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comparison of 16s rrna sequences of segmented filamentous bacteria isolated from mice, rats, and chickens and proposal of "candidatus arthromitus".segmented filamentous bacteria (sfb) are nonpathogenic bacteria that are commonly found attached to the intestinal walls of many animals. until now, these bacteria have not been cultured in vitro. recently, a 16s rrna sequence analysis revealed that sfb isolated from mice represent a distinct subline within the clostridium subphylum of the gram-positive bacteria. since sfb isolated from mice, rats, and chickens are known to be host specific, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among s ...19957547299
the arthromitus stage of bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals.in the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "arthromitus" in 1849 by joseph leidy [leidy, j. (1849) proc. acad. nat. sci. philadelphia 4, 225-233]. we cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable ba ...19989448315
identification by in situ hybridization of segmented filamentous bacteria in the intestine of diarrheic rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).nonculturable segmented filamentous bacteria (sfb) have been described in the gut of rats, mice and chickens, and 16s rrna sequences for these organisms are available. these organisms, peripherically related to clostridium phylogenetic group i, have been provisionally named 'candidatus arthromitus'. this work reports the observation of similar bacteria in the intestinal content of the distal intestine, preferentially, in the adult rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) that exhibited episodic acute ...200111281327
endospore-forming filamentous bacteria symbiotic in termites: ultrastructure and growth in culture of arthromitus.many morphologically distinguishable filamentous spore-forming bacteria symbiotic in the paunch (hypertrophied hindguts) of wood-eating insects have been seen since arthromitus was first described and named as a plant by leidy in 1850. previous descriptions were inadequate for acceptance of the group in modern bacteriological literature. twenty-two distinguishable arthromitids in nine different arthropod hosts are recorded on the basis of microscopic studies. five are named, including two who ...199011539024
staurojoenina and other symbionts in neotermes from san salvador island, bahamas.staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of san salvador island. other distinctive protists (macrotrichomonas, metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. this stauroj ...199711541280
arthromitus (bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density.the filamentous spore-forming bacterium arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of bacillus cereus. we extend the range of arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of blaberus giganteus, the large tropical american cockroach. the occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained i ...199911762374
spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (mastotermes electrodominicus) in miocene amber.extraordinary preservation in amber of the miocene termite mastotermes electrodominicus has led to the discovery of fossil symbiotic microbes. spirochete bacteria and wood-digesting protists were identified in the intestinal tissue of the insect. fossil wood (xylem: developing vessel-element cells, fibers, pit connections), protists (most likely xylophagic amitochondriates), an endospore (probably of the filamentous intestinal bacterium arthromitus = bacillus), and large spirochetes were seen in ...200211818534
[symbiotic schizophytic arthromitaceae of the posterior intestine of diplopodal myriapods (microeccrinaceae maessen 1955 are arthromitaceae peschkoff 1940)]. 196113766170
16s rrna gene-based analysis of mucosa-associated bacterial community and phylogeny in the chicken gastrointestinal tracts: from crops to ceca.mucosa-associated microbiota from different regions of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract of adult broilers was studied by analysis of 16s rrna gene sequences. the microbiota mainly comprised gram-positive bacteria along the gi tract. fifty-one operational taxonomic units (otus) (from 98 clones) were detected in the ceca, as compared with 13 otus (from 49 clones) in the crops, 11 otus (from 51 clones) in the gizzard, 14 otus (from 52 clones) in the duodenum, 12 otus (from 50 clones) in the jejunum ...200717233749
a comparative molecular study of the presence of "candidatus arthromitus" in the digestive system of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), healthy and affected with rainbow trout gastroenteritis.observations were made using histopathological techniques in conjunction with a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocol for the specific detection of "candidatus arthromitus" on dna extracted from wax-embedded tissues and fresh digestive contents of rainbow trout. samples positive for "candidatus arthromitus" dna included fish with rainbow trout gastroenteritis (rtge), clinically normal cohabiting fish, and apparently healthy controls from rtge positive and rtge negative sites. the resul ...201019912454
histopathology and ultrastructure of segmented filamentous bacteria-associated rainbow trout gastroenteritis.rainbow trout gastroenteritis (rtge) is an emerging syndrome linked to the presence of large numbers of the segmented filamentous bacterium "candidatus arthromitus" within the intestine. the present study examined the histopathological changes of the digestive tract of 152 trout with gross lesions typical of rtge. histopathology showed that 129 of 152 fish (85%) affected with rtge had segmented filamentous bacteria in the distal intestine and/or pyloric caeca. the presence and number of segmente ...201020106826
a prospective longitudinal study of "candidatus arthromitus"-associated rainbow trout gastroenteritis in the uk.rainbow trout gastroenteritis (rtge) is an emerging disease of farmed rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) reported in croatia, france, italy, spain and the uk. the impact of rtge at the site-level varies, and daily mortalities of 0.5-1% are common. gross lesions include severe enteritis with congestion and oedema, and the segmented filamentous bacterium "candidatus arthromitus" has been suggested as a possible aetiological agent. this paper presents findings from a prospective longitudinal epide ...201020207037
nested pcr for the detection of candidatus arthromitus in fish.rainbow trout gastroenteritis has been related to the accumulation of segmented filamentous bacteria in the digestive tract of fish, which presents lethargy, reduced appetite and accumulation of mucoid faeces. some authors associate the comparison of illness with the presence of viable filaments, which produce and release strings of endospores in the lumen of the gut. the segmented filamentous bacteria that could not be cultured in vitro have been related to clostridium group i, and they have be ...201020455950
morphology of segmented filamentous bacteria and their patterns of contact with the follicle-associated epithelium of the mouse terminal ileum: implications for the relationship with the immune system.recent evidence indicates that segmented filamentous bacteria (sfb), "candidatus arthromitus", play a unique role in different aspects of the maturation of the immune system, including t cell responses. thus, it seems particularly relevant in this moment to shortly review the information on these bacteria and their relationship with the immune system, and to actively investigate their morphological aspects. we distinguished a developmental form from a vegetative form of these organisms. these di ...201021468217
Identification of the unculturable bacteria Candidatus arthromitus in the intestinal content of trouts using Dot blot and Southern blot techniques.The rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE) syndrome is affecting progressively more sites in various European countries causing significant economical losses for the rainbow trout industries. As Candidatus arthromitus, a not yet culturable bacteria, is the microorganism responsible for the RTGE, molecular methods have been identified as an important tool for the identification of this microorganism. An early, fast and specific detection of C. arthromitus using specific primers and probes, are impo ...201122186616
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