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estrogen-related fecundity reduction of lymnaea ollula following fasciola gigantica infection.infection by trematode parasites generally affects life history traits of their intermediate hosts. reduction in life expectancy and reproductive capacity have previously been documented in fasciola gigantica-infected lymnaea ollula, but the influence of the endocrine system on this specific host–parasite interaction has not been previously examined. in the present study, we observed survival, growth pattern, and reproductive output of l. ollula following exposure to f. gigantica. both the survi ...200919642809
sequence-related amplified polymorphism, an effective molecular approach for studying genetic variation in fasciola spp. of human and animal health significance.in the present study, a recently described molecular approach, namely sequence-related amplified polymorphism (srap), which preferentially amplifies orfs, was evaluated for the studies of genetic variation among fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and the "intermediate" fasciola from different host species and geographical locations in mainland china. five srap primer combinations were used to amplify 120 fasciola samples after ten srap primer combinations were evaluated. the number of fragmen ...200919204953
fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of sheep-derived miracidia in radix natalensis and galba truncatula.experimental infections of egyptian radix natalensis and french galba truncatula with miracidia of fasciola gigantica of sheep were carried out to determine the larval productivity of this parasite. rediae and cercariae were thus counted in snails dissected at regular intervals from day 21 to day 49 postexposure (p.e.) at 24 degrees c, while cercarial shedding was studied in other two groups of snails after day 30 p.e. at day 49, the total number of free rediae and that of cercariae-containing r ...200920120750
inhibitory effect of essential oils of allium sativum and piper longum on spontaneous muscular activity of liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.effects of essential oil of allium sativum (garlic) and piper longum (indian long pepper) were evaluated on muscular activity of whole fasciola gigantica and its strip preparation. the whole flukes and longitudinal strip preparations of the flukes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity (sma) and to evaluate effects of cumulative doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg/ml) of the plant essential oils. whole flukes and the strip preparations exhibited continuous sma without ...200919679128
fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.little is known about the response of fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. the effect of long-term exposure of lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (cd) on the infection rates with f. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. the snails were exposed to cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. the poss ...200919101545
cloning, characterization, and expression of vitelline protein bi and its encoding gene in the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.a cdna containing a 813 bp open reading frame encoding vitelline protein bi (fgvpbi) of fasciola gigantica was cloned. fgvpbi has 96% sequence identity with vpbi of fasciola hepatica and 84% identity with vpbii f. hepatica. it is far less similar to eggshell precursor proteins of other trematode species, for example, 29% identity with c. sinensis. northern blot hybridization of total rna from adult parasites demonstrated a fgvpbi transcript with a size of 1,000 nucleotides. fgvpbi mrna is locali ...200919323003
botanical study of meryta denhamii seem. and its antihelminthic activity against fasciola gigantica.the anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic extracts of stems and leaves of meryta denhamii seem. against adult liver flukes "fasciola gigantica" was studied in vitro. although leaves extract was inactive, stems extract exhibited anthelmintic activity and recorded lc50 and lc90 values, 16 and 26 gm/l respectively. the mode of action of the ethanolic extract of the stems on the adult flukes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (sem). tegumental sloughing, loss of spines and deformity of s ...200919530627
molecular characterization of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and aspermic fasciola sp. in china based on nuclear and mitochondrial dna.parthenogenic fasciola forms as well as bisexual fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in mainland china have been identified on the basis of their spermatogenesis and genotypes in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase i (ndi). the chinese aspermic fasciola would include forms originating in interspecific hybrids between f. hepatica and f. gigantica, since they showed the genotype of its1-fh/fg that had mixed sequences of the two fasciola ...200919424719
cross-reactivity of schistosoma mansoni-fasciola gigantica influenced by saponins.the aim of the present work was to investigate the schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica cross-reactivity between adult worms and egg homogenates of the parasites. immunoprophylactic effects of crude schistosoma mansoni worms and egg antigens mixed with or without saponins extracted from atriplex nummularia were studied followed by challenge with 80 cercariae of schistosoma mansoni. our results showed that post 1st immunization with schistosome egg antigens (sea) there was a significant cha ...200919526726
elisa-based coproantigen in human strongyloidiaisis: a diagnostic method correlating with worm burden.in order to overcome the false negative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in the absence of rhabditiform larvae in stools, an elisa-based strongyloides stercoralis-specific coproantigen detection assay in stools of infected patients was evaluated. in a sandwich elisa, a rabbit hyperimmune serum against s. stercoralis es (excretory/secretory) adult antigen succeeded in capturing s. stercoralis coproantigen from infected patients and did not react with coproantigens prepared from the stool samples of ...200920120743
