbs and nuts, among others, play an important role in nutrition. in the present study, we sought a role of walnuts (juglans regia l.) in endothelial and bone-cell function. as the endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules has been recognised as an early step in inflammation and atherogenesis, we examined the effect of walnut methanolic extract and ellagic ac ...200817916277
bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (juglans regia l.) cultivars.the chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity were studied in six walnuts (juglans regia l.) cultivars (cv. franquette, lara, marbot, mayette, mellanaise and parisienne) produced in portugal. concerning their chemical composition the main constituent of fruits was fat ranging from 78.83% to 82.14%, being the nutritional value around 720kcal per 100g of fruits. linoleic acid was the major fatty acid reaching the maximum value of 60.30% (cv. lara) followed by oleic, li ...200818334279
antimycobacterial activity of juglans regia, juglans mollis, carya illinoensis and bocconia frutescens.mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. this paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. bark and leaf ...200818338771
phytopatological problems and solutions in the walnut orchards along lake balaton.european or persian walnut (juglans regia) is an important and healthy food as well as base material of timber industry. several pests (pathogens and insect pests) may cause serious damages on walnut. these are less known on the crop land of the tree. results of some years of our experiments including bacteriological and mycological studies, are presented in this paper. the optimum time of chemical protection against the walnut blight (xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis) was determined. occurr ...200718396807
total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (juglans regia l.) green husks.the total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (juglans regia l.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (franquette, mayette, marbot, mellanaise and parisienne). total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of gae (cv. mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of gae t (cv. franquette). the antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects o ...200818448225
cytotoxic diarylheptanoids from the pericarps of walnuts (juglans regia).two new diarylheptanoids, juglanin a (1) and b (2), together with 15 known compounds, were isolated from the extract of the seed husks of walnuts (juglans regia l.). the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including intensive 2d-nmr techniques, hr-esi-ms, and x-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis, and the cytotoxic activities of 1, 2, and 10 against human hepatoma (hep g2) cells was reported.200818496782
effects of extracts from italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.one-third of botanical remedies from southern italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (ssti). staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of ssti, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for ssti. our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa).200818556162
antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, hylobius abietis.bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. species were alder (alnus glutinosa), aspen (populus tremula), beech (fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (viburnum opulus), holly (ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (evonymus europaeus), walnut (juglans regia), and yew (taxus baccata). bark of each sp ...200818719963
effect of ethanolic extract of juglans regia l. on blood sugar in diabetes-induced rats.walnut is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional iranian medicine as a treatment for diabetes, but little scientific documentation supports its antidiabetic action. this study is designed to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic walnut leaf extract. twenty-four male wistar rats were divided into four groups: nondiabetic rats, alloxan-induced diabetic rats with no treatment, alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extracts of juglans regia (200 mg/kg), and alloxan-in ...200818800903
maintaining a physiological blood glucose level with 'glucolevel', a combination of four anti-diabetes plants used in the traditional arab herbal medicine.safety and anti-diabetic effects of glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the juglans regia l, olea europea l, urtica dioica l and atriplex halimus l were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. no sign of toxic effects (using ldh assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of glucolevel. similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (ld50: 25 g/kg). anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose up ...200818955212
occurrence of shallow bark canker of walnut (juglans regia) in southern provinces of iran.from april 2001 to november 2002, samples of walnut branches and trunks with symptoms of shallow bark canker were collected from fars and kohgiluyeh-va-boyerahmad provinces. symptoms of the disease were small cracks in the bark of the trunk and scaffold branches of mature trees with dark watery exudates which stained the affected trunk or limb. by removal of phelloderm, extensive necrosis of the underlying tissues was observed. in some cases, necrosis extended to cambium and outer xylem. sixty-o ...200719069966
