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current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. one of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. this knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. we monitored migratory behavior in a ...201020368446
intermediate hosts of the trematode collyriclum faba (plagiochiida: collyriclidae) identified by an integrated morphological and genetic approach.the cutaneous monostome trematode collyriclum faba (bremser in schmalz, 1831) is a bird parasite with a hitherto unknown life cycle and highly focal occurrence across the holarctic and neotropic ecozones.201525889245
synteny conservation of chicken macrochromosomes 1-10 in different avian lineages revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.cross-species chromosome painting can directly visualize syntenies between diverged karyotypes and, thus, increase our knowledge on avian genome evolution. dna libraries of chicken (gallus gallus, gga) macrochromosomes 1 to 10 were hybridized to metaphase spreads of 9 different species from 3 different orders (anseriformes, gruiformes and passeriformes). depending on the analyzed species, gga1-10 delineated 11 to 13 syntenic chromosome regions, indicating a high degree of synteny conservation. n ...201021099208
neurotropism in blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) and red-billed queleas (quelea quelea) after highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n1 infection.the epidemiologic role of passerine birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) remains controversial. however, confirmed natural infections with hpaiv in passeriformes, their close contact to poultry and humans, and their role as a human food source indicate a need for increased research on passerines. to date, there are only a few studies on viral shedding and pathomorphologic changes in songbirds infected with hpaiv. to investigate susceptibility, clinical outcome, ...201020974871
contemporary evolution of reproductive isolation and phenotypic divergence in sympatry along a migratory divide.understanding the influence of human-induced changes on the evolutionary trajectories of populations is a fundamental problem [1, 2]. the evolution of reproductive isolation in sympatry is rare, relying on strong selection along steep ecological gradients [3-7]. improved wintering conditions owing to human activities promoted the recent establishment of a migratory divide in central european blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) [8, 9]. here, we show that differential migratory orientation facilitated ...200919962309
serologic survey of birds for west nile flavivirus in southern moravia (czech republic).a serosurvey for west nile virus (wnv) was carried out in 54 domestic birds (geese and ducks bred on fishponds) and 391 wild birds representing 28 migratory and resident species, using a plaque-reduction neutralization microtest with vero cells and egyptian topotype eg-101 strain as test virus. the birds were sampled in the south-moravian fishpond ecosystem between 2004 and 2006. antibodies to wnv were not detected in domestic waterfowl, but 23 (5.9%) free-living birds of 10 species showed a pos ...200818454599
larvae of chigger mites neotrombicula spp. (acari: trombiculidae) exhibited borrelia but no anaplasma infections: a field study including birds from the czech carpathians as hosts of chiggers.chigger mites were collected from 1,080 wild birds of 37 species at certak (czech republic), in the western carpathian mountains, from 29 july to 24 september 2005. the prevalence of infestation with chigger larvae was 7%. a total of 325 chigger specimens from 10 bird species was identified and three chigger species were found: neotrombicula autumnalis, n. carpathica, and n. inopinata, the latter two species being reported on new hosts. neotrombicula carpathica is reported in the czech republic ...200818401688
bloodmeal analysis reveals avian plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) vectors.changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. we hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. a corollary of this is that new vector-host ...201222363557
molecular phylogenetic and morphological analysis of haemosporidian parasites (haemosporida) in a naturally infected european songbird, the blackcap sylvia atricapilla, with description of haemoproteus pallidulus sp. nov.the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) is a common palearctic migratory warbler, and haemosporidian parasites are common in this species. however, genetic and phenotypic diversity of haemosporidians in warblers has been insufficiently investigated and poorly linked. we addressed this issue by combining molecular and microscopy data for detection of pigment-forming haemosporidians of the genera haemoproteus and plasmodium. blood samples from 498 blackcaps were collected at 7 different sites in europe ...201019765350
effect of haemoproteus belopolskyi (haemosporida: haemoproteidae) on body mass of the blackcap sylvia atricapilla.the effect of initial haemoproteus belopolskyi infection on the weight of its natural host, the blackcap sylvia atricapilla, was investigated. fourteen blackcap nestlings were taken at the age of 4-5 days and raised by hand in the laboratory. they were free of blood parasites. seven 20- to 21-day-old nestlings were infected experimentally by inoculation in their pectoral muscle with approximately 45 sporozoites, which had developed in the experimentally infected biting midge culicoides impunctat ...200617152968
postexercise ketosis in night-migrating passerine birds.this study investigated the postexercise metabolism of six species of free-living, night-migrating passerine birds (european robin, pied flycatcher, wheatear, redstart, blackcap, and garden warbler). the birds were caught during autumn migration out of their nocturnal flight, and their metabolism changed from a fasting, highly active state to a fasting, resting state. concentrations of six plasma metabolites of the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism were measured during up to 10 h of reco ...200111226017
vertebrate host specificity of two avian malaria parasites of the subgenus novyella: plasmodium nucleophilum and plasmodium vaughani.the susceptibility of wild-caught european passeriform birds to naturally isolated malaria parasites, plasmodium (novyella) nucleophilum and plasmodium (novyella) vaughani, was studied by means of intramuscular subinoculation of infected citrated blood. plasmodium nucleophilum of the great tit, parus major, was transmitted to 3 great tits, but 3 blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) were not susceptible. plasmodium vaughani of the robin, erithacus rubecula, was transmitted to 1 robin and 1 blackcap, bu ...200515986631
heritability of the timing of autumn migration in a natural bird population.in recent decades, global temperature has increased at an unprecedented rate. this has been causing rapid environmental shifts that have altered the selective regimes determining the annual organization of birds. in order to assess the potential for adaptive evolution in the timing of autumn migration, we estimated heritabilities of the onset of migratory activity in a southern german blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) population. heritabilities (h2=0.34-0.45) and coefficients of additive genetic var ...200111370969
cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds in the central european carpathians.the occurrence of cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds was monitored in the central european carpathians from 1996 to 2001. a total of 5,414 birds, representing 86 species, was examined. collyriclum faba was found at 7 sites (5 in slovakia, 1 in poland, and 1 in the czech republic), and prevalences at the sites varied from 1 to 16%. ten species of passerine birds were infected: blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) (16 positive/622 tested, 2% prevalence), black redstart (phoenicurus ochrur ...200312760670
borreliae in immature ixodes ricinus (acari:ixodidae) ticks parasitizing birds in the czech republic.of 411 forest birds of 33 species examined near valtice, czech republic, 29% were infested with ixodes ricinus (l.); 2.2% were parasitized by haemaphysalis concinna koch. borreliae were detected in 5.1 and 11.7% of larval and nymphal i. ricinus, respectively. none of the 13 h. concinna tested was infected. in total, 3.2% of the birds examined were parasitized by i. ricinus immatures infected by borreliae. borreliae-containing ticks parasitized european robin, erithacus rubecula (l.); eurasian bl ...19968840682
new records of digenean flukes (trematoda) in birds in poland.eleven new records of digenean species are reported in birds in poland, i.e. tylodelphys immer found in gavia stellata, strigea vanderbrokae in pernis apivorus, echinostoma academica in numenius arquata, echinochasmus euryporus in buteo buteo, patagifer parvispinosus and petasiger grandivesicularis in tachybaptus ruficollis, notocotyloides petasatus in calidris alpina, plagiorchis arcuatus in corvus cornix, leyogonimus polyoon in gallinula chloropus and fulica atra, lyperosomum alaudae in sylvia ...201020450011
factors affecting the relapse of haemoproteus belopolskyi infections and the parasitaemia of trypanosoma spp. in a naturally infected european songbird, the blackcap, sylvia atricapilla.the effects of photoperiod and stress on the relapse of haemoproteus belopolskyi infections and the parasitaemia of trypanosoma spp. were studied in naturally infected blackcaps, sylvia atricapilla. twenty-one birds (12 infected with h. belopolskyi, 5 with trypanosoma spp.) were kept indoors and investigated by microscopic examination of stained blood films. all infections were latent before the experiments started on 7 february 2002. the relapse of h. belopolskyi and the parasitaemia of trypano ...200415138804
genetic basis, mode of inheritance and evolutionary changes of migratory directions in palaearctic warblers (aves: sylviidae)the genetic basis, mode of inheritance and recent evolutionary changes of migratory directions in birds are discussed on the basis of published and new experimental evidence. displacement experiments with wild-caught migrants and orientation tests with hand-reared passerines illustrate that inexperienced young birds possess genetic information about the direction and approximate distance of migration, but not about the geographic location of the winter quarters. hand-raised blackcaps sylvia atri ...19969317319
the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
individual oocysts of isospora (apicomplexa: coccidia) parasites from avian feces: from photo to sequence.numerous microscopic studies of coccidian oocysts from avian feces have become the basis for species identification. in contrast, molecular studies of wild birds' coccidia are still in their infancy and are mostly based on dna extracted from the blood stages of these parasites. linking microscopic and molecular data requires a method that reliably extracts dna from single oocysts with parallel detailed morphological examination of the same cell. we offer a thorough manual of isolating, photograp ...200919245285
associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two european passerines, fringilla coelebs and sylvia atricapilla.human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. we captured individuals of two widespread european passerines (fringilla coelebs and sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. we compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to l ...201324339923
forests of opportunities and mischief: disentangling the interactions between forests, parasites and immune responses.habitat characteristics determine the presence of individuals through resource availability, but at the same time, such features also influence the occurrence of parasites. we analyzed how birds respond to changes in interior forest structures, to forest management regimes, and to the risk of haemosporidian infections. we captured and took blood samples from blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) and chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) in three different forest types (beech, mixed deciduous, spruce). we mea ...201627247106
a review of the subfamily harpypalpinae fain, 1972 (acariformes: harpirhynchidae)--parasites of passerine birds.the subfamily harpypalpinae fain, 1972 (acariformes: cheyletoidea: harpirhynchidae) is revised. diagnoses of the subfamily and its two constituent genera, harpypalpus dubinin, 1957 and harpypalpoides lombert and moss, 1979, and keys to females of all known species are provided. data on harpypalpine hosts and distribution are summarized, and nine new species are described: harpypalpus lonchura sp. nov. from lonchura castaneothorax (gould) (estrildidae) in australia, harpypalpus pyrrhula sp. nov. ...201425283118
insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the czech republic.wild passerine birds (passeriformes) from northeastern part of the czech republic were examined for ectoparasites. three species of louse-flies of the genus ornithomya (diptera: hippoboscidae), two species of fleas of the genera ceratophyllus and dasypsyllus (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae), and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera myrsidea, menacanthus (phthiraptera: menoponidae), brueelia, penenirmus, philopterus (phthiraptera: philopteridae) were found on 82 birds of 23 species. ...200819202768
melatonin and nocturnal migration.many species of diurnal birds migrate nocturnally. here, a series of studies of the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) on the relationship between nocturnal restlessness and melatonin, a hormone that in birds modulates day-night rhythms, are reviewed. migratory populations from sweden and kenya were compared with resident populations from cape verde. in blackcaps of migratory populations, night levels of melatonin were lower during the migratory period, when birds showed nocturnal activity, than befo ...200516055859
the transmission of haemoproteus belopolskyi (haemosporida: haemoproteidae) of blackcap by culicoides impunctatus (diptera: ceratopogonidae).haemoproteus belopolskyi of blackcap, sylvia atricapilla, underwent sporogony in wild-caught female biting midges, culicoides impunctatus, which were experimentally infected by feeding them on naturally infected birds. the engorged flies were held for 8-12 days to allow development of sporozoites and then aspirated and triturated in 0.85% saline. seven uninfected nestlings of blackcap at the age of 20-21 days were inoculated into the pectoral muscle with 0.3 ml of the slurry containing approxima ...200415040696