rapid identification of lymnaeid snails and their infection with fasciola gigantica in thailand.freshwater snails of the family lymnaeidae are the intermediate hosts of the liver fluke fasciola worldwide. while distinct species have been identified at the molecular level in other parts of the world such data have not been published for thailand. in this study we collected lymnaeidae from different localities across thailand and analyzed their 16s rdna sequences as a molecular signature for classification. in addition to the ubiquitous radix rubiginosa, we have confirmed the presence of aus ...201020685274
analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a promising antigen for diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection: a preliminary study.buffalo fasciolosis induced by fasciola gigantica causes important economic losses in tropical areas of asia. detection of prepatent infection is essential to control this disease. classical tools such as coprology, necroscopy or elisa based on crude extracts from f. gigantica are poorly sensitive or specific. purified antigens could be used to increase these parameters. western blot analysis and mass spectrometry of a fraction of f. gigantica excretory-secretory products obtained by gel filtrat ...201021185945
behavioural responses of the snail lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets.snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. in a recent study, the attractiveness to lymnaea acuminata (an intermediate host of the digenean trematode fasciola gigantica) of potential compo ...201021144185
evaluation of dipstick-elisa using 28 kda fasciola gigantica cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in naturally infected goats.in the present investigation 100 goats presented for slaughter were used to evaluate the 28kda cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) dipstick-elisa for the diagnosis of fasciolosis. presence of fasciola gigantica worms in liver at the time of slaughter was taken as a gold standard for the evaluation of the assay. faeces, blood and liver were taken from all slaughtered goats. biochemical parameters and coprological examinations using sedimentation technique were also taken into consideration. t ...201021145662
identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica using a simple pcr-restriction enzyme method.accurate morphological differentiation between the liver fluke species fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica is difficult. we evaluated pcr-restriction enzyme profiles of internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) that could aid in their identification. fifty f. hepatica and 30 f. gigantica specimens were collected from different hosts in three provinces of iran. for dna extraction, we crushed fragments of the worms between two glass slides as a new method to break down the cells. dna from the crus ...201019769969
gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of ethiopia.the general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. for the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. the study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.coprol ...201019548106
fasciola gigantica: parasitological and scanning electron microscopy study of the in vitro effects of ivermectin and/or artemether.to evaluate the in vitro effects of different concentrations of ivermectin and/or artemether on fasciolagigantica worms and to study the parasitological changes and tegumental alterations using scanning electron microscopy (sem).201019861124
molecular cloning and characterization of two genes encoding 2-cys peroxiredoxins from fasciola gigantica.in fasciola species, peroxiredoxin (prx) serves as the major antioxidant enzyme to remove hydrogen peroxide that is generated from various metabolic reactions, because the parasites lack catalase, and only express glutathione peroxidases at minimal levels. we have cloned and characterized two genes, fgprx-1 and fgprx-2, belonging to the 2-cys prx family, by immunoscreening of an expressed adult stage fasciola gigantica cdna library using a rabbit anti-serum against its tegumental antigens. predi ...201020093115
bioimmunological responses to schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica worm homogenates either with or without saponin.in this study, we evaluated the biochemical, immunological, histopathological and antischistosomal activities of schistosoma mansoni or fasciola gigantica worm homogenates mixed either with or without saponin that was extracted from atriplex nummularia.201020539066
comparative analysis of two fatty acid binding proteins from fasciola gigantica.fatty acid binding proteins are considered to be promising vaccine candidates against trematodiasis. in order to provide additional information about their function in fasciola gigantica we performed a comparative analysis of fgfabp1 and fgfabp3, two isoforms with quite different isoelectric points of 4.9 and 9.9 and 67% sequence identity. both are expressed in the juvenile and adult parasite but differ in their tissue-specific distribution. in addition, the sequence of fabp3 is identical in f. ...201020550752
tropical liver fluke-induced stress in experimentally infected and immunised buffaloes.disease-related stress associated with fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in 16 male, yearling murrah buffaloes. the animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups. animals in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4.8 mg of excretory-secretory antigen (group 1) or 1300 μg infection-specific antigen (group 2), in three doses. subsequently, all the animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 were infected orally with 800 viable f gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week 6 o ...201021257419
