centella asiatica attenuates aβ-induced neurodegenerative spine loss and dendritic simplification.the medicinal plant centella asiatica has long been used to improve memory and cognitive function. we have previously shown that a water extract from the plant (caw) is neuroprotective against the deleterious cognitive effects of amyloid-β (aβ) exposure in a mouse model of alzheimer's disease, and improves learning and memory in healthy aged mice as well. this study explores the physiological underpinnings of those effects by examining how caw, as well as chemical compounds found within the extr ...201728279707
ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in chaoshan, china.herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in china, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of chaoshan people. the aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea.201728249822
madecassic acid protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in retinal microvascular endothelial cells via ros-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.madecassic acid (ma) is an abundant triterpenoid in centella asiatica (l.) urban. (apiaceae) that has been used as a wound-healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. up to now, the effects of ma against oxidative stress remain unclear. in this study, we investigated the effect of ma and its mechanisms on hypoxia-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hrmecs). hrmecs were pre-treated with different concentrations of ma (0-50μm) for 30min before being incubated under hypoxia ...201627728894
the ameliorating effect of centella asiatica ethanolic extract on albino rats treated with isoniazid.isoniazid, also called isonicotinyl hydrazine (inh), is a commonly used drug for treating tuberculosis. the main drawback is its toxic side effects. centella asiatica has long been used in the ayurvedic system of medicine owing to its wide medicinal properties. this study was designed to examine the effectiveness of c. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (ca) on inh-treated albino rats.201727701138
asiatic acid attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via akt/gsk-3β/hif-1α signaling in rat h9c2 cardiomyocytes.myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury results from severe impairment of coronary blood supply and leads to irreversible cell death, with limited therapeutic possibilities. asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the tropical medicinal plant centella asiatica and serves a variety of bioactivities. in this study, we determined the effect of asiatic acid on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and investigated the underlying mechanisms, using an in vitro rat h9c2 cardiomyocytes m ...201627657024
indian herbs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine that is indigenous to india, is believed to be the world's oldest comprehensive health-care system and is now one of the most recognized and widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world. medicinal herbs have been in use for treating diseases since ancient times in india. ayurvedic therapies with medicinal herbs and herbomineral products generally provide relief without much adverse effects even after prolonged administration. neurodege ...201627651261
asiatic acid enhances nrf2 signaling to protect hepg2 cells from oxidative damage through akt and erk activation.asiatic acid (aa), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant centella asiatica, have antioxidative potential, but the molecular mechanism of aa against oxidative stress remains unclear. our study was performed to investigate the antioxidative effect of aa against oxidative stress and the antioxidative mechanism in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bhp) -stimulated the hepg2 cells. the results showed that aa suppressed t-bhp-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ros) generati ...201728110191
asiatic acid attenuates pre-neoplastic lesions, oxidative stress, biotransforming enzymes and histopathological alterations in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental rat colon carcinogenesis.asiatic acid (aa), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, derived from the tropical medicinal plant centella asiatica is known to exhibit numerous pharmacological properties. we hypothesized that aa will have chemopreventive potential against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh)-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in male wistar rats. rats were arbitrarily divided into six groups. group i rats were processed as control. group ii rats received aa (8 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) and groups iii-vi rats received subcutaneou ...201728004603
antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced dna damage in human lymphocytes.herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against dna damage. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of dna from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (h2o2). our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including bidens alba (ba), lycium chinense (lc), mentha arvensis (ma), plantago asiatica (pa), houttuynia cordata (hc), and centella asiatica (ca).201324279749
comparative pharmacokinetics between madecassoside and asiaticoside presented in a standardised extract of centella asiatica, eca 233 and their respective pure compound given separately in rats.1. eca 233, the standardised extract of centella asiatica, contains not less than 80% triterpenoid glycosides, in a madecassoside:asiaticoside ratio of 1.5 (±0.5):1. 2. the pharmacokinetic comparison of madecassoside and asiaticoside was performed in rats following intravenous and oral administration of eca 233, or an equivalent dose of the individual compounds. blood, tissues, urine and faeces were collected after dosing to determine drug and metabolite levels using liquid chromatography-tandem ...201728001462
pharmacokinetics of a standardized extract of centella asiatica eca 233 in rats.eca 233, a standardized extract of centella asiatica, has been found to exhibit various positive neurological effects and to have a good safety profile. the present study aimed to explore the disposition kinetics of eca 233, containing madecassoside (53.1 %) and asiaticoside (32.3 %), in rats. the extract was intravenously or orally administered at doses from 50 to 200 mg/kg. plasma, tissues, urine, and feces were collected at time points from 0 to 48 h after dosing. the levels of madecassoside ...201627992940