simulation of migratory flight and stopover affects night levels of melatonin in a nocturnal migrant.several species of diurnal birds are nocturnal migrants. the activation of nocturnal activity requires major physiological changes, which are essentially unknown. previous work has shown that during migratory periods nocturnal migrants have reduced night-time levels of melatonin. since this hormone is involved in the modulation of day-night rhythms, it is a good candidate regulator of nocturnal migratory activity. we studied whether melatonin levels change when nocturnally active blackcaps (sylv ...200415058399
the two parts of the blackcap song: acoustic analysis and male responses to playbacks.bird songs are complex manifold acoustic signals serving two main functions: mate attraction and territorial defense. the way information is encoded in the song often reflects adaptation to proximate and ultimate constraints. male blackcaps, sylvia atricapilla, display versatile songs with two parts, a warble and a whistle, whose functions remain unclear. we showed that the two parts of songs differ in terms of intensity, frequency and temporal parameters. they also contain totally different set ...201526522931
variation in candidate genes clock and adcyap1 does not consistently predict differences in migratory behavior in the songbird genus junco.recent studies exploring the molecular genetic basis for migratory variation in animals have identified polymorphisms in two genes ( clock and adcyap1) that are linked to circadian rhythms and correlate with migratory propensity and phenology among individuals and populations. results from these initial studies are mixed, however, and additional data are needed to assess the generality and diversity of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of migration. we sequenced clock and adcyap ...201324627781
is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the eurasian blackcap (sylvia atricapilla). blackcaps from central europe have been wintering in urban areas of ...201526400594
limits of selection against cheaters: birds prioritise visual fruit advertisement over taste.the concept of biological markets aims to explain how organisms interact with each other. market theory predicts that organisms choose the most rewarding partner in mutualisms. however, partner choice may also be influenced by advertisement which may not be reliable. in seed dispersal mutualism, we analysed whether seed dispersers prioritise taste cues over visual advertisement to select the most rewarding fruits and whether they select against partners with unreliable advertisement. we conducte ...201424390478
palestine saw-scaled vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.the selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. this is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. we studied the foraging strategy of the palestine saw-scaled viper (echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and ...201526319368
different space preferences and within-host competition promote niche partitioning between symbiotic feather mite species.obligate symbionts (including parasites, commensals and mutualists) often share host species and host-based food resources. such symbionts are frequently distributed unequally among hosts with different phenotypic features, or occupy different regions on a host. however, the processes leading to distinct within-host symbiont distributions remain obscure. we aimed to test whether distinct in-host symbiont distributions arise as the outcome of species-specific habitat preferences or interspecific ...201525980927
migratory blackcaps tested in emlen funnels can orient at 85 degrees but not at 88 degrees magnetic inclination.migratory birds are known to use the earth's magnetic field as an orientation cue on their tremendous journeys between their breeding and overwintering grounds. the magnetic compass of migratory birds relies on the magnetic field's inclination, i.e. the angle between the magnetic field lines and the earth's surface. as a consequence, vertical or horizontal field lines corresponding to 0 or 90 deg inclination should offer no utilizable information on where to find north or south. so far, very lit ...201525452505
differential expression of melatonin receptor subtypes melia, melib and melic in relation to melatonin binding in the male songbird brain.previous autoradiography studies illustrated that several areas of the avian brain can bind the pineal hormone melatonin. in birds, there are three melatonin receptor (melr) subtypes: melia, melib and melic. to date, their brain distribution has not been studied in any passerine bird. therefore, we investigated mrna distribution of melr subtypes in adjacent sections of the brain of two songbirds, the blackcap and the zebra finch, in parallel with that of 2-[¹²⁵i]-iodomelatonin (imel) binding sit ...201525427872
chewing lice in azorean blackcaps ( sylvia atricapilla ): a contribution to parasite island syndromes.focusing upon chewing lice (phthiraptera: amblycera, ischnocera) parasitizing blackcaps ( sylvia atricapilla ) in the azores (portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the azores compared to mainland europe. only chewing lice host specific to blackcaps were found in the azores. louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the azores compared to those of various mainland populations. chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syn ...201525279583
[stochastic elements of speciation in darwin's finches and in central european blackcaps]. 201020412736
bird mitochondrial gene order: insight from 3 warbler mitochondrial genomes.two main gene orders exist in birds: the ancestral gene order and the remnant control region (cr) 2 gene order. these gene orders differ by the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the cr, respectively. among songbirds, oscines were thought to follow the ancestral gene order, with the exception of the lyrebird and phylloscopus warblers. here, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 3 non-phylloscopus warblers species and found that the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) and the reed warbl ...200818178969
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 october 2012-30 november 2012.this article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: brassica oleracea, brycon amazonicus, dimorphandra wilsonii, eupallasella percnurus, helleborus foetidus, ipomoea purpurea, phrynops geoffroanus, prochilodus argenteus, pyura sp., sylvia atricapilla, teratosphaeria suttonii, trialeurodes vaporariorum and trypanosoma brucei. these loci were cross-tested on the following species: dimorpha ...201323356940
isospora anthochaerae n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from a red wattlebird (anthochaera carunculata) (passeriformes: meliphagidae) in western australia.a new species, isospora anthochaerae n. sp. is described from a red wattlebird (anthochaera carunculata). sporulated oocysts (n=37) are subspherical, with smooth colourless to pale brown bilayered oocyst wall, 0.8 μm thick (outer layer 0·6 μm, inner 0.2 μm thick). oocyst with 2 spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocysts. oocyst length, 23.4 μm (20.0-26.0); oocyst width, 20.7 μm (19.0-22.0); oocyst length/width (l/w) ratio, 1.1. micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. sporocysts with ...201424602873