functional analysis of novel aquaporins from fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis, caused by liver flukes of the genus fasciola, is an important disease of ruminants. in order to identify a potential new drug target we have studied aquaporin (aqp) in fasciola gigantica. aqps facilitate the transport of water, glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. the structure, function, and pathology of aqps have been extensively studied in mammals but data for aqps from trematodes is still limited. in the present study, we have functionally characterized ...201021073907
molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern uttar pradesh, india.many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. the who has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. with a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origi ...201019943357
discrimination of the its1 types of fasciola spp. based on a pcr-rflp method.molecular characterization is important for discriminating fasciola specimens having the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) sequences of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and both fasciola species, since three fasciola forms coexist in asian countries. we have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified dna (pcr-rflp) of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region in fasciola species. the band patterns of the fragments digested with a restriction enzyme, ...201020107839
molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.glutathione s-transferase from an indian isolate of fasciola gigantica of buffalo origin was isolated and characterized. total rna was transcribed to cdna by reverse transcription and an amplicon of 657 bp glutathione s-transferase gene was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the f. gigantica gst gene of cattle origin, with six nucleotide changes causing an overall change of four amino acids. glutathione s ...201019619366
toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant croton tiglium.the compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant croton tiglium linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarck in order to test its toxicity. l. acuminata is the intermediate host of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. it was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against l. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. there was a ...201020653234
immune responses to polyethylenimine-mannose-delivered plasmid dna encoding a fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein in mice.fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was evaluated for evoking an immune response in mice, by delivering the gene coding for this protein with mannosylated-polyethylenimine (pei) to peritoneal cells. mice were immunized with 50 microg recombinant plasmid dna (group i) or dna-pei-mannose (a 22 kda linear cationic polymer with mannose ligand) (group ii) via the intraperitoneal route. antibody studies showed no significant humoral immune response evoked to this dna immunization with ...201019723356
investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) in the kafue basin.abstract:201021182793
rapid identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay.the present study developed and validated a species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid detection and discrimination of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the lamp assay is inexpensive, easy to perform and shows rapid reaction, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 45 min under isothermal conditions of 61 °c or 62 °c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and results can be checked through naked-eye visualization. the opti ...201020933335
serum enzyme and hematological profile of fasciola gigantica immunized and experimentally infected riverine buffaloes.sixteen male, yearling murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups of four buffaloes each. each animal in gr-i and ii were immunized, respectively, with 4.8 mg of excretory secretory antigen and 1,300 microg infection specific antigen, in three divided doses. subsequently, each animal in gr-i, ii, and iii was per os infected with 800 viable fasciola gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week-6 after the start of the experiment, while animals in gr-iv served as healthy controls. ...201020135148
epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia.a cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of ada, akaki, bereh and boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia. faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. there was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. the overall prevalence of the i ...201020138432
fasciola gigantica: histology of the digestive tract and the expression of cathepsin l.the digestive tract of fasciola gigantica is composed of the oral sucker, buccal tube, pharynx, esophagus, and caecum. the tegumental-type epithelium lines the first four parts of the digestive tract while the caecal-type epithelium lines the remaining parts from the caecal bifurcation. the caecal-epithelial cells are classified into 3 types according to their staining properties and ultrastructural characteristics, as related to the amount of food contents in the caecal lumen. all caecal-type e ...201020214898
a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp.the present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp. based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of the nuclear ribosomal dna, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of fasciola its-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. these primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the pcr products were analyzed by ...201021170657
bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at soddo municipal abattoir, southern ethiopia.a study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were positive for fasciolosis. the most common liver fluke species affecting the cattle was fasciola gigantica, 9.1% of cattle were infect ...201019680772