synergistic combinations of five single drugs from centella asiatica for neuronal identify alternatives of nerve growth factor, which could promote nf68 protein expression and contribute toward neuronal differentiation, five compounds namely: asiatic acid, madecassic, madecassoside, quercetin, and isoquercetin, obtained from centella asiatica, were examined for their neuronal differentiation effects on pc12 cells. c. asiatica has been applied as an effective herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including depression. according to a statistical design of ex ...201727893605
in vitro and in vivo antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic properties and chemical characterization of centella asiatica (l.) extract.the study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds present in centella asiatica (l.) (c. asiatica) extract and evaluate the respective antioxidant potential as well as its cholesterol-lowering effects in the experimental animal model. herein, the antioxidant potential of extracts was assessed by its free radical scavenging activity such as 2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl as well as reducing capability. the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of c. asiatica extract (cae) were evaluated in high cholester ...201627840607
effect of a mixture of diosmin, coumarin glycosides, and triterpenes on bleeding, thrombosis, and pain after stapled anopexy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.we evaluated the efficacy of oral administration of a mixture of diosmin, coumarin glycosides, and centella asiatica (venoplant®) in preventing bleeding, pain, and thrombosis of internal and external hemorrhoids after stapled anopexy (sa).201727815700
protective effects of centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine‑induced liver injury in rats.oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. centella asiatica (l.) urban, known in the united states as gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in chinese or indian pennywort. the efficacy of centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti‑inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. the present study investigated the protective effects of centella a ...201627748812
effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.the effect of oven drying at 50ᵒc ± 1ᵒc for 9 hour, 70ᵒc ± 1ᵒc for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. the medicinal plants selected were leaves of apium graveolens (saderi), averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), centella asiatica (pegaga), mentha arvensis (pudina), psidium guajava (jambu batu), sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), solanum nigrum (terung meranti) ...199922692357
phytoremediation of iron from red soil of tropical region by using centella asiatica.the accumulation and removal efficiency of fe by centella asiatica was carried out at various fe concentrations in soil treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg fe/kg soil). iron accumulation in different parts of c. asiatica (leaf, stem and root) was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (aas). factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and duncan's test were used for data analyses. the results revealed that c. asiatica have the ability to uptake and accumulate fe signific ...201626940261
stimulatory effects of acibenzolar-s-methyl on chlorogenic acids biosynthesis in centella asiatica cells.centella asiatica is a perrenial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (cgas) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. in a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of cga-derivatives in cultured centella cells, acibenzolar-s-methyl was applied as a xenob ...201627733862
asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces hepg2 cells death.asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. to date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on hepg2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (mmp) dissipation, atp depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria t ...201627288117
evaluation of the topical spray containing centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats.centella asiatica was extracted by methanol. the assay content of triterpenes in the extract was 0.12 % asiatic acid, 0.54 % madecassic acid, 0.25 % asiaticoside and 1.02 % madecassoside. the extract was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (hp-β-cd) and formulated with eudragit e100, glycerol, peg 400, copovidone, ethanol and purified water. a clear yellowish solution (f1-f8) was obtained. the formulations had a ph of 5.5-6.0 with viscosity in the range of 20-60 mpa s, surface tension 20 ...201627279066
ctg-loaded liposomes as an approach for improving the intestinal absorption of asiaticoside in centella total glucosides.centella total glucosides (ctg),obtained from centella asiatica (l.), have been shown to possess a multitude of pharmacological activities, however, oral administeration of ctg failed to fulfill their therapeutic potentials due to the low bioavailability. in this study, the author prepared the liposomes encapsulated ctg using the ethanol injection method in order to enhance their intestinal absorption. the average particle size and the polydispersityindex(pdi) of ctg-loaded liposome in a batch a ...201627251012
asiatic acid prevents the deleterious effects of valproic acid on cognition and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival.valproic acid (vpa) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. a recent study has demonstrated that vpa reduces histone deacetylase (hdac) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of vpa on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant centella asiat ...201627213437
moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations containing centella asiatica extract.centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) containing ...201727168678
quantitative determination of catechin as chemical marker in pediatric polyherbal syrup by hplc/dad.vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. the herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as phoenix sylvestris, emblica officinalis, withania somnifera, centella asiatica, amomum subulatum, zingiber officinalis, trigonella foenum-graecum, centaurea behe ...201627165575
antifibrotic effect of centella asiatica linn and asiatic acid on arecoline-induced fibrosis in human buccal fibroblasts.the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antifibrogenic effects of centella asiatica linn (ca) and its bioactive triterpene aglycone asiatic acid (aa) on arecoline-induced fibrosis in primary human buccal fibroblasts (hbf).201626840561
