invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with egyptian fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail pseudosuccinea columella.the liver fluke fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in africa and asia. cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to f. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. the introduced snail species galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. therefore, we investigated snails collect ...201424523913
protection against fasciola gigantica using paramyosin antigen as a candidate for vaccine production.yet no vaccine to protect ruminants against liver fluke infection has been commercialized. in an attempt to develop a suitable vaccine against fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) infection in rabbits, using 97 kda pmy antigen. it was found that, the mean worm burdens and bile egg count after challenge were reduced significantly by 58.40 and 61.40%, respectively. on the other hand, immunization of rabbits with pmy induced a significant expression of humoral antibodies (igm, total igg, igg1, igg2 an ...201324511686
prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using its-2 region of fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from chiang mai province, investigate the infection of fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) in domestic cattle from chiang mai province and molecular confirmation using its-2 region.201424507641
serodiagnosis of bovine fasciolosis by dot-enzyme immuno assay in chennai, tamil nadu.excretory/secretory (e/s) antigen of adult fasciola gigantica was used for diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes sera from slaughter houses and different places in and around chennai, tamil nadu. a total of 6.4 mg of e/s antigen was obtained from the 60 flukes collected from slaughter houses. coprological examination was done to detect endoparasitic infection in 321 fecal samples. dot-enzyme immuno assay (dot-eia) was standardized with optimum working dilution of e/s antigen, serum, a ...201424505174
neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans.fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the trematode species fasciola hepatica, distributed worldwide, and fasciola gigantica, restricted to given regions of africa and asia. this disease in humans shows an increasing importance, which relies on its recent widespread emergence related to climate and global changes and also on its pathogenicity in the invasive, biliary, and advanced chronic phases in the human endemic areas, mainly of developing countries. in spite of the large ...201424480313
praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update.status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. the target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ech ...201324265948
tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail lymnaea acuminata.snail lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of liver fluke fasciola gigantica, which cause endemic fasciolosis among cattle population of eastern uttar pradesh. control of snail population by molluscicides is one of the effective methods to control fasciolosis. in the present study molluscicidal activity of tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of different indian breeds of cow sahiwal, geer and tharparkar with annona squamosa seed powder, ferula asafoetida root latex, azadirachta indi ...201224199478
the in vitro anthelmintic effects of plumbagin on newly excysted and 4-weeks-old juvenile parasites of fasciola gigantica.the effect of plumbagin (pb, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) against newly excysted juveniles (nejs) and 4-weeks-old immature parasites of fasciola gigantica were compared with triclabendazole (tcz). the anthelmintic efficacy of 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of pb or tcz following incubation in vitro for 1-24h was compared using a combination of relative motility (rm), survival index (si) and larval migration inhibition (lmi) assays for parasite viability. the rm and si values of the pb-treated grou ...201424157317
immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of fasciola gigantica by glutathione s-transferase (gst).in the present study, effort to isolate purified gst from fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. in this study, immunoprotection studies with gst and antibody titer post-infection has revealed gst to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.201224082529
comparative toxicity of paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in lymnaea natalensis snails.paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. the present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of lymnaea natalensis snails. it was found that the exposure of l. natalensis to paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snai ...201624081640
immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen.many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility.201323961441
an outbreak of human fascioliasis gigantica in southwest china.fascioliasis is a common parasitic disease in livestock in china. however, human fascioliasis is rarely reported in the country. here we describe an outbreak of human fascioliasis in yunnan province. we reviewed the complete clinical records of 29 patients and performed an epidemiological investigation on the general human population and animals in the outbreak locality. our findings support an outbreak due to fasciola gigantica with a peak in late november, 2011. the most common symptoms were r ...201323951181
[effect evaluation of three elisa kits in detection of fasciolasis].to evaluate the effect of 3 elisa kits on detection of human fasciolasis.201323894840
th1 and th2 cytokine gene expression in primary infection and vaccination against fasciola gigantica in buffaloes by real-time pcr.th1 and th2 cytokine gene expression in buffalo calves during primary infection with fasciola gigantica as well as in response to immunization with the parasite recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rfabp) and recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rgst) proteins was measured at 14th week of infection by real-time pcr with the double-stranded dna-binding dye sybr green. experimental animals were randomly distributed into fabp, gst, cocktail, challenge and healthy groups. animals in groups fabp ...201323873619
possible fasciocidal activity of methanol extract of dregea volubilis eastern and southern part of india dregea volubilis (family asclepediaceae) is widely used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine. the present study was conducted to evaluate the fasciocidal activity of the methanol extract of d. volubilis leaves (medv) and to observe the drug's effect on organisms through scanning electron microscopic (sem) study. live parasites (trematode: fasciola gigantica) were collected in 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline from the bile ducts of buffalo. those w ...201323850996