assessment of a 27-kda antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in vietnamese patients.fasciolosis has emerged as an important zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. in recent years, an increasing number of human cases were reported in vietnam. in this study, the 27-kda component protein from the excretory/secretory production of adult fasciola gigantica, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, was assessed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies against fasciola spp. for diagnosis of human fasciolosis. the elisa showed a high sensiti ...201020149166
bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic binh dinh province in central vietnam.a cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the binh dinh province of central vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. in vietnam, both pure fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica infect humans and animals. in this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were ...201020920452
characterization and localization of saposin-like protein-2 (sap-2) in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein-2 (fgsap-2) belongs to a family of lipid-interacting proteins that are involved in the cytolysis of target cells. in this study, we have cloned and expressed fgsap-2 and produced the antibody against this recombinant protein. rabbit antiserum against rfgsap-2 reacted with a similar native protein in the whole body extracts of the 4-week-old juvenile and adult stage, as well as a protein in their excretion-secretion, but not in the tegument. in situ hybridi ...201021188603
phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of balanites aegyptiaca fruits (balantiaceae).balanites aegyptiaca (balantiaceae), mainly the fruit, is used by traditional healers and herbalists for treating many diseases in africa and asia.201019833185
sensitive and rapid detection of paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed and validated for the detection of paragonimus westermani adults, metacercariae, and eggs in human and animal samples. the lamp amplification can be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 60°c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and the results can be checked by naked-eye visualization. no amplification products were detected with deoxyribunucleic acid (dna) of related trem ...201021107864
comparative assay of glutathione s-transferase (gsts) activity of excretory-secretory materials and somatic extract of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fascioliasis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. in the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. fasciola spp has detoxification system including gst enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of gst enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica helmi ...201021287474
development and hatching mechanism of fasciola eggs, light and scanning electron microscopic studies.both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used in the description. there were variable measurements of eggs from the same fluke and there was no relationship between the size of the fluke and size of eggs. light microscopy revealed that the operculum has different shapes in fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica. under normal laboratory conditions of temperature (26 ± 1 °c), miracidia of f. gigantica developed within 12-16 days period, but those of f. hepatica developed within a pe ...201023961086
epizootiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylactic trends to control tropical bubaline fasciolosis: an overview.on the indian sub-continent, nearly 5,000 years ago, the domestication of the riverine buffalo-the incredible asian dairy animal was initiated. it plays a versatile role in socio-economic upliftment of its owners from the rural agricultural communities in asian, african, south american and a few european countries. comparatively, buffaloes are lesser evolved and susceptible to infectious diseases than cattle. however, poor body thermoregulation and wallowing nature predisposed them to snail born ...201122654308
molecular identification and differentiation of fasciola isolates using pcr- rflp method based on internal transcribed spacer (its1, 5.8s rdna, its2).in this study, we used both its1 and its2 for molecular identification of fasciola species.201122347295
innate and adaptive resistance of indonesian thin tail sheep to liver fluke: a comparative analysis of fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica infection.in the current study, three independent trials directly compared fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica infection of itt sheep. in all trials, f. hepatica infection resulted in higher worm burden recoveries and greater physiological damage to itt sheep. developmental differences of the two fasciola species were also observed during the first twelve weeks of a primary infection, where the migration and growth of f. hepatica was more rapid than f. gigantica. various immunological blood parameter ...201121320754
hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.summaryexperiments on hybridization between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two fasciola species. molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the dna sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region in nuclear ribosomal dna, which differs between the species. the results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. however, ...201121767436
molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica from mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. from africa, f. gigantica has been previously characterized from burkina faso, senegal, kenya, zambia and mali, while f. hepatica has been reported from morocco and tunisia, and both species have been observed from ethiopia and egypt on the basis of morphometric dif ...201121763690
Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study r ...201122186976