centella asiatica modulates antioxidant and mitochondrial pathways and improves cognitive function in mice.this study investigates the cognitive enhancing effects of the plant centella asiatica which is widely used ayurvedic and traditional chinese medicine.201626785167
efficacy of natural compounds in neurodegenerative disorders.neurodegenerative disorders represent clusters of serious diseases that results in progressive deterioration of normal structure and physiology of central nervous system. pathophysiology of alzheimer's, parkinson's or other neurodegenerative disorders involves multifaceted permutation of genetic and environmental factors. combinations of lifestyle modification linked with environmental factor jointly or alone represent the largest share of cases of these disorders. etiology of such neuronal dege ...201627651251
burn wound healing properties of asiaticoside and madecassoside.the healing of burn wounds has been widely characterized to be highly intricate, involving processes such as neo-vascularization, granulation, re-epithelialization, inflammation and wound contraction. various therapies are available for the management of burn wounds; however, a truly effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be identified due to safety issues. the aim of the present study was to assess and confirm the burn wound healing properties of the compounds asiaticoside (ae) and madecasso ...201627588048
synergy effects of three plant extracts on protection of gastric mucosa.the gastric mucosa protection effect of three natural plant extracts, hericium erinaceus (he), centella asiatica (ca) and amomum villosum (av), were evaluated using the indomethacin damage model. compared with a single extract, a combination of he/ca/av, especially with the ratios of 80:10:10, 45:45:10 and 45:10:45, showed significant synergistic effects for protection of the gastric mucosa with gastric ulcer inhibition rates of 97.8 ± 0.7%, 86.5 ± 2.8% and 86.1 ± 3.6%, respectively. microscopic ...201526749844
mad ointment ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by inhibiting the il-23/il-17 axis in mice.psoriasis is a chronic auto-immune inflammation disease with skin lesions and abnormal keratinocyte proliferation. the il-23/il-17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. madecassoside (mad) was the most important constituents isolated from centella asiatica, which has long been used in dermatology, and it is supposed that mad may have effects on psoriasis. in the present study, the balb/c mice ear and back skin received imq for 6 consecutive days to induce psoriasis-like ...201627540765
isolation and identification of an antifungal compound from endophytic streptomyces sp. cen26 active against alternaria brassicicola.2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan monoacetate (bhmf-oac) compound was isolated from the culture filtrate secreted by streptomyces sp. cen26, an endophytic actinomycete found in the root nodes of centella asiatica (l.) urban. the compound was purified using various chromatographic techniques and bioassay-guided fractionation. the compound was then identified through a structural characterization using (1) h, (13) c-nmr and ms analysis. after the purification and identification process, a series of expe ...201627163966
artificial neural network-based model for the prediction of optimal growth and culture conditions for maximum biomass accumulation in multiple shoot cultures of centella artificial neural network (ann)-based modelling approach is used to determine the synergistic effect of five major components of growth medium (mg, cu, zn, nitrate and sucrose) on improved in vitro biomass yield in multiple shoot cultures of centella asiatica. the back propagation neural network (bpnn) was employed to predict optimal biomass accumulation in terms of growth index over a defined culture duration of 35 days. the four variable concentrations of five media components, i.e. mgso4 ( ...201727068291
recent updates in neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential of centella asiatica.centella asiatica, locally well known in malaysia as pegaga, is a traditional herb that has been used widely in ayurvedic medicine, traditional chinese medicine, and in the traditional medicine of other southeast asian countries including malaysia. although consumption of the plant is indicated for various illnesses, its potential neuroprotective properties have been well studied and documented. in addition to past studies, recent studies also discovered and/or reconfirmed that c. asiatica acts ...201627540320
an investigation of the differential effects of ursane triterpenoids from centella asiatica, and their semisynthetic analogues, on gabaa receptors.the ursane triterpenoids, asiatic acid 1 and madecassic acid 2, are the major pharmacological constituents of centella asiatica, commonly known as gotu kola, which is used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety and for the improvement of cognition and memory. using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, these triterpenes, and some semisynthetic derivatives, were found to exhibit selective negative modulation of different subtypes of the gabaa receptor expressed in xenopus laevis oocytes. ...201627062315
carotid plaque stabilization induced by the supplement association pycnogenol® and centella asiatica (centellicum®).aim of this registry study was the evaluation of the stability of carotid plaques by ultrasound in asymptomatic subjects with high oxidative stress following supplementation with a combination of the extract from bark of pinus pinaster, pycnogenol®, with an extract from centella asiatica leaves, centellicum®.201626496510
treatment of renal fibrosis by rebalancing tgf-β/smad signaling with the combination of asiatic acid and naringenin.we recently showed that imbalance of tgf-β/smad signaling with over-activation of smad3 but lower levels of smad7 is a central mechanism of tissue fibrosis. in the present study, we report here that inhibition of smad3 with naringenin (ng) and upregulation of smad7 with asiatic acid (aa) produced an additive effect on inhibition of renal fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy. we found that aa, a triterpene from centella asiatica, functioned as a smad7 agonist and suppressed tgf-β/ ...201526474462
asiatic acid inhibits pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke.asiatic acid (aa) is one of the major components of titrated extract of centella asiatica (teca), which has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. the purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aa on pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (cs). aa significantly attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of cs exposure mice. aa also decreased ros production and ne activity, and inhibite ...201627494684