spring arrival along a migratory divide of sympatric blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla).the recent formation of a migratory divide in the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) involves sympatrically breeding birds migrating to different overwintering quarters. within the last 50 years, a novel migratory strategy has evolved resulting in an increasing proportion of birds now wintering in britain instead of migrating to the traditional sites in the mediterranean area. this rapid microevolution has been attributed to allochronic spring arrival of migrants from the respective wintering quarter ...201019711103
cryptochrome expression in the eye of migratory birds depends on their migratory status.most passerine birds are nocturnal migrants. when kept in captivity during the migratory periods, these species show a migratory restlessness, or zugunruhe. recent studies on sylvia warblers have shown that zugunruhe is an excellent proxy of migratory disposition. passerine birds can use the earth's geomagnetic field as a compass to keep their course during their migratory flight. among the candidate magnetoreceptive mechanisms are the cryptochromes, flavoproteins located in the retina that are ...201424622895
dietary flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of a melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of the female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits.signalling theory predicts that signals should fulfil three fundamental requirements: high detectability, discriminability and, most importantly, reliability. melanins are the most common pigments in animals. correlations between genotypic and phenotypic qualities of the sender and size and morph of melanin-based traits are known, but it is contentious whether melanin-based colouration may signal any quality. we examined the effect of supplementing blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) with flavonoids, ...200919555443
feather mites (acari, astigmata) from azorean passerines (aves, passeriformes): lower species richness compared to european mainland.ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the azores (north atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. we recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily analgoidea (analgidae, proctophyllodidae, psoroptoididae and trouessartiidae). a high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. only three passerine species (sylvia atricapilla, regulus regulus and serinus ca ...201525665827
global warming will reshuffle the areas of high prevalence and richness of three genera of avian blood parasites.the importance of parasitism for host populations depends on local parasite richness and prevalence: usually host individuals face higher infection risk in areas where parasites are most diverse, and host dispersal to or from these areas may have fitness consequences. knowing how parasites are and will be distributed in space and time (in a context of global change) is thus crucial from both an ecological and a biological conservation perspective. nevertheless, most research articles focus just ...201424488566
experimental reduction of ultraviolet wavelengths reflected from parasitic eggs affects rejection behaviour in the blackcap sylvia atricapilla.hosts of brood parasites use a variety of cues relating to eggshell appearance of parasitic eggs, which facilitate their recognition and rejection. it has been documented that host visual perception of different colours including uv wavelengths plays an important role in this respect. in the study reported here, we aimed to test whether artificial reduction of the uv wavelengths reflected from parasitic eggshell affects rejection behaviour in the blackcap sylvia atricapilla. to achieve this goal ...200818626087
spatial isolation and temporal variation in fitness and condition facilitate divergence in a migratory divide.a novel migratory polymorphism evolved within the last 60 years in blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) breeding sympatrically in southwestern germany. while most individuals winter in the traditional areas in the mediterranean, a growing number of blackcaps started migrating to britain instead. the rapid microevolution of this new strategy has been attributed to assortative mating and better physical condition of birds wintering in britain. however, the isolating barriers as well as the physical cond ...201526656955
migratory blackcaps can use their magnetic compass at 5 degrees inclination, but are completely random at 0 degrees inclination.it is known that night-migratory songbirds use a magnetic compass measuring the magnetic inclination angle, i.e. the angle between the earth's surface and the magnetic field lines, but how do such birds orient at the magnetic equator? a previous study reported that birds are completely randomly oriented in a horizontal north-south magnetic field with 0° inclination angle. this seems counter-intuitive, because birds using an inclination compass should be able to separate the north-south axis from ...201627667569
evaluating the efficacy of restoration plantings through dna barcoding of frugivorous bird diets.frugivores are critical components of restoration programs because they are seed dispersers. thus, knowledge about bird-plant trophic relationships is essential in the evaluation of the efficacy of restoration processes. traditionally, the diet of frugivores is characterized by microscopically identifying plant residues in droppings, which is time-consuming, requires botanical knowledge, and cannot be used for fragments lacking detectable morphological characteristics (e.g., fragmented seeds and ...201626864475
ecomorphology of the external flight apparatus of blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) with different migration behavior.an analysis of the external flight apparatus of 700 blackcaps from eight different populations (sedentary to long-distance migrators) is presented. with increasing migration distances of populations, (1) wing length, aspect ratio, and wing pointedness increase; (2) wing load decreases; (3) slots on the wing tips become relatively shorter; (4) the alula tends to be shorter in relation to wing length; and (5) the tail is shorter in relation to wing length. although body mass increases from souther ...200516055858
interactions between a candidate gene for migration (adcyap1), morphology and sex predict spring arrival in blackcap populations.avian research has begun to reveal associations between candidate genes and migratory behaviors of captive birds, yet few studies utilize genotypic, morphometric, and phenological data from wild individuals. previous studies have identified an association between adcyap1 polymorphism and autumn migratory behavior (restlessness, or zugunruhe), but little is known about the relationship between adcyap1 and spring migratory behavior. the timing of spring migration and arrival to the breeding ground ...201526684459
are high perches in the blackcap sylvia atricapilla song or listening posts? a sound transmission study.birds often sing from high perches referred to as song posts. however, birds also listen and keep a lookout from these perches. we used a sound transmission experiment to investigate the changes for receiving and sending conditions that a territorial songbird may experience by moving upwards in the vegetation. representative song elements of the blackcap sylvia atricapilla were transmitted in a forest habitat in spring using a complete factorial design with natural transmission distances and spe ...200515704437