cholangiocarcinoma in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and fascioliasis in endoscopic ultrasonography.fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the zoonoses are particularly endemic in sheep-raising countries and are also endemic in iran. typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by phases of the disease, including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. cholestatic symptoms may be absent, and in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long pe ...201122110417
towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.fasciola hepatica, along with fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. the dominant components of these excretory-secretory (es) products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin l (cat l) protease family.201121245911
microsatellite analysis of fasciola spp. in egypt.recently, the topic of diversity in fasciola population in egypt is controversial. the present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in egypt. control samples of fasciola hepatica from france as well as fasciola gigantica from cameroon were included in the study. collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four micro ...201121744021
resistance to liver fluke infection in the natural sheep host is correlated with a type-1 cytokine response.indonesian thin-tail (itt) sheep can resist infection with fasciola gigantica but not f.-áhepatica and presents an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms of liver fluke resistance in a natural host. this study examines the local and systemic immune responses of sheep during fasciola infection and demonstrates that different anatomical tissues display distinct cytokine profiles consistent with liver fluke migration. the study also reveals a significant difference in the cytokine and antibody p ...201121711360
fasciola gigantica: production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin b3.a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin b3 (rcatb3) of fasciola gigantica were produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were assessed by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. six stable clones, namely 1c4, 1e9, 2e5, 2f9, 5b4, 5d7 were obtained. all moabs reacted with rcatb3 at molecular weight (mw) 37 kda as well as the glycosylated peptide at 55-75 kda and with the native catb3 at mw 37 kda in wb extracts of metacercariae (met) ...201120736007
a portrait of the transcriptome of the neglected trematode, fasciola gigantica--biological and biotechnological implications.fasciola gigantica (digenea) is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. the present study repor ...201121408104
molecular characterization of fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern iran based on nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola spp. (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. in the endemic regions of the north of iran, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. samples from buffa ...201121440546
tegumental alterations of fasciola gigantica due to in vitro treatment with ro-354.triclabendazole is the drug of choice against fasciola infections in humans and animals. however, parasite resistance against triclabendazole is spreading in veterinary field, and there are no drugs of comparable activity currently available for the treatment and control of fascioliasis. the efficacy of a new rhodanine derivative ro-354 against adult fasciola gigantica in vitro was investigated. one hour post incubation, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examination reveal ...201122041747
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein.fasciola gigantica, causative agent of tropical fasciolosis, inflicts substantial economic losses on the livestock industry, affecting severely buffalo productivity in the tropical countries. very few vaccination trials with different target antigens against f. gigantica infection have been conducted in this host. present study describes a vaccination trial in buffaloes with f. gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein. the two recombinant proteins were expre ...201121750874
Development and evaluation of a dipstick assay in diagnosis of human fasciolosis.For the diagnosis of human fasciolosis, a new dipstick assay was developed and its diagnostic efficacy was evaluated in comparison to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory antigen. Sera samples were collected from patients with confirmed fasciolosis and patients with other parasitic diseases as well as from normal healthy individuals. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the dipstick assay as well as ELISA were 100%, 96.7%, and ...201122015473
Evaluation of a 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis. 14.5 kDa FABP was isolated from the crude extract of adult F. gigantica worms by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography and then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing condition. Anti-FABP IgG polyclonal antibody (pAb) was generated in rabbits and pu ...201122113304
lack of protective efficacy in buffaloes vaccinated with fasciola gigantica leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin recombinant proteins.gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (lap), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, fasciola hepatica. the recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in escherichia coli. f. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in e. coli. a vaccination trial i ...201121376699
a case of biliary fascioliasis by fasciola gigantica in turkey.a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in turkey. the patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. a total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp). a single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. she was living in a village of southeast of anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. she ...201121461271