chemical structures, production and enzymatic transformations of sapogenins and saponins from centella asiatica (l.) urban.centella asiatica (l.) urban is a medicinal herb traditionally used in asiatic countries for its multiple therapeutic properties, essentially due to its accumulation of specific pentacylic triterpenoid saponins, mainly asiaticoside and madecassoside and the corresponding sapogenins. this review summarizes the updated knowledge about the chemical structures of about forty centelloids, found as minor metabolites in centella, and all derived from ursane and oleane ring patterns. similarly, the most ...201627491750
phlebotonics for venous insufficiency.chronic venous insufficiency (cvi) is a common condition caused by valvular dysfunction with or without associated obstruction, usually in the lower limbs. it might result in considerable discomfort with symptoms such as pain, itchiness and tiredness in the legs. patients with cvi may also experience swelling and ulcers. phlebotonics are a class of drugs often used to treat cvi. this is an update of a review first published in 2005.201627048768
accelerated stability studies on dried extracts of centella asiatica through chemical, hplc, hptlc, and biological activity analyses.regulatory guidelines recommend systematic stability studies on a herbal product to establish its shelf life. in the present study, commercial extracts (types i and ii) and freshly prepared extract (type iii) of centella asiatica were subjected to accelerated stability testing for 6 months. control and stability samples were evaluated for organoleptics, ph, moisture, total phenolic content (tpc), asiatic acid, kaempherol, and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints, and for antio ...201627486096
safety assessment of selected medicinal food plants used in ayurveda through cyp450 enzyme inhibition study.andrographis paniculata, bacopa monnieri, centella asiatica are mentioned in ayurveda for the management of neurodegenerative disorders. these plants and their phytomolecules like andrographolide, bacoside a and asiaticoside were studied for their inhibition potential on pooled cyp450 as well as human cyp3a4, cyp2d6, cyp2c9 and cyp1a2 by cyp-co complex assay and fluorogenic assay respectively followed by ic50 determination. quantification of bioactive compounds present in the extracts was done b ...201627030208
asiatic acid exerts anticancer potential in human ovarian cancer cells via suppression of pi3k/akt/mtor signalling.context asiatic acid, a triterpenoid compound extracted from the tropical medicinal plant centella asiatica (family: apiaceae), has exhibited various biological activities. objective this study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of asiatic acid on human ovarian cancer cells. materials and methods skov3 and ovcar-3 ovarian cancer cells were exposed to different concentrations of asiatic acid (10-100 μg/ml) for 72 or 48 h. cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, ...201626984021
the potential of asiaticoside for tgf-β1/smad signaling inhibition in prevention and progression of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.asiaticoside (as) is a saponin monomer extracted from the medicinal plant centella asiatica, which has a variety of biological effects. we intended to investigate the effects of asiaticoside on a hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (hph) rat model and examine the possible effects of asiaticoside on tgf-β1/smad signaling in vivo and in vitro.201526209140
identification of centella asiatica's effective ingredients for inducing the neuronal differentiation.centella asiatica, commonly known as gotu kola, has been widely used as a traditional herb for decades. yet, the study on which compounds or compound combinations actually lead to its brain benefits remains scarce. to study the neuroprotection effects of centella asiatica, neuronal differentiation of pc12 cells was applied. in our pilot study, we isolated 45 centella asiatica fractions and tested their abilities for inducing neuronal differentiation on pc12 cells. the most effective fraction sho ...201627446228
asiatic acid inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.asiatic acid (aa), a major triterpene isolated from centella asiatica (l.) urban, is known to exert various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of aa on lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced acute lung injury (ali) and clarify the underlying mechanisms. lung pathological changes were assessed by h&e staining. the myeloperoxidase (mpo) activity was detected by mpo assay. the levels of infla ...201627395046
bioassay-guided isolation of wound healing active compounds from echium species growing in turkey.the roots and root barks of echium sp. have been used to treat ulcers, burns and wounds in traditional turkish medicine.201626947902
effectiveness of gotu kola extract 750 mg and 1000 mg compared with folic acid 3 mg in improving vascular cognitive impairment after stroke.this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (vci). this study uses a quasi-experimental design. subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in yogyakarta, indonesia. the number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, a ...201627340413
preclinical safety assessment of standardized extract of centella asiatica (l.) urban leaves.centella asiatica (ca) leaves extract has been shown therapeutic potential. however, safety information is lacking.201726862255
the pentacyclic triterpenoids in herbal medicines and their pharmacological activities in diabetes and diabetic complications.pentacyclic triterpenoids including the oleanane, ursane and lupane groups are widely distributed in many medicinal plants, such as glycyrrhiza species, gymnema species, centella asiatica, camellia sinensis, crataegus species and olea europaea, which are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. a large number of bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, ursolic acid, betulin, betulinic ac ...201323210780
in vitro inhibitory potential of selected malaysian plants against key enzymes involved in hyperglycemia and hypertension.this study was conducted to determine the inhibitory potential of selected malaysian plants against key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes and hypertension.201122135867
phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants.the aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the available scientific information on the commonest plant extracts marketed in western countries. in view of the intense, ongoing search for new plant extracts with powerful anti-inflammatory activity, we paid particular attention to this topic. the aim is to provide broad coverage of as many potentially useful plants as possible and then to focus on those with the greatest therapeutic potential.201020175810
in vitro assessment of cyp1a2 and 2c9 inhibition potential of withania somnifera and centella asiatica in human liver microsomes.several herbal drugs and allopathic medicines when co-administered can lead to severe herb-drug interactions. hence, this study was undertaken in order to assess the in vitro inhibition potential of withania somnifera and centella asiatica with cytochrome p450 (cyp) 1a2 and 2c9 enzyme using human liver microsomes.201525938222
neuroprotective effect of asiatic acid on rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in differentiated sh-sys5y cells.parkinson's disease (pd) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, manifested due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which ultimately leads to impaired movement in elderly populations. the pathogenesis of pd is associated with numerous factors including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. there is no effective therapy available to cure or halt the progression of this disease still now. asiatic acid (aa) is a triterpene extracted from centella asiatica has been reported as ...201626856988
centella asiatica and its fractions reduces lipid peroxidation induced by quinolinic acid and sodium nitroprusside in rat brain regions.oxidative stress has been implicated in several pathologies including neurological disorders. centella asiatica is a popular medicinal plant which has long been used to treat neurological disturbances in ayurvedic medicine. in the present study, we quantified of compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and examined the phenolic content of infusion, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and dichloromethane fractions. furthermore, we analyzed the ability of the extracts from c. asiatica to ...201525903808
possible involvement of nitric oxide modulatory mechanisms in the neuroprotective effect of centella asiatica against sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation.sleep deprivation (sd) is an experience of inadequate or poor quality of sleep that may produce significant alterations in multiple neural systems. centella asiatica (ca) is a psychoactive medicinal herb with immense therapeutic potential. the present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide (no) modulatory mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of ca against sd induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72 h, an ...201626848139
synthetic and natural inhibitors of phospholipases a2: their importance for understanding and treatment of neurological disorders.phospholipases a2 (pla2) are a diverse group of enzymes that hydrolyze membrane phospholipids into arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes), and lysophospholipids are converted to platelet-activating factors. these lipid mediators play critical roles in the initiation, maintenance, and modulation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. neurological disorders including excitotoxicity; traumatic nerve and ...201525891385
a molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.the purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements.201525878948
purification of a recombinant polyhistidine-tagged glucosyltransferase using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (imac).short peptide tags genetically fused to recombinant proteins have been widely used to facilitate detection or purification without the need to develop specific procedures. in general, an ideal affinity tag would allow the efficient purification of tagged proteins in high yield, without affecting its function. here, we describe the purification steps to purify a recombinant polyhistidine-tagged glucosyltransferase from centella asiatica using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.201626843168
from plant extract to a cdna encoding a glucosyltransferase candidate: proteomics and transcriptomics as tools to help elucidate saponin biosynthesis in centella asiatica.centella asiatica (l.) urban (apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in india, sri lanka, malaysia, and other parts of asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. the bioactive compounds present in c. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene sap ...201626843164
metabolic alteration in obese diabetes rats upon treatment with centella asiatica extract.'pegaga' is a traditional malay remedy for a wide range of complaints. among the 'pegaga', centella asiatica has been used as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. thus, we decided to validate this claim by evaluating the in vivo antidiabetic property of c. asiatica (ca) on t2dm rat model using the holistic (1)h nmr-based metabolomics approach.201626775274
anti-glioma activity and the mechanism of cellular uptake of asiatic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.asiatic acid (aa), a pentacyclic triterpene found in centella asiatica, has shown neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity against glioma. however, owing to its poor aqueous solubility, effective delivery and absorption across biological barriers, in particular the blood brain barrier (bbb), are challenging. solid lipid nanoparticles (slns) have shown a promising potential as a drug delivery system to carry lipophilic drugs across the bbb, a major obstacle in brain cancer therapy. nevertheless, ...201626775062
review on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological evidence of himalayan anticancer plants.himalayan plants have 6500 years old history of being using as traditional medicines. inhabitants of the region use indigenous knowledge for the preparation of various herbal recipes in order to treat different kinds of cancer. the aim of this review is to provide ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological overview of himalayan medicinal plants having anticancer potential. this will provide a baseline for the discovery of new anticancer drugs.201525680842
centella asiatica attenuates amyloid-β-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.we previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant centella asiatica (caw) attenuates amyloid-β (aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. yet the neuroprotective mechanism of caw is unknown.201525633675