melatonin reduces migratory restlessness in sylvia warblers during autumnal migration.a remarkable aspect of bird migration is its nocturnality, particularly common in passeriformes. the switch in activity from purely diurnal to also nocturnal is evident even in caged birds that during migratory periods develop an intense nocturnal restlessness, termed zugunruhe. the mechanisms that control this major change in activity are mostly unknown. previous work with sylvia warblers suggested an involvement of melatonin, a hormone associated with day-night cycles in most vertebrates. in a ...201324369961
individual differences in migratory behavior shape population genetic structure and microhabitat choice in sympatric blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla).in migratory birds, traits such as orientation and distance are known to have a strong genetic background, and they often exhibit considerable within-population variation. how this variation relates to evolutionary responses to ongoing selection is unknown because the underlying mechanisms that translate environmental changes into population genetic changes are unclear. we show that within-population genetic structure in southern german blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) is related to individual dif ...201324324877
contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation among blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) with divergent migratory orientations in europe.migratory divides are thought to facilitate behavioral, ecological, and genetic divergence among populations with different migratory routes. however, it is currently contentious how much genetic divergence is needed to maintain distinct migratory behavior across migratory divides. here we investigate patterns of neutral genetic differentiation among blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) populations with different migratory strategies across europe. we compare the level of genetic divergence of populati ...201324278428
[eurasian blackcap (sylvia atricapilla)-a new bird record in china].a new bird species record, the eurasian blackcap (sylvia atricapilla), was witnessed and subsequently recorded from 22 december 2012 to 9 january 2013, in kashi (n39°28', e76°00', altitude 1 260 m), southwest xinjiang, china.201324115665
finding the appropriate variables to model the distribution of vector-borne parasites with different environmental preferences: climate is not enough.understanding how environmental variation influences the distribution of parasite diversity is critical if we are to anticipate disease emergence risks associated with global change. however, choosing the relevant variables for modelling current and future parasite distributions may be difficult: candidate predictors are many, and they seldom are statistically independent. this problem often leads to simplistic models of current and projected future parasite distributions, with climatic variable ...201323606561
allocation of endogenous and dietary protein in the reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract in migratory blackcaps at stopover sites.during migratory flight, the mass of the gastrointestinal tract (git) and its associated organs in small birds decreases in size by as much as 40%, compared with the preflight condition because of the catabolism of protein. at stopover sites, birds need 2-3 days to rebuild their git so that they can restore body mass and fat reserves to continue migration. the source of protein used to rebuild the git may be exogenous (from food ingested) or endogenous (reallocated from other organs) or both. be ...201222399651
influence of the local spring warming on the breeding phenology in blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) in croatia.recent papers have shown that climate change affects many species, including birds. several papers from different areas have devoted attention to the negative correlation between the dates of breeding and year, and also negative correlation between the dates of breeding and air spring temperatures. recent work give some firm evidence for postulating causal relationship between spring temperature and laying dates. we used 31 years (1979-2009) of data from blackcap sylvia atricapilla in mokrice ar ...201122319879
during stopover, migrating blackcaps adjust behavior and intake of food depending on the content of protein in their diets.during migration, birds undergo alternating periods of fasting and re-feeding that are associated with dynamic changes in body mass (m(b)) and in organ size, including that of the digestive tract. after arrival at a migratory stopover site, following a long flight, a bird must restore the tissues of its digestive tract before it can refuel. in the present study we examined how the availability of dietary protein influences refueling of migrating blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) during a migratory ...201121705790
heterothermy, and the energetic consequences of huddling in small migrating passerine birds.the success of migration of small passerine birds depends largely on effective refueling at stopover sites. in our previous studies, we found that hypothermia facilitates accumulation of fuel at the beginning of a stopover. later we found that blackcaps, sylvia atricapilla, might further reduce their energy expenditure by huddling while at rest. here, we report experimental results supporting our hypothesis that huddling is beneficial to small migrating passerines both from energetic and thermor ...201121693540
availability of water affects renewal of tissues in migratory blackcaps during stopover.migrating blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) were used to test the predictions that (1) the rebuilding of the digestive tract, as reflected by mass-specific consumption of food on the first 2-3 days of a stopover, is faster in birds with access to drinking water than in birds without, and (2) that adipose tissue and pectoral muscles grow faster and to a greater extent in birds with unlimited access to water. we simulated migratory stopover in two experiments. in experiment i, each of 31 birds was ra ...201121558178
prevalence, diversity, and interaction patterns of avian haemosporidians in a four-year study of blackcaps in a migratory divide.migratory birds contribute to the movement of avian parasites between distant locations, thereby influencing parasite distribution and ecology. here we analyse the prevalence, diversity and interaction patterns of haemosporida parasites infecting blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) populations in a recently established migratory divide of southwestern germany across 4 years. we hypothesize that the temporal and spatial isolation provided by 2 sympatric blackcap breeding populations (migratory divide) ...201121518466
identification of a gene associated with avian migratory behaviour.bird migration is one of the most spectacular and best-studied phenomena in behavioural biology. yet, while the patterns of variation in migratory behaviour and its ecological causes have been intensively studied, its genetic, physiological and neurological control remains poorly understood. the lack of knowledge of the molecular basis of migration is currently not only limiting our insight into the proximate control of migration, but also into its evolution. we investigated polymorphisms in the ...201121325325