[investigation on inhibition of hiv iii b virus with extractions of juglans regia].to study the effect of anti-hiv iii b virus with extractions from juglans regia, so as to searching for the new and efficacious leading compound of aids therapy.200819149267
pathogenicity of macroposthonia xenoplax to walnut.preplanting treatment of soil naturally infested with macroposthonia xenoplax with 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) significantly increased the growth rate of juglans hindsii seedlings. when seedlings of j. hindsii, j. regia cv "serf" and j. regia cv eureka were inoculated with m. xenoplax, their growth was signilicantly less than that of nematode-free controls. this retarded growth rate was accompanied hy feeder root necrosis, longitudinal cracks in the older roots, and distinct lesions i ...197819305847
expression of jug r 1, the 2s albumin allergen from walnut (juglans regia), as a correctly folded and functional recombinant protein.jug r 1, the 2s albumin allergen from walnut, was isolated from ripe nuts as a native allergen and expressed in escherichia coli using the gateway technology as a recombinant allergen. the recombinant jug r 1 (15 kda) differs from the native allergen by the absence of cleavage of the polypeptide chain in two covalently associated light (3.5 kda) and heavy (8 kda) chains. recombinant rjug r 1 adopts the canonical alpha-helical fold of plant 2s albumins as checked on cd spectra. four ige-binding e ...200919540419
[antidiabetic action of extract of juglans regia l].the aim of the research was to study the impact of iuglans regia l on the pathological processes in alloxan-indeced dibatic animals. the investigation showed that extract from wall nuts leaves decreases the blood sugar level, has a positive impact on lipid metabolism. antioxidant properties of an extract from leaves of the walnut tree (juglans regia) are reported. the extract suppresses functional insufficiency of liver links synthethising enzymes, increases the antitoxic action of hepatocytes, ...200919556655
determination of a novel diarylheptanoid (juglanin b) from green walnut husks (juglans regia l.) in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.a simple and reliable analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) coupled with a diode array detector (dad) was developed for the determination of a novel diarylheptanoid (juglanin b) from green walnut husks (juglans regia l.) in rat plasma using rhoiptelol as an internal standard. chromatographic separation was carried out on a sinochrom ods-ap c(18) column (250 x 4.6 microm i.d., 5 mm) with acetonitrile-10 mm postassium dihydrogen phosphate (ph = 3; 55:45, v/v) as ...201019606417
linear ige-epitope mapping and comparative structural homology modeling of hazelnut and english walnut 11s globulins.allergic reactions to walnuts and hazelnuts can be serious. the 11s globulins (legumins) have been identified as important allergens in these and other nuts and seeds. here we identify the linear ige-binding epitopes of walnut and hazelnut 11s globulins, and generate 3d 11s globulin models to map the locations of the epitopes for comparison to other allergenic homologues. linear ige-epitope mapping was performed by solid-phase overlapping 15-amino acid peptides probed with ige from pooled allerg ...200919631385
detection of walnut residues in foods using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.tree nuts, including walnuts, can be responsible for allergic reactions. food manufacturers have the responsibility to declare the presence of walnuts on packaged foods even when trace residues may be present from the use of shared equipment or the adventitious contamination of ingredients. the aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) method for the detection of walnut protein residues. mixtures of raw and roasted english walnuts ...200919723237
human cancer cell antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of juglans regia l.several studies suggest that regular consumption of nuts, mostly walnuts, may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. walnuts contain several phenolic compounds which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. the present study reports the total phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts obtained from walnut (juglans regia l.) seed, green husk and leaf. the total phen ...201019883717
effect of walnut leaf, coriander and pomegranate on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan induced diabetic rats.mechanism of most of herbal used for diabetes mellitus treatment has not been well defined. this study was performed to investigate hypoglycemic effect of walnut leaf (juglans regia l.), coriander leaf (coriandrum sativum l.) or pomegranate seed (punica granatum l.), and their possible role on pancreatic tissue. diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult male sprague dawley rats and the animals were divided into four groups; three of them fed a diet supplemented with about 15 gram (60 g/ kg body ...200720161893
walnut extract inhibits lps-induced activation of bv-2 microglia via internalization of tlr4: possible involvement of phospholipase d2.walnuts are a rich source of essential fatty acids, including the polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. essential fatty acids have been shown to modulate a number of cellular processes in the brain, including the activation state of microglia. microglial activation can result in the generation of cytotoxic intermediates and is associated with a variety of age-related and neurodegenerative conditions. in vitro, microglial activation can be induced with the bacterial ...201020213499
biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the ruhrarea (north rhine westfalia), germany.during our investigations of the microflora in nrw (duisburg, düsseldorf and essen incl. the greenhouse of the botanical garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. some of these species are new for germany or have been only rarely found until now. most of the species belong the ascomycotina, basidiomycotina and deuteromycotina for example arthrocladiella mougeotii (lév.) vassilkov. on lycium ...200920222564
effect of walnut (juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific ige induction in female balb/c mice.english walnuts are implicated in severe, ige-mediated food allergy in humans. we sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote ige production to a coadministered allergen. balb/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (ova) with or without alum (al) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. serum was analyzed for total ige and ova-specific ige, igg(1,) and igg(2a/2b). coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antig ...201020388137
chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study.compared with other common plant foods, walnuts (juglans regia) are consistently ranked among the highest in antioxidant capacity. in vitro, walnut polyphenols inhibit plasma and ldl oxidation, while in animal models they lower biomarkers of oxidative stress and raise antioxidant capacity. a limited number of human feeding trials indicate that walnuts improve some measures of antioxidant status, but not others.201020462428
polyphenols from juglans regia l. (walnut) kernel modulate cigarette smoke extract induced acute inflammation, oxidative stress and lung injury in wistar rats.the present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of juglans regia kernel extract against cigarette smoke extract (cse)-induced lung toxicities in wistar rats. prophylactic treatment of methanolic extract of j. regia kernel at the doses of 50 mg/kg b.wt. and 100 mg/kg b.wt was given by gavage to wistar rats for 1 week prior to cse exposure. female wistar rats were administered with single dose (1.3 ml/kg b.wt.) of cse through intratracheal instillation. lung injury markers lactat ...201120534640
ethnoveterinary knowledge in navarra (iberian peninsula).to collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnoveterinary knowledge about medicinal plants in a northern iberian region (navarra, 10,421 km(2), 620,377 inhabitants).201020573568
dna identification confirms pecan weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) infestation of carpathian walnut.larvae found infesting fruit from a carpathian walnut, juglans regia l., tree in missouri were confirmed by dna analysis to be those of pecan weevil, curculio caryae (horn) (coleoptera: curculionidae). the infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, carya illinoinensis (wang.) k. koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. this is the f ...201020857742
traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (cams). this review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of cams. the majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cams, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) an ...201021105177
mechanism of gallic acid biosynthesis in bacteria (escherichia coli) and walnut (juglans regia).gallic acid (ga), a key intermediate in the synthesis of plant hydrolysable tannins, is also a primary anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective agent found in wine, tea, and cocoa. in this publication, we reveal the identity of a gene and encoded protein essential for ga synthesis. although it has long been recognized that plants, bacteria, and fungi synthesize and accumulate ga, the pathway leading to its synthesis was largely unknown. here we provide evidence that shikimate dehydrogenase (sdh), a ...201121279669
cardiovascular effects of consumption of black versus english walnuts.abstract english walnuts have been shown to decrease cardiovascular disease risk; however, black walnuts do not appear to have not been studied for their cardioprotective effects. the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of english versus black walnut consumption on blood lipids, body weight, fatty-acid composition of red blood cell (rbc) membranes, and endothelial function. consumption of 30 g of english walnuts per day for 30 days, by 36 human participants, improved blood lipids; ...201121488754
anti-proliferative effects of organic extracts from root bark of juglans regia l. (rbjr) on mda-mb-231 human breast cancer cells: role of bcl-2/bax, caspases and tp53.with increasing use of plant-based cancer chemotherapeutic agents, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals has gained increasing momentum for anticancer drug design. the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of root bark of juglans regia (rbjr) organic extracts on cell proliferation, and to determine the molecular mechanism of rbjr-induced cell death by determining the expression of bcl-2, bax, caspases, tp53, mdm-2 and tnf-alpha in mda-mb-231 human breast canc ...201121545224
antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of juglans regia fruit extracts.context: cancer chemopreventive action of walnut [juglans regia l. (juglandaceae)] has been explored. objective: this study evaluated antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of walnut. materials and methods: various fractions of walnut extract have been screened for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines using the mtt assay. all these fractions have also been evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and reducing power capacity. results and discussion: ...201121554010