direct and indirect affection of the central nervous system by fasciola infection.fascioliasis is a worldwide, zoonotic disease caused by the liver trematodes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. neurological fascioliasis has been widely reported in all continents, affecting both sexes and all ages. two types of records related to two physiopathogenic mechanisms may be distinguished: cases in which the neurological symptoms are due to direct effects of a migrating juvenile present in the brain or neighboring organ and with cerebral lesions suggesting migration through th ...201323829920
molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a novel juvenile-specific cathepsin l of fasciola gigantica.cathepsin l proteases are a major class of endopeptidases expressed at a high level in fasciola parasites. several isoforms of cathepsin l were detected and they may perform different functions during the parasite development. in this study, a complete cdna encoding a cathepsin l protease was cloned from a newly excysted juvenile (nej) cdna library of fasciola gigantica and named fgcatl1h. it encoded a 326 amino acid preproenzyme which shared 62.8-83.1% and 39.5-42.9% identity to fasciola spp. a ...201323820262
vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsin b against fasciola fasciola gigantica, cathepsin bs, especially cathepsin b2 and b3 are expressed in early juvenile stages, and are proposed to mediate the invasion of host tissues. thus they are thought to be the target vaccine candidates that can block the invasion and migration of the juvenile parasite. to evaluate their vaccine potential, the recombinant cathepsin b2 (rfgcatb2) and cathepsin b3 (rfgcatb3) were expressed in yeast, pichia pastoris, and used to immunize mice in combination with freund's adjuva ...201323811052
phenotypes of intermediate forms of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica in buffaloes from central punjab, pakistan.fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults and eggs infecting buffaloes inhabiting the central punjab area, pakistan, have been studied to characterize fasciolid populations involved. morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (cias) applied on the basis of standardized measurements. since it is the first study of this kind undertake ...201423731975
tegumental histological effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally.201323730566
dot-blot immunoassay of fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kda and adult worm regurge antigens in egyptian patients.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-kilodalton (kda) antigen versus fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a dot-blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in egyptian patients. fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(kda) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution sds-page. a dot-blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific ...201323710084
activity of superoxide dismutase (sod) enzyme in the excretory-secretory products of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica parasites.the aim of this study was to compare superoxide dismutase (sod) activity in fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica parasites.201323682275
diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa for detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease.a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa) was developed for the detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease (catb3) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica and cattle naturally infected with the same parasite. the moab 2f9 and biotinylated rabbit polyclonal anti-recombinant catb3 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities to f. gigantica catb3 antigen based on indirect elis ...201323567552
evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola adult worm vomit for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola gigantica adult worm vomit (awv) preparation in diagnosis of human fasciolosis was evaluated using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and falcon assay screening test (fast)-elisa in comparison with f. gigantica adult total soluble extract (tse). sera of fasciolosis patients, patients with other parasitic diseases (hydatid disease, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, and amebiasis), and sera of healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. th ...201323512028
phylogenetic data suggest the reclassification of fasciola jacksoni (digenea: fasciolidae) as fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov.fasciola jacksoni (cobbold, 1869) is a highly prevalent (18-62%) species colonizing the liver (less frequently the lungs, kidneys, pericardia, and intestines) of elephas maximus indicus and elephas maximus maximus in the indomalayan region, causing cirrhosis, hemorrhages, and connective tissue proliferation. the phylogenetic relationships of fasciola jacksoni in relation to representative species of the superfamily echinostomatoidea was assessed using four independent dna regions. the analysis i ...201323411741
proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion us$. fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while f. gigantica dominates in the tropics. in the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are be ...201223167294
substantial genetic divergence between morphologically indistinguishable populations of fasciola suggests the possibility of cryptic speciation.the liver flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, are considered to be sister species and between them present a major threat worldwide to livestock production. in this study sequence data have been employed from informative regions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of over 200 morphologically f. hepatica-like or f. gigantica-like flukes from europe, sub-saharan africa and south asia to assess genetic diversity. evidence is presented for the existence of four well-separated clad ...201223131680
efficient inhibition of cathepsin b by a secreted type 1 cystatin of fasciola gigantica.cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. while their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. in the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with fgstefin-1 and human cystatin c, that a second type 1 cystatin of the pa ...201223085005
bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of mount elgon, clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of mount elgon, uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes.201222958402