carbohydrate absorption by blackcap warblers (sylvia atricapilla) changes during migratory refuelling stopovers.passerine birds migrating long distances arrive at stopover sites to refuel having lost as much as 50% of their initial body mass (mb), including significant losses to digestive organs that may serve as a reservoir of protein catabolised for fuel during flight. birds newly arrived at a stopover show slow or no mb gain during the initial 2-3 days of a stopover, which suggests that energy assimilation may be limited by reduced digestive organs. measurements of migrants and captive birds subjected ...201020086121
the vortex wake of blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla l.) measured using high-speed digital particle image velocimetry (dpiv).reconstructing the vortex wake of freely flying birds is challenging, but in the past few years, direct measurements of the wake circulation have become available for a number of species. streamwise circulation has been measured at different positions along the span of the birds, but no measurements have been performed in the transverse plane. recent findings from studies of bat wakes have pointed to the importance of transverse plane data for reconstructing the wake topology because important s ...200919801441
heterothermy in small, migrating passerine birds during stopover: use of hypothermia at rest accelerates fuel accumulation.for small endothermic animals, heterothermy serves as an energy-saving mechanism for survival in challenging environments, but it may also accelerate fat accumulation in individuals preparing for fuel-demanding activities. this is the first study to demonstrate adaptive hypothermic responses in migrating passerines. while monitoring body temperature (t(b)) of eight blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) by radiotelemetry, we found that during daytime t(b)=42.5+/-0.4 degrees c (mean +/- s.d.); at night t ...200919749099
blackcap warblers maintain digestive efficiency by increasing digesta retention time on the first day of migratory stopover.almost all of the internal organs of migrating birds undergo pronounced mass changes, but the digestive tract changes most and fastest. the masses of the small intestine and the liver may be reduced by as much as 50% during migratory flight, indicating extreme phenotypic flexibility. birds must rebuild these organs during stopovers to facilitate rapid mass gain and fuel deposition for continuation of migration. laboratory studies indicate that birds may vary mean gut retention time to maintain h ...200919663605
migration strategy and divergent sexual selection on bird song.migratory birds are assumed to be under stronger sexual selection pressure than sedentary populations, and the fact that their song is more complex has been taken as confirmation of this fact. however, this assumes that sexual selection pressure due to both male competition and female choice increase together. a further issue is that, in many species, songs become less complex during competitive encounters; in contrast, female choice selects for more complex song, so the two selection pressures ...200918945666
isolation of 10 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla).we isolated 10 polymorphic microsatellite dna loci from the blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) and optimized them for future studies of population differentiation in populations with different migration strategies in southwestern germany. the loci were screened for polymorphism using 178 individuals from two populations in germany and spain. the primers amplified highly variable loci characterized by two to 19 alleles per locus and their observed and expected heterozygosities range from 0.47 to 0.81 ...200821585986
drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla).fat accumulation by blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. birds staging in a fruit-rich pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. we conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in w ...200818278515
birds see the true colours of fruits to live off the fat of the land.communication is a characteristic of life, but its reliability and basic definition are hotly debated. theory predicts that trade among mutualists requires high reliability. here, we show that moderate reliability already allows mutualists to optimize their rewards. the colours of mediterranean fleshy-fruits indicate lipid rewards (but not other nutrients) to avian seed dispersers on regional and local scales. on the regional scale, fruits with high lipid content were significantly darker and le ...201424403330
first record of ixodes arboricola (ixodida: ixodidae) from turkey with presence of candidatus rickettsia vini (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae).birds are the specific hosts of many tick species and may contribute to the dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens throughout the world. determination of ticks infesting birds and their pathogens are important for the detection of natural foci of human pathogens. unfortunately, there is very limited information about the occurrence of ticks on birds and associated pathogens in turkey. we performed a tick survey on three passerine bird species; parus major, sylvia atricapilla, and turdus ...201425118420
the relative stability of chronic isospora sylvianthina (protozoa: apicomplexa) infection in blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla): evaluation of a simplified method of estimating isosporan infection intensity in passerine birds.estimation of intensity of coccidia infection in wild birds is essential for the studies of the parasite impact on birds' natural populations. in this paper i propose a method for quantification of coccidia oocyst output from passerine birds applicable in field investigations because it is based on one faeces droplet per bird only. this method was checked under controlled laboratory conditions on blackcaps, chronically infected with isospora sylvianthina, and was proved to be sensitive enough fo ...200616874477
assortative mating as a mechanism for rapid evolution of a migratory divide.there have been numerous recent observations of changes in the behavior and dynamics of migratory bird populations, but the plasticity of the migratory trait and our inability to track small animals over large distances have hindered investigation of the mechanisms behind migratory change. we used habitat-specific stable isotope signatures to show that recently evolved allopatric wintering populations of european blackcaps sylvia atricapilla pair assortatively on their sympatric breeding grounds ...200516239479
are long-distance migrants constrained in their evolutionary response to environmental change? causes of variation in the timing of autumn migration in a blackcap (s. atricapilla) and two garden warbler (sylvia borin) populations.long-distance migratory birds often show little phenotypic variation in the timing of life-history events like breeding, molt, or migration. it has been hypothesized that this could result from low levels of heritable variation. if this were true, the adaptability of long-distance migratory birds would be limited, which would explain the vulnerability of this group of birds to environmental changes. the amount of phenotypic, environmental, and genetic variation in the onset of autumn migratory a ...200516055856