genetic variation in walnuts (juglans regia and j. sigillata; juglandaceae): species distinctions, human impacts, and the conservation of agrobiodiversity in yunnan, china.walnuts are a major crop of many countries and mostly cultivated in large-scale plantations with few cultivars. landraces provide important genetic reservoirs; thus, understanding factors influencing the geographic distribution of genetic variation in crop resources is a fundamental goal of agrobiodiversity conservation. here, we investigated the role of human settlements and kinship on genetic variation and population structure of two walnut species: juglans regia, an introduced species widely ...201021622428
in vitro antibacterial activity of some iranian medicinal plant extracts against helicobacter pylori.helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (malt) lymphoma and gastric cancer. the growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. in the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-h. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of h. pylori. gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting wit ...201121726128
Effects of Walnuts (Juglans regia) on Learning and Memory Functions.Walnut has been regarded as a health food that is delicious and nutritious. Both preventive and therapeutic effects of walnut are well documented. Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids that are reported to have beneficial effects on brain function. The present work was designed to evaluate the effects of walnuts on learning and memory in male rats. The effect of oral intake of walnut was also monitored on food intake. Walnut was given orally to rats for a period of 28 days. Memory function in ...201122048906
walnut oil increases cholesterol efflux through inhibition of stearoyl coa desaturase 1 in thp-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.abstract:201121871057
plant establishment and invasions: an increase in a seed disperser combined with land abandonment causes an invasion of the non-native walnut in europe.successful invasive species often are established for a long time period before increasing exponentially in abundance. this lag phase is one of the least understood phenomena of biological invasions. plant invasions depend on three factors: a seed source, suitable habitat and a seed disperser. the non-native walnut, juglans regia, has been planted for centuries in central europe but, until recently, has not spread beyond planted areas. however, in the past 20 years, we have observed a rapid incr ...201122072603
mechanisms governing the responses to anthracnose pathogen in juglans spp.juglans nigra and juglans regia are two highly economically important species for wood and fruit production that are susceptible to anthracnose caused by gnomonia leptostyla. the identification of genotypes resistant to anthracnose could represent a valid alternative to agronomic and chemical management. in this study, we analyzed 72 walnut genotypes that showed a variety of resistance phenotypes in response to natural infection. according to the disease severity rating and microsatellite finger ...201121884735
[Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the ne ...201121932544
effect of several different pollens on the bio-ecological parameters of the predatory mite typhlodromus athenas swirski and ragusa (acari: phytoseiidae).the development, survivorship, and reproduction of the predacious mite typhlodromus athenas swirski and ragusa were studied in the laboratory by rearing the predator on nine different plant pollens [almond(prunus amygdalis batsch), apple (malus domestica borkh.), apricot (prunus armeniaca l.), cherry (prunus avium l.), pear (pyrus communis l.), plum (prunus domestica l.), walnut (juglans regia l.), olive (olea europaea l.), typha sp.], and pollen collected from bee hives. all experiments were c ...201122251637
antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects of juglans regia l. leaves in mice.juglans regia leaves have been used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammatory diseases. this study investigates the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects of juglans regia l. leaves in mice.201122946016
[chemical constituents from the flower of juglans regia].to study the chemical constituents from the flower juglans regia.201223627127
ssr and rapd analysis of genetic diversity in walnut (juglans regia l.) genotypes from jammu and kashmir, india.in this study, the genetic relatedness of 82 walnut genotypes adapted to the north western himalayan region of jammu and kashmir, india was analyzed by combination of 13 ssr and 20 rapd primers. a high level of genetic diversity was observed within populations with the number of alleles per locus ranging from one to five in case of ssr primers and two to six in case of rapd primers, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 100 %, and similarity ranged from 12 % to 79 % with an average of 49 %. den ...201223573052
synergistic antimicrobial activity of camellia sinensis and juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (mdr) bacteria. in this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of camellia sinensis and juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 gram-positive and gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was ...201525719410