characterization and expression of cathepsin b2 in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica cathepsin b belongs to a family of cysteine proteases which is involved in invasion of host tissues. in this study, the recombinant cathepsin b2 (rfgcatb2), synthesized in pichia pastoris, showed enzymatic activity on a fluorometric substrate z-phe-arg-amc and gelatin. furthermore, this recombinant enzyme could degrade igg and type i collagen. mouse antiserum against rfgcatb2 reacted with the native fgcatb2 in whole body (wb) extracts of metacercariae (met), newly excysted juv ...201222885402
development and evaluation of a single-step duplex pcr for simultaneous detection of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (family fasciolidae, class trematoda, phylum platyhelminthes).a single-step multiplex pcr (here referred to as a duplex pcr) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. these species overlap in distribution in many countries of north and east africa and central and southeast asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) spanning the region of cox1-trnt-rrnl, two species-specific forward primers w ...201222692744
epizootiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylactic trends to control tropical bubaline fasciolosis: an overview.on the indian sub-continent, nearly 5,000 years ago, the domestication of the riverine buffalo-the incredible asian dairy animal was initiated. it plays a versatile role in socio-economic upliftment of its owners from the rural agricultural communities in asian, african, south american and a few european countries. comparatively, buffaloes are lesser evolved and susceptible to infectious diseases than cattle. however, poor body thermoregulation and wallowing nature predisposed them to snail born ...201122654308
molecular, biochemical, and morphometric characterization of fasciola species potentially causing zoonotic disease in egypt.fascioliasis is an important disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the distributions of both species overlap in many areas of asia and africa including egypt. fifty adult fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, cairo, egypt. they were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electroph ...201222638917
molecular study for detecting the prevalence of fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana (pulmonata: lymnaeidae) in northwestern iran.fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in iran. this study was aimed to determine prevalence of fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana in northwestern iran. the snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from may to december 2010 and identified. a fragment of 618 bp of 28s rrna gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr ...201222579498
molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from fasciola gigantica.m17 leucine aminopeptidase (lap) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the n-terminals. in this study, the full length of cdna encoding fasciola gigantica lap (fglap) was cloned from adult parasites. the amino acid sequences of fglap showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fglap was closely re ...201222543100
fasciola gigantica: the in vitro effects of artesunate as compared to triclabendazole on the 3-weeks-old juvenile.the in vitro effect of artesunate (ats) on the 3-week-old juveniles of fasciola gigantica was compared with triclabendazole (tcz) by incubating the parasites in m-199 medium containing the drugs at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h. the anthelmintic activities of these drugs were evaluated based on the relative motility value (rm) and the alterations of the tegument as observed by scanning (sem) and transmission (tem) electron microscopy. the rm values of tcz-treate ...201222425749
in vitro effects of triclabendazole (tcbz) on the excretory-secretory products (esp) of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is an endemic disease in iran and triclabendazole (tcbz) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. excretory-secretory products (esp) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione s-transferase (gst) and superoxide dismutase (sod) enzymes respectively. therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against tcbz drug by detection of enzymatic activities, ...201222418984
assessing the validity of an elisa test for the serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis in different epidemiological improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), with fasciola antigen from the adult liver fluke, for the detection of igg against fascioliasis in human sera.201222413850
diagnostic potential of fasciola gigantica-derived 14.5 kda fatty acid binding protein in the immunodiagnosis of bubaline fascioliasis.the 14.5 kda fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was isolated from the crude extract of adult fasciola gigantica worms. polyclonal anti-fabp igg was generated in rabbits immunized with prepared fabp antigen. sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was applied to detect coproantigen in stools and circulating fasciola antigen (ca) in sera of 126 water buffaloes by using purified and horseradish peroxidase (hrp)-conjugated anti-fabp igg. sandwich elisa sensitivity was 96.97% and 94.95%; wh ...201322409954
analysis of a calcium-binding ef-hand protein family in fasciola gigantica.transcriptome data supports the notion of a platyhelminthes-specific protein family that is characterized by combination of two n-terminal ef-hands and a c-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. family members in schistosomes induce an ige response that has been connected with resistance to reinfection in schistosomiasis and is considered as a marker of protection. in the present study, we have compared three homologs of the liver fluke fasciola gigantica for their immunological properties in ...201222366577
characterization of fasciola samples by its of rdna sequences revealed the existence of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in yunnan province, china.on mainland china, liver flukes of fasciola spp. (digenea: fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. the objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of fasciola species in yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its-1 and its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from 10 samples representing fasciola species in catt ...201222360550
molecular identification and differentiation of fasciola isolates using pcr- rflp method based on internal transcribed spacer (its1, 5.8s rdna, its2).in this study, we used both its1 and its2 for molecular identification of fasciola species.201122347295