anatomical and histological changes in the alimentary tract of migrating blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla): a comparison among fed, fasted, food-restricted, and refed birds.during northward migration, blackcaps that arrive to refuel at stopover sites in israel's negev desert have reduced masses of organs that are important in food digestion and assimilation. we tested several predictions from the general hypothesis that smaller organs of digestion (small intestine and pancreas) and nutrient assimilation (liver) bring about a lower capacity to consume food and that the organs must be restored before blackcaps can feed and digest at a high rate. we used a fasting pro ...200615057725
photoperiodic response to early hatching in a migratory bird species.a considerable number of bird species of the northern hemisphere have been breeding earlier over the last few decades, most probably in response to global warming. in migratory birds, there is also a trend towards later departure from the breeding grounds in autumn. yet it is not known whether this trend in the timing of migration reflects an evolutionary process or is just an immediate phenotypic response to global environmental change. we conducted an experiment with migratory blackcaps (sylvi ...200128547466
test for physiological limitation to nutrient assimilation in a long-distance passerine migrant at a springtime stopover site.during northward migration, blackcaps arrive at stopover sites in israel's negev desert with reduced masses of organs that are important in food digestion and assimilation. blackcaps that stay to refuel (largely on fruits) do not gain mass rapidly until after 3 d at the stopover site. we hypothesized that (1) it may take several days to rebuild these reduced organs, (2) during this recovery interval high feeding rates might not be possible, and (3) this could be the basis for the absence of imme ...200610893173
changes in lean mass and in organs of nutrient assimilation in a long-distance passerine migrant at a springtime stopover site.the primary energy source for migration is fat, but nonfat body components can vary in concert with lipid stores in some migrants. the goals of this study were (1) to validate for a small old world warbler (the blackcap, sylvia atricapilla) non-destructive methods to measure lean and fat mass, (2) to quantify the relative contribution of lean mass to body-mass change of migrants, and (3) to ascertain what lean tissues might be involved. using total-body electrical conductivity and dilution space ...20069678504
frequency of migrants and migratory activity are genetically correlated in a bird population: evolutionary implications.most migratory bird populations are composed of individuals that migrate and individuals that remain resident. while the role of ecological factors in maintaining this behavioral dimorphism has received much attention, the importance of genetic constraints on the evolution of avian migration has not yet been considered. drawing on the recorded migratory activities of 775 blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) from a partially migratory population in southern france, we tested two alternative genetic mod ...19968962107
population differentiation of migratory directions in birds: comparison between ringing results and orientation behaviour of hand-raised migrants.blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) from five areas in central europe were hand-raised. their autumn migratory orientation was tested in funnel-shaped cages. their directional choices were compared to recoveries of conspecifics ringed during the breeding season in the same areas, which are situated on a transect across a migratory divide between southeastward and southwestward migrating populations. results from ringing and orientation tests were in good agreement with respect to mean direction and d ...199228313567
ecophysiological aspects of rapid population growth in a novel migratory blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) population: an experimental approach.blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) that breed in central europe have usually migrated to mediterranean or african wintering grounds. in the past several decades, a portion of this breeding population has started migrating to the british isles to overwinter and this population has increased dramatically. several factors, including higher annual survivorship (due to supplemental feeding and reduced migratiry distance), assortative mating, and enhanced reproductive success may be involved in this rapid ...199028312566
genetic basis of migratory behavior in european warblers.the seasonal course and magnitude of migratory restlessness recorded in four populations of the blackcap sylvia atricapilla differ in a population-specific fashion that is related to the distance of travel. experimentally produced hybrids of an exclusively migratory european population and a partially migratory african population showed intermediate migratory restlessness and an intermediate percentage of birds displaying restlessness compared to the two parental stocks. these results demonstrat ...198117747634
[a comparative study of diurnal patterns of activity and diurnal changes of body weight in caged and free-living warblers (sylvia)].1. in sylvia atricapilla und s. borin the pattern of locomotor activity in caged birds and the temporal distribution of capture of free-living birds are concurrent, as are also the body-weight curves of the two groups. 2. this agreement leads to the conclusion that the diurnal distribution of captures accurately reflects the diurnal pattern of activity of the typical individual bird, and that the averaged curve of body weight represents the diel cycle of body weight of a typical individual. 3. o ...197128313282
historical diversification of migration patterns in a passerine bird.migratory strategies of birds require complex orientation mechanisms, morphological adaptations, and life-history adjustments. from an evolutionary perspective, it is important to know how fast this complex combination of traits can evolve. we analyzed mitochondrial control-region dna sequences in 241 blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) from 12 populations with different migratory behaviors. the sample included sedentary populations in europe and atlantic archipelagos and migratory populations with d ...200415446433
migrating songbirds tested in computer-controlled emlen funnels use stellar cues for a time-independent compass.this paper investigates how young pied flycatchers, ficedula hypoleuca, and blackcaps, sylvia atricapilla, interpret and use celestial cues. in order to record these data, we developed a computer-controlled version of the emlen funnel, which enabled us to make detailed temporal analyses. first, we showed that the birds use a star compass. then, we tested the birds under a stationary planetarium sky, which simulated the star pattern of the local sky at 02:35 h for 11 consecutive hours of the nigh ...200111807103