genetic analysis of fasciola isolates from cattle in korea based on second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) sequence of nuclear ribosomal dna.nuclear ribosomal dna sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) has been used efficiently to identify the liver fluke species collected from different hosts and various geographic regions. its-2 sequences of 19 fasciola samples collected from korean native cattle were determined and compared. sequence comparison including its-2 sequences of isolates from this study and reference sequences from fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and intermediate fasciola in genbank revealed ...201121494845
genetic diversity and relatedness of fasciola spp. isolates from different hosts and geographic regions revealed by analysis of mitochondrial dna sequences.the present study examined sequence variability in a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1) and nadh dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (pnad4 and pnad5) among 39 isolates of fasciola spp., from different hosts from china, niger, france, the united states of america, and spain; and their phylogenetic relationships were re-constructed. intra-species sequence variations were 0.0-1.1% for pcox1, 0.0-2.7% for pnad4, and 0.0-3.3% for pnad5 for fasciola hepatica; 0.0-1.8% for ...201121524854
pcr-based molecular characterization and insilico analysis of food-borne trematode parasites paragonimus westermani, fasciolopsis buski and fasciola gigantica from northeast india using its2 rdna.food-borne fluke infections/trematodiases are emerging as a major public health problem worldwide with over 40 million people affected and over 10% of world population at risk of infection. the major concentration of these infections is in southeast asian and western pacific regions, where the epidemiological factors (including the prevalent socio-cultural food habits) are conducive for transmission of these infections. the preponderance of these infections is usually in food deficit poor commun ...201121544167
biliary fasciola gigantica case report from turkey.we present a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis diagnosed and treated via endoscopy and trichlorobendazole treatment. this is the first case of fasciola gigantica treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ercp and drug treatment reported from turkey.201121706928
in vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke fasciola gigantica.the present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as allium sativum, lawsonia inermis, and opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, oxyclozanide on fasciola gigantica adults. the efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of f. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. based on the in vitro trials conducted us ...201123543611
extra-hepatic fascioliasis with peritoneal malignancy tumor feature.fascioliasis is a zoonose parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and is widespread in most regions of the world. ectopic fascioliasis usually caused by juvenile fasciola spp., but in recent years a few cases of tissue-embedded ova have been reported from different endemic areas. a 79-year-old iranian man resident in eird-e-mousa village from ardabil province, north-west of iran, complained with abdominal pain, nausea, and intestinal obstruction symptoms referred to ...201123542770
diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool.this research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of active fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes.201121917183
fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) as a prophylactic agent against schistosoma mansoni infection in cd1 mice.although schistosomicidal drugs and other control measures exist, the advent of an efficacious vaccine remains the most potentially powerful means for controlling this disease. in this study, native fatty acid binding protein (fabp) from fasciola gigantica was purified from the adult worm's crude extract by saturation with ammonium sulphate followed by separation on deae-sephadex a-50 anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration using sephacryl hr-100, respectively. cd1 mice were immunized w ...201222451732
antigenic components, isolation and partial characterization of excretion-secretion fraction of paramphistomum cervi.the immunogenic components of adult paramphistomum cervi excretion-secretion (es) fraction were revealed by sds-page and immunoblotting technique using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. cervi, fasciola gigantica, strongylids, trichuris sp., and strongyloides sp. by sds-page, it was found that the es fraction comprised 13 distinct protein bands. immunoblotting analysis of these proteins exhibited nine prominent antigenic bands which were recognized by paramphistomosis antisera. these an ...201223266486
update on trematode infections in sheep.trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke fasciola hepatica. hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are fasciola ...201222521973
development of cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase based dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.native cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase (28 kda) was purified from the excretory secretory products of fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in buffaloes by dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa). the test detected f. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ∼ 90%. no specific igg antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of ...201222055612
[clinical diagnosis and treatment in an outbreak of fasciola gigantica infection in yunnan province].to carry out clinical diagnosis and treatment of fasciola gigantica infection during an outbreak in yunnan province.201223484257
protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. cysteine proteinases (cp) released by fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. there has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. multiple doses (2 mg of cp in fre ...201222451733