molecular identification of fasciola spp. (digenea: platyhelminthes) in cattle from vietnam.fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of khanh hoa province, vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) of the ribosomal rna revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presen ...201222314245
fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from cajamarca and mantaro, peru.fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. of both species, f. hepatica is the only one described in the americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the galba/fossaria group. human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of andean countries. given the necessity to characterize f. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis e ...201222285769
development and hatching mechanism of fasciola eggs, light and scanning electron microscopic studies.both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used in the description. there were variable measurements of eggs from the same fluke and there was no relationship between the size of the fluke and size of eggs. light microscopy revealed that the operculum has different shapes in fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica. under normal laboratory conditions of temperature (26 ± 1 °c), miracidia of f. gigantica developed within 12-16 days period, but those of f. hepatica developed within a pe ...201023961086
molecular and immunological characterisation of fasciola species.fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are polymorphic liver flukes that show considerable overlap between species, and various protein separation techniques have been used as alternative means of differentiation. acid and alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) show differences between f. hepatica and f. gigantica. following sds-page, f. hepatica proteins are characterised by the presence of eight major peptide bands, with molecular weights estimated as 48, 45, 43.5, 37, 33, 29, 27 and 2 ...200227786093
the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanol leaf extracts of terminalia catappa l. on fasciola present, there are no medicinal plant extracts currently available for treatment and control of fasciolosis. the present work could provide, for the first study, conclusions on the in vitro fasciolicidal properties of the ethanol extract of terminalia catappa l. (tcce) leaves against adult fasciola gigantica after incubation with rpmi-1640 medium containing the tcce at various concentrations and times when compared with triclabendazole (tcz). the relative motility and survival index values of ...201728805167
immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis: an update of concepts and performances of the serological assays.human fascioliasis (hf) is a foodborne neglected parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. new epidemiological data suggest that the endemic areas of the disease are expanding and hf is being reported from areas where it was previously not observed. diagnosis of hf is challenging. performances of parasitological approaches, based on the detection of parasite's egg in the stool, are not satisfactory. currently serological methods for the diagnosis of hf are mainly base ...201728764235
identification of potential inhibitors of fasciola gigantica thioredoxin1: computational screening, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy studies.fasciola gigantica is the causative organism of fascioliasis and is responsible for major economic losses in livestock production globally. f. gigantica thioredoxin1 (fgtrx1) is an important redox-active enzyme involved in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the cell. to identify a potential anti-fasciolid compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the zinc database (n = 1,67,740) against the fgtrx1 structure. the ligands were docked against fgtrx1 and ...201728627969
genotoxic potential of fasciolagigantica infection in experimentally infected rabbits.a number of parasitic platyhelminthes are known to cause genotoxicity in humans and animals. however no such information is available on tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica, which incurs huge economic losses worldwide. in the present study the genotoxic potential of f. gigantica infection in rabbits, experimentally infected with the metacercarial cysts of this parasite, has been investigated using the standard comet assay and micronucleus (mni) test on the isolated hepatocytes and the whole ...201728615853
gastrointestinal helminthosis: prevalence and associated determinants in goats of jabalpur, india.a total of 632 faecal samples of goats of jabalpur district of madhya pradesh state were examined during three years of the study period (november 2012-october 2015), out of which 82.75 % samples were positive for helminthic infections. among various helminths, maximum prevalence was of strongyles (32.59 %) followed by amphistomes (14.40 %), moniezia spp. (12.50 %), strongyloides spp. (0.79 %), trichuris spp. (0.47 %) and fasciolagigantica (0.32 %). year wise prevalence revealed a highly signifi ...201728615851
a review of bovine fasciolosis and other trematode infections in nigeria.trematode infections cause serious economic losses to livestock worldwide. global production losses due to fasciolosis alone exceed us$3 billion annually. many trematode infections are also zoonotic and thus a public health concern. the world health organization has estimated that about 56 million people worldwide are infected by at least one zoonotic trematode species, and up to 750 million people are at risk of infection. fasciolosis caused by the fluke fasciola gigantica is endemic in nigeria ...201728528590
a novel ex vivo immunoproteomic approach characterising fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens identified using immune antibody from resistant sheep.a more thorough understanding of the immunological interactions between fasciola spp. and their hosts is required if we are to develop new immunotherapies to control fasciolosis. deeper knowledge of the antigens that are the target of the acquired immune responses of definitive hosts against both fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica will potentially identify candidate vaccine antigens. indonesian thin tail sheep express a high level of acquired immunity to infection by f. gigantica within 4w ...201728455238
molecular and morphometrical characterization of fasciola species isolated from domestic ruminants in ardabil province, northwestern iran.we aimed to describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of fasciola spp. in livestock from ardabil province, northwest iran.201728435817
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