effect of salicylic acid on expression level of genes related with isoprenoid pathway in centella (centella asiatica (l.) urban) this study, we report the expression level of casqs, cabas and cacys, the genes involved in phytosterol and triterpene metabolic pathway of centella (centella asiatica (l.) urban), in cells elicited with salicylic acid (50-200 µm). reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and northern blot analysis indicated casqs, cabas, and cacys genes expressed in both the wild-type and cultured cells (with and without elicitation). in elicited cells, expressions of casqs, cabas, and cacys ...201628330156
biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of asiatic acid in centella asiatica as determined by a sensitive and robust hplc-ms method.asiatic acid is one of the main components in the herb centella asiatica, which is a well-known herbal medicine for its excellent pharmacological effects. to enhance the development potentials of asiatic acid as a chemopreventative agent, there is a great need to further understand its biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic properties. the aim of this research is to clarify the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism of asiatic acid, and explore its biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic propertie ...201525596352
effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in peninsular malaysia.centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in malaysia. as heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in c. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. in this study, the heavy metal accumulation in c. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. samples of c. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around peninsular malaysia. the concentration o ...201626687083
herbal supplements and hepatotoxicity: a short review.herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. the reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. however, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. the present review focusses on a fe ...201526669124
pycnogenol® and centella asiatica in the management of asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression.the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements pycnogenol® and total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica (ttfca) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral stenosing plaques.201525519846
asiatic acid attenuates the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure induced by pressure overload by inhibiting myocardial remodeling in mice.cardiac structural remodeling, including cardiomyocyte apoptosis, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation, appears to be a key event associated with the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. asiatic acid (aa) is a triterpenoid compound extracted from centella asiatica that exhibits antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. in the present study, a transverse aortic constriction (tac) model was created in mice to mimic the progression of hypertrophy (2 ...201526647013
attenuation of collagen induced arthritis by centella asiatica methanol fraction via modulation of cytokines and oxidative investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-arthritic effects of centella asiatica methanolfraction (came) on collagen-induced arthritis (cia), an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis.201425484009
microwave blanching and drying characteristics of centella asiatica (l.) urban leaves using tray and heat pump-assisted dehumidified drying.the appropriate stage of maturity of centella asiatica (l.) urban leaves was investigated. mature leaves with large diameter contained high total phenolics and % inhibition. microwave blanching for 30 s retained the highest total phenolics and the microwave blanching for 30 s and 45 s retained the highest % inhibition. modified henderson and modified chung-pfost models showed the best fit to both fresh and blanched leaves for equilibrium moisture content, xe = f(rhe, t) and equilibrium relative ...201425477629
synthesis and evaluation of asiatic acid derivatives as anti-fibrotic agents: structure/activity studies.fibrotic diseases are characterized by the over-accumulation of fibrous components in the extracellular matrix and the liver, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. current treatment options cannot reverse or halt liver fibrosis, motivating a search for newer treatment options. previously, we showed that asiaticoside, a bioactive triterpene glycoside from centella asiatica, has anti-fibrotic properties. here, the aglycone asiatic acid was chemically modified, and these derivatives were evaluated for ...201525461275
pycnogenol® and centella asiatica to prevent asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression in clinical events.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements pycnogenol® and centella asiatica (ca) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk, asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral stenosing plaques.201726505327
merremia emarginata (burm. f.) hall. f.: a substituted market source for centella asiatica (l.) urban: an observation from salem district, tamil nadu. 201325284949
the effects of intellan and cytacon on hematological and biochemical parameter in rabbits: a comparative study.several plants have been selected based on their use in traditional systems of medicine, and research has identified a number of natural compounds that could act as nootropicagents. in this study a herbal product intellan containing centella asiatica, bacopa monniera, coriandum sativum, amomum subulatum, emblica officinalis and another product cytacon (cyanocobalamine) were selected the study was designed on animal models to explore the effects on different parameters. for this the animals were ...201425176357
centella asiatica attenuates diabetes induced hippocampal changes in experimental diabetic rats.diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. we hypothesized that centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of c. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. methods. streptozotocin- (stz-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) c. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecu ...201425161691