trematode infections: liver and lung flukes.food-borne trematodiases are an emerging public health problem in southeast asia and latin america and of growing importance for travel clinics in europe and north america. the disease is caused by chronic infections with liver, lung, and intestinal flukes. this article focuses on the most important liver and lung flukes that parasitize man, namely clonorchis sinensis, fasciola gigantica, fasciola hepatica, opisthorchis felineus, opisthorchis viverrini, and paragonimus spp. the article describes ...201222632646
comparative characterization of micrornas from the liver flukes fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica.micrornas (mirnas) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. the present study specifically explored and compared the mirna expression profiles of f. gigantica and f. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time pcr. nineteen and 16 mirna candidates were identified from f. gigantica and f. hepatica, respectively. the two parasites shared 11 mirnas, with 8 also showing similarity to mirnas of schistosoma japonicum. ano ...201223300925
development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini (opisthorchiidae; trematoda; platyhelminthes).mitochondrial dna sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-lamp) because multiple copies occur in every cell. four lamp primers [f3, fip(f1c+f2), bip(b1c+b2), and b3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-ovlamp) to distinguish dna of o. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes ...201222322346
[acute fasciolosis: a cuban case report].fasciolosis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fasciolosis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica but, in cuba, only f. hepatica has been notified. as others neglected diseases, f. hepatica is more common in people living in rural areas where infected animals, intermediate hosts and susceptible hosts coexist. we describe the clinical features of a case that could contribute to the process of continuing medical education of health profess ...201223282500
effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions.to evaluate the effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions.201223569864
fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from cajamarca and mantaro, peru.fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. of both species, f. hepatica is the only one described in the americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the galba/fossaria group. human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of andean countries. given the necessity to characterize f. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis e ...201222285769
analysis of a calcium-binding ef-hand protein family in fasciola gigantica.transcriptome data supports the notion of a platyhelminthes-specific protein family that is characterized by combination of two n-terminal ef-hands and a c-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. family members in schistosomes induce an ige response that has been connected with resistance to reinfection in schistosomiasis and is considered as a marker of protection. in the present study, we have compared three homologs of the liver fluke fasciola gigantica for their immunological properties in ...201222366577
characterization of fasciola samples by its of rdna sequences revealed the existence of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in yunnan province, china.on mainland china, liver flukes of fasciola spp. (digenea: fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. the objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of fasciola species in yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its-1 and its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from 10 samples representing fasciola species in catt ...201222360550
proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion us$. fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while f. gigantica dominates in the tropics. in the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are be ...201223167294
substantial genetic divergence between morphologically indistinguishable populations of fasciola suggests the possibility of cryptic speciation.the liver flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, are considered to be sister species and between them present a major threat worldwide to livestock production. in this study sequence data have been employed from informative regions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of over 200 morphologically f. hepatica-like or f. gigantica-like flukes from europe, sub-saharan africa and south asia to assess genetic diversity. evidence is presented for the existence of four well-separated clad ...201223131680
efficient inhibition of cathepsin b by a secreted type 1 cystatin of fasciola gigantica.cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. while their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. in the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with fgstefin-1 and human cystatin c, that a second type 1 cystatin of the pa ...201223085005
bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of mount elgon, uganda.to clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of mount elgon, uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes.201222958402
characterization and expression of cathepsin b2 in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica cathepsin b belongs to a family of cysteine proteases which is involved in invasion of host tissues. in this study, the recombinant cathepsin b2 (rfgcatb2), synthesized in pichia pastoris, showed enzymatic activity on a fluorometric substrate z-phe-arg-amc and gelatin. furthermore, this recombinant enzyme could degrade igg and type i collagen. mouse antiserum against rfgcatb2 reacted with the native fgcatb2 in whole body (wb) extracts of metacercariae (met), newly excysted juv ...201222885402
development and evaluation of a single-step duplex pcr for simultaneous detection of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (family fasciolidae, class trematoda, phylum platyhelminthes).a single-step multiplex pcr (here referred to as a duplex pcr) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. these species overlap in distribution in many countries of north and east africa and central and southeast asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) spanning the region of cox1-trnt-rrnl, two species-specific forward primers w ...201222692744
