food-borne estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (clonorchis sinensis, fasciola gigantica, fasciola hepatica, opisthorchis felineus, and opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., echinostoma spp., fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. in this review, we summarize th ...200919597009
molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.glutathione s-transferase from an indian isolate of fasciola gigantica of buffalo origin was isolated and characterized. total rna was transcribed to cdna by reverse transcription and an amplicon of 657 bp glutathione s-transferase gene was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the f. gigantica gst gene of cattle origin, with six nucleotide changes causing an overall change of four amino acids. glutathione s ...201019619366
identification, expression and immunolocalization of cathepsin b3, a stage-specific antigen expressed by juvenile fasciola identify antigens that could potentially be developed as vaccines against fasciola gigantica, somatic antigens were analyzed by immunoprecipitation using pooled sera from rats infected with f. gigantica metacercariae. a prominent antigen of the newly excysted juveniles (nej), cathepsin b3 protease (fgcatb3), was identified by n-terminal sequencing and pcr screening of a cdna library. recombinant fgcatb3 (rfgcatb3) was expressed in pichia pastoris, and shown to catalyse the digestion of gelati ...200919632187
kinetics of serum immunoglobulin isotype response in experimental bovine tropical fasciolosis.the present communication reports on the kinetics of immunoglobulin isotype response in fasciola gigantica infected bovine calves. fifteen holstein-friesian cross-bred male calves were assigned to 3 groups (gr) of 5 calves each and infected with 4-month (gr-a) and 16-month-old (gr-b) f. gigantica metacercariae (n=400), respectively, while gr-c calves served as uninfected control. infection was terminated by treating the animals with triclabendazole on 28 weeks post-infection (wpi). sera were col ...200919635646
estrogen-related fecundity reduction of lymnaea ollula following fasciola gigantica infection.infection by trematode parasites generally affects life history traits of their intermediate hosts. reduction in life expectancy and reproductive capacity have previously been documented in fasciola gigantica-infected lymnaea ollula, but the influence of the endocrine system on this specific host–parasite interaction has not been previously examined. in the present study, we observed survival, growth pattern, and reproductive output of l. ollula following exposure to f. gigantica. both the survi ...200919642809
inhibitory effect of essential oils of allium sativum and piper longum on spontaneous muscular activity of liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.effects of essential oil of allium sativum (garlic) and piper longum (indian long pepper) were evaluated on muscular activity of whole fasciola gigantica and its strip preparation. the whole flukes and longitudinal strip preparations of the flukes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity (sma) and to evaluate effects of cumulative doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg/ml) of the plant essential oils. whole flukes and the strip preparations exhibited continuous sma without ...200919679128
bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at soddo municipal abattoir, southern ethiopia.a study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were positive for fasciolosis. the most common liver fluke species affecting the cattle was fasciola gigantica, 9.1% of cattle were infect ...201019680772
immune responses to polyethylenimine-mannose-delivered plasmid dna encoding a fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein in mice.fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was evaluated for evoking an immune response in mice, by delivering the gene coding for this protein with mannosylated-polyethylenimine (pei) to peritoneal cells. mice were immunized with 50 microg recombinant plasmid dna (group i) or dna-pei-mannose (a 22 kda linear cationic polymer with mannose ligand) (group ii) via the intraperitoneal route. antibody studies showed no significant humoral immune response evoked to this dna immunization with ...201019723356
fasciola gigantica: immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis by detection of circulating 28.5 kda tegumental antigen.a monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich elisa was developed for the detection of circulating 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (28.5 kda ta) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. the moab was immobilized on a microtiter plate, and the antigen in the serum was captured and detected with biotinylated polyclonal rabbit anti ta antibody. the test could detect 28.5 kda in the extracts of tegument (ta), whole body (wb) and excretory-secretory (es) fractions at the concen ...200919723524
identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica using a simple pcr-restriction enzyme method.accurate morphological differentiation between the liver fluke species fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica is difficult. we evaluated pcr-restriction enzyme profiles of internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) that could aid in their identification. fifty f. hepatica and 30 f. gigantica specimens were collected from different hosts in three provinces of iran. for dna extraction, we crushed fragments of the worms between two glass slides as a new method to break down the cells. dna from the crus ...201019769969
identification of egyptian fasciola species by pcr and restriction endonucleases digestion of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna gene.fascioliasis is one of the familiar zoonotic health problems of worldwide distribution including egypt. in this study, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphisms (pcr/rflps) assay, using the common restriction endonucleases aval, ecori, eael, sac11 and avail was applied to differentiate between both fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica. the five restriction endonucleases were used to differentiate between the two species of fasciola based on -1950 bp lon ...200919795750
phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of balanites aegyptiaca fruits (balantiaceae).balanites aegyptiaca (balantiaceae), mainly the fruit, is used by traditional healers and herbalists for treating many diseases in africa and asia.201019833185
fasciola gigantica: parasitological and scanning electron microscopy study of the in vitro effects of ivermectin and/or evaluate the in vitro effects of different concentrations of ivermectin and/or artemether on fasciolagigantica worms and to study the parasitological changes and tegumental alterations using scanning electron microscopy (sem).201019861124
molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern uttar pradesh, india.many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. the who has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