centella asiatica leaf extract protects against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.the present study evaluated the protective effect of centella asiatica (gotu kola) leaf extract (cae) against indomethacin (ind)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. gastric mucosal injury was induced by the oral administration of ind to the rats after a 24 h fast. cae (50 or 250 mg/kg) or lansoprazole (a reference drug) was orally administrated 30 min before the ind administration, and 5 h later, the stomachs were removed to quantify the lesions. orally administered cae significantly reduced ...201626469560
effects of five ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a drosophila melanogaster parkinson's disease model.current conventional treatments for parkinson's disease (pd) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. ayurveda, the ancient medical system of india, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. herbs commonly used for this purpose are zandopa (containing mucuna pruriens), withania somnifera, centella asiatica, sida cordifolia and bacopa monnieri. in this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability t ...201425091506
nerve protective effect of asiaticoside against ischemia-hypoxia in cultured rat cortex neurons.asiaticoside is one of the main functional components of the natural plant centella asiatica urban. studies have reported it has several functions such as anti-depression and nerve cell protection. asiaticoside can reduce the cerebral infarct size in acute focal cerebral ischemia in a mouse model and asiatic acid glycosides can significantly improve neurobehavioral scores. currently, there is a lack of understanding of asiaticoside in regard to its neural protective mechanism in cerebral ischemi ...201526447863
microrna-1290 promotes asiatic acid‑induced apoptosis by decreasing bcl2 protein level in a549 non‑small cell lung carcinoma cells.asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derived from centella asiatica, is a putative anticancer agent in several types of cancer cells. investigations of its biological role in negative regulation of cell growth have focused on the extent of induction of apoptosis in a cell-type-specific manner. in this study, we identified an important regulator of asiatic acid-induced cell death, microrna (mir)-1290, which sensitizes cells to asiatic acid-induced cytotoxicity and negatively regulates bcl2 expression. as ...201425016979
effects of asiatic acid on spatial working memory and cell proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus.asiatic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene from centella asiatica. previous studies have reported that asiatic acid exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cell culture. it also prevents memory deficits in animal models. the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatial working memory and changes in cell proliferation within the hippocampus after administration of asiatic acid to male spraque-dawley rats. control rats received vehicle (propylene glycol) ...201526445061
asiatic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by blocking transforming growth factor-β1-mediated hypertrophic signaling in vitro and in vivo.cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. transforming growth factor-β1 (tgf-β1) signaling has been considered as a trigger causally contributing to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. asiatic acid (aa) is a triterpenoid compound extracted from centella asiatica and exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects. in this study, we investigated the anti-hypertrophic effects and mechanisms of action of aa in a tgf-β1-stimulated hypertrophic response using cultured neo ...201424827470
asiaticoside, a component of centella asiatica, inhibits melanogenesis in b16f10 mouse melanoma.melanogenesis is the process of generating pigmentation via melanin synthesis and delivery. three key enzymes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (trp1) and trp2, metabolize melanin from l-tyrosine. melanin synthesizing enzymes are regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (mitf). the titrated extract of centella asiatica (teca) contains the major components asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassic acid. the present study revealed that teca reduces the melanin content in ...201424756377
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase gene from centella asiatica l.3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductases (hmgr) plays an important role in catalyzing the first committed step of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the mevelonic (mva) pathway (catalyzes the conversion of hmg-coa to mva) in plants. the present manuscript reports the full length cdna cloning of hmgr (cahmgr, genbank accession number: kj939450.2) and its characterization from centella asiatica. sequence analysis indicated that the cdna was of 1965 bp, which had an open reading frame of 1617 bp and encod ...201526311154
neuroprotective effects of madecassoside against focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.madecassoside, a triterpenoid derivative isolated from centella asiatica, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. we investigated its neuroprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion (i/r) injury in cerebral neurons in male sprague-dawley rats. madecassoside (6, 12, or 24mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 1h after the start of reperfusion, and neurological deficit score and infarct volume were evaluated 24h later. neuronal apoptosis was assessed by performing terminal deoxynucleotid ...201424735651
centella asiatica extract protects against amyloid β1-40-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal cells by activating the antioxidative defence system.centella asiatica ( léi gōng gēn) is a traditional medicinal herb with high antioxidant activity, which decreases amyloid-β (aβ) deposition in the brain. at the same time, aggregated aβ-induced oxidative stress is the trigger in the pathogenesis of alzheimer's disease (ad). here, we investigated the ability of c. asiatica ethanol extract (cae) to protect pc12 and imr32 cells from aβ1-40-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ros) and concomitant neurotoxicity. aggregated aβ1-40 treatment ...201627774420
seasonal variation of triterpenes and phenolic compounds in australian centella asiatica (l.) urb.specific triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in centella asiatica have been found to be bioactive. harvesting the plant when these putative bioactive compounds are at their highest concentrations would provide consistency in their chemical profile, thus ensuring the quality and efficacy of derived medicinal products.201526219274