comparative genomics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of xanthomonas arboricola unveil molecular and evolutionary events linked to pathoadaptation.the bacterial species xanthomonas arboricola contains plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. it includes the pathogen x. arboricola pv. juglandis, causing the bacterial blight of juglans regia. the emergence of a new bacterial disease of j. regia in france called vertical oozing canker (voc) was previously described and the causal agent was identified as a distinct genetic lineage within the pathovar juglandis. symptoms on walnut leaves and fruits are similar to those of a bacterial blight ...201526734033
novel roles for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in secondary metabolism and the regulation of cell death in walnut.the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (ppo) catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into highly reactive quinones. polymerization of ppo-derived quinones causes the postharvest browning of cut or bruised fruit, but the native physiological functions of ppos in undamaged, intact plant cells are not well understood. walnut (juglans regia) produces a rich array of phenolic compounds and possesses a single ppo enzyme, rendering it an ideal model to study ppo. we generated a series of ppo-silenced tran ...201424449710
stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks.crown gall (cg) (agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (rlns) (pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the california walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like rna interference (rnai) can address these problems. rnai-med ...201324083348
a simple assay to screen antimicrobial compounds potentiating the activity of current antibiotics.antibiotic resistance continues to pose a significant problem in the management of bacterial infections, despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. here, we suggest a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform assay to screen antimicrobial compounds from natural products or synthetic chemical libraries for their potential to work in tandem with the available antibiotics against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. the aqueous extract of juglans regia tree bark was tested agai ...201323865073
deep rna-seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of nbs-lrr resistance genes in walnut (juglans regia) tissues.deep rna-seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the rna-seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in california. since the residua ...201626883051
comparison of antifungal activity of extracts from different juglans regia cultivars and juglone.this study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of lake, koszycki, uo1, uo2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as alternaria alternata, rhizoctonia solani, botrytis cinerea, fusarium culmorum, phytophthora infestans as well as ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. the obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend ...201627744101
[effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on the biological characteristics of walnut (juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought condition].effects of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) , namely pseudomonas sp. yt3, bacillus subtilis dz1, b. cereus l90 and b. fusiformis l13 on the biological characteristics of walnut (juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought stress were investigated. results showed that drought stress had little effect on available nutrients of walnut rhizosphere soil, but significantly decreased the activity of organic carbon by 18.4% and increased the ph from 7.34 to 7.79. under drought stress c ...201425129951
chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of juglans regia l. and its constituents.the essential oil from the leaves of juglans regia l. (juglandaceae) growing wild in kashmir (india) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary gc-fid and gc-ms. a total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene d (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). the essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial a ...201222951389
synthesis and sar study of novel anticancer and antimicrobial naphthoquinone amide derivatives.a series of novel naphthoquinone amide derivatives of the bioactive quinones, plumbagin, juglone, menadione and lawsone, with various amino acids were synthesized. the compounds were characterized by (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, mass, ir and elemental analysis. all the compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against hela and sas cancer cell lines and 3d-qsar indicated the presence of electron donating group near sulphur enhanced the activity against hela cells. among the derivatives synth ...201424913712
construction of a high-density genetic map using specific length amplified fragment markers and identification of a quantitative trait locus for anthracnose resistance in walnut (juglans regia l.).walnut (juglans regia, 2n = 32, approximately 606 mb per 1c genome) is an economically important tree crop. resistance to anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in china. the recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (slaf-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative tr ...201526283231
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