molecular, biochemical, and morphometric characterization of fasciola species potentially causing zoonotic disease in egypt.fascioliasis is an important disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the distributions of both species overlap in many areas of asia and africa including egypt. fifty adult fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, cairo, egypt. they were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electroph ...201222638917
molecular study for detecting the prevalence of fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana (pulmonata: lymnaeidae) in northwestern iran.fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in iran. this study was aimed to determine prevalence of fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana in northwestern iran. the snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from may to december 2010 and identified. a fragment of 618 bp of 28s rrna gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr ...201222579498
molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from fasciola gigantica.m17 leucine aminopeptidase (lap) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the n-terminals. in this study, the full length of cdna encoding fasciola gigantica lap (fglap) was cloned from adult parasites. the amino acid sequences of fglap showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fglap was closely re ...201222543100
fasciola gigantica: the in vitro effects of artesunate as compared to triclabendazole on the 3-weeks-old juvenile.the in vitro effect of artesunate (ats) on the 3-week-old juveniles of fasciola gigantica was compared with triclabendazole (tcz) by incubating the parasites in m-199 medium containing the drugs at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h. the anthelmintic activities of these drugs were evaluated based on the relative motility value (rm) and the alterations of the tegument as observed by scanning (sem) and transmission (tem) electron microscopy. the rm values of tcz-treate ...201222425749
in vitro effects of triclabendazole (tcbz) on the excretory-secretory products (esp) of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is an endemic disease in iran and triclabendazole (tcbz) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. excretory-secretory products (esp) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione s-transferase (gst) and superoxide dismutase (sod) enzymes respectively. therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against tcbz drug by detection of enzymatic activities, ...201222418984
assessing the validity of an elisa test for the serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis in different epidemiological situations.to improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), with fasciola antigen from the adult liver fluke, for the detection of igg against fascioliasis in human sera.201222413850
molecular identification of fasciola spp. (digenea: platyhelminthes) in cattle from vietnam.fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of khanh hoa province, vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) of the ribosomal rna revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presen ...201222314245
tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail lymnaea acuminata.snail lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of liver fluke fasciola gigantica, which cause endemic fasciolosis among cattle population of eastern uttar pradesh. control of snail population by molluscicides is one of the effective methods to control fasciolosis. in the present study molluscicidal activity of tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of different indian breeds of cow sahiwal, geer and tharparkar with annona squamosa seed powder, ferula asafoetida root latex, azadirachta indi ...201224199478
immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of fasciola gigantica by glutathione s-transferase (gst).in the present study, effort to isolate purified gst from fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. in this study, immunoprotection studies with gst and antibody titer post-infection has revealed gst to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.201224082529
tegumental histological effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica.to evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally.201323730566
dot-blot immunoassay of fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kda and adult worm regurge antigens in egyptian patients.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-kilodalton (kda) antigen versus fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a dot-blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in egyptian patients. fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(kda) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution sds-page. a dot-blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific ...201323710084
activity of superoxide dismutase (sod) enzyme in the excretory-secretory products of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica parasites.the aim of this study was to compare superoxide dismutase (sod) activity in fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica parasites.201323682275
diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa for detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease.a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa) was developed for the detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease (catb3) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica and cattle naturally infected with the same parasite. the moab 2f9 and biotinylated rabbit polyclonal anti-recombinant catb3 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities to f. gigantica catb3 antigen based on indirect elis ...201323567552
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