avipoxvirus in blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla).from july to september 2005, 1075 wild birds of 37 species were mist-netted at a location in the north-eastern part of the czech republic. the birds were examined for the presence of avipoxvirus lesions. this was demonstrated by electron microscopy in skin lesions in nine of 244 blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) examined (4% prevalence). blackcaps skin bioptates were processed using the ultrathin section method. in skin bioptates, avipoxviruses were demonstrated in intracytoplasmic inclusions where ...200818202957
isospora ashmoonensis sp. nov. from blackcap warbler, sylvia atricapilla in egypt.microscopic examination of faecal samples collected from naturally infected blackcap warbler, sylvia atricapilla revealed the presence of a new isospora species; i. ashmoonensis. oocysts were subspherical to oval, measuring 24.0 (21.0-25.0) microns in length and 20.0 (19.0-20.5) microns in width. a micropyle and an oocyst residuum were absent whereas one polar granule was seen. ellipsoidal sporocysts contained a stieda body and measured 17.0 (16.0-18.5) x 9.2 (9.0-10.0) microns. sporulation took ...19958586869
the use of passerine feathers to evaluate heavy metal pollution in central portugal.in 2003, two sampling strategies were applied in order to evaluate metal contamination in passerine bird feathers. one strategy included the use of nest boxes and nestling great tits in a forest habitat (mu). the other strategy focused on the use of mist nets to capture adult blackbirds, robins and blackcaps in a fragmented non-forested habitat (est). there was a significantly higher concentration of mercury in great tits (1.09 ± 0.40) sampled in mu and also in robins (3.44 ± 0.91) and blackcaps ...201121312030
evolution of seasonal transmission patterns in avian blood-borne parasites.in temperate regions, many vector-borne parasites maximise their transmission prospects by adjusting reproduction to seasonal cycles of host susceptibility and vector availability. nevertheless, in these regions there are areas where environmental conditions are favourable throughout the year, so that parasites could benefit from a year-round transmission strategy. we analysed how different transmission strategies (strict summer transmission, extended summer transmission - including spring and a ...201525957160
are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? a case study of two passerine species.melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. it has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. we investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, common redstarts (phoenicurus phoenicurus) and blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. we hypothesized that 1) t ...201424905646
invasive predator tips the balance of symmetrical competition between native coral-reef fishes.the importance of competition and predation in structuring ecological communities is typically examined separately such that interactions between these processes are seldom understood. by causing large reductions in native prey, invasive predators may modify native species interactions. i conducted a manipulative field experiment in the bahamas to investigate the possibility that the invasive pacific red lionfish (pterois volitans) alters competition between planktivorous fairy and blackcap bass ...201829490107
parasites in space and time: a case study of haemosporidian spatiotemporal prevalence in urban birds.prevalence responses to anthropic factors differ across hosts and parasite species. we here analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of avian haemosporidian prevalence in bird assemblages of the mooswald forest (i.e., urban greenspace; freiburg, germany), in response to local environmental features (e.g., water sources, human presence (visited)/absence (unvisited)) and bird-level traits (e.g., body condition, age, sex) in 2 years. we used a nested pcr protocol (mitochondrial (mt)dna cytochrome b (c ...201930673588
high diversity and low genetic structure of feather mites associated with a phenotypically variable bird host.obligate symbionts may be genetically structured among host individuals and among phenotypically distinct host populations. such processes may in turn determine within-host genetic diversity of symbionts, which is relevant for understanding symbiont population dynamics. we analysed the population genetic structure of two species of feather mites (proctophyllodes sylviae and trouessartia bifurcata) in migratory and resident blackcaps sylvia atricapilla that winter sympatrically. resident and migr ...201829338798
air movement affects insulatory values of nests constructed by old world warblers.avian nests provide a location for incubation, and in many cases rearing of nestlings. these energetically demanding activities have meant that nest insulation has been the subject of many studies but few to date have dealt with how variation among species in nest construction materials could affect nest insulation. this study investigated the insulation of nests constructed by three species of old word warblers (sylviidae), which vary in size and composition. insulatory values, i.e. difference ...201930975418
animal migration research takes wing.in the beginning there was great confusion about animal migration. aristotle, noting that the types of birds around him changed with the seasons, concluded that summer redstarts turned into robins at the onset of winter, and that garden warblers became blackcaps [1]. others thought that birds disappear in winter because they hibernate submerged in mud. in a case of art decidedly not imitating life, a 16th century illustration accompanying the writings of swedish archbishop olaus magnus showed a ...201830205070
are movements of daytime and nighttime passerine migrants as different as day and night?even after decades of research, the migration of songbirds still holds numerous secrets. distinct stopover and routing behavior of diurnally and nocturnally migrating songbirds has been stated in the 1960s, but empirical confirmation is yet lacking widely. we studied the behavior of individual diurnally migrating dunnocks and nocturnally migrating blackcaps by means of large-scale automated radio-telemetry. birds were radio-tagged during their stopover at the german north sea coast. our data ind ...202033144946
individual variability and versatility in an eco-evolutionary model of avian migration.seasonal migration is a complex and variable behaviour with the potential to promote reproductive isolation. in eurasian blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla), a migratory divide in central europe separating populations with southwest (sw) and southeast (se) autumn routes may facilitate isolation, and individuals using new wintering areas in britain show divergence from mediterranean winterers. we tracked 100 blackcaps in the wild to characterize these strategies. blackcaps to the west and east of the ...202033143577
measuring power input, power output and energy conversion efficiency in un-instrumented flying birds.cost of flight at various speeds is a crucial determinant of flight behaviour in birds. aerodynamic models, predicting that mechanical power (pmech) varies with flight speed in a u-shaped manner, have been used together with an energy conversion factor (efficiency) to estimate metabolic power (pmet). despite few empirical studies, efficiency has been assumed constant across flight speeds at 23%. ideally, efficiency should be estimated from measurements of both pmech and pmet in un-instrumented f ...202032796040
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