asiaticoside inhibits tnf-α-induced endothelial hyperpermeability of human aortic endothelial cells.the increase in endothelial permeability often promotes edema formation in various pathological conditions. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-α), a pro-atherogenic cytokine, impairs endothelial barrier function and causes endothelial dysfunction in early stage of atherosclerosis. asiaticoside, one of the triterpenoids derived from centella asiatica, is known to possess antiinflammatory activity. in order to examine the role of asiaticoside in preserving the endothelial barrier, we assessed its ef ...201526171791
anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of andrographis paniculata (burm f.) nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of centella asiatica l. in high fructose-fat fed rats.traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. a. paniculata and c. asiatica are two traditional medicines form south asian and southeast asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body ...201324579376
an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in palamalai region of eastern ghats, india.during the last few decades there has been an increasing interest in the study of medicinal plants with their traditional use and related pharmacological research all over the world. this paper enumerated folk medicinal plants used by malayali tribal people in an unexplored and biodiversity rich region of eastern ghats in southern india.201526068426
barium levels in soils and centella this study, centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in peninsular malaysia, and the barium (ba) concentrations were determined. the ba concentration [μg/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 μg/g in soils while in c. asiatica, ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 μg/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 μg/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 μg/g for stems. in c. asiatica, ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. the correlati ...201324575242
centella asiatica and lipoic acid, or a combination thereof, inhibit monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from umbilical cords of gestational diabetic women.diabetes mellitus is associated with inflammatory endothelial activation and increased vascular leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, both playing a prominent role in the development of vascular complications. centella asiatica (ca) and lipoic acid (la) have shown anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in a variety of experimental models; however, their action on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs), chronically exposed to hyperglycemia and pro-inflammatory environment during ...201526026207
pycnogenol® and centella asiatica for asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression.the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements pycnogenol and teca (total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral non-stenosing plaques.201424452082
caffeoylquinic acids in centella asiatica protect against amyloid-β toxicity.the accumulation of amyloid-β (aβ) is a hallmark of alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. we previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of centella asiatica (caw) improves learning and memory deficits in tg2576 mice, an animal model of aβ accumulation. however the active compounds in caw remain unknown. here we used two in vitro models of aβ toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents ...201424448790
barrier protective effect of asiatic acid in tnf-α-induced activation of human aortic endothelial cells.endothelial cell activation is characterized by increased endothelial permeability and increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (cams). this allows monocyte adherence and migration across the endothelium to occur and thereby initiates atherogenesis process. asiatic acid is a major triterpene isolated from centella asiatica (l.) urban and has been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-inflammatory activities.201626926181
chlorogenic acids biosynthesis in centella asiatica cells is not stimulated by salicylic acid manipulation.exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. in particular, salicylic acid (sa) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of seco ...201626922726
anti-hyperglycemic activity of centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding.centella asiatica (c. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. however, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. our study aims at exploring the possible effects, c. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization.201424438380
prophylactic effects of asiaticoside-based standardized extract of centella asiatica (l.) urban leaves on experimental migraine: involvement of 5ht1a/1b receptors.the present study aimed at evaluation of prophylactic efficacy and possible mechanisms of asiaticoside (as) based standardized extract of centella asiatica (l.) urban leaves (indca) in animal models of migraine. the effects of oral and intranasal (i.n.) pretreatment of indca (acute and 7-days subacute) were evaluated against nitroglycerine (ntg, 10 mg·kg(-1), i.p.) and bradykinin (bk, 10 μg, intra-arterial) induced hyperalgesia in rats. tail flick latencies (from 0 to 240 min) post-ntg treatment ...201525908624
[analysis on preparation and characterization of asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes].asiaticoside is a compound extracted from traditional chinese medicine centella asiatica, and mainly used in wound healing and scar repair in clinical, with notable efficacy. however, its poor transdermal absorption and short action time restrict its wide application. in this experiment, the reserve-phase-extrusion-lyophilization method was conducted to prepare the lyophilized asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes (lafl). its characteristics including electron microscope structure, particle ...201324422392
centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview.centella asiatica is a medicinal plant that was already used as a 'panacea' 3000 years ago. the active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. we have conducted an overview to summarize current knowledge on the results of scientific in vitro and in vivo experiments focused on the improvement of the healing process of small wounds, hypertrophic scars and burns by c. asiatica. in this paper, we discuss the data on constituent ...201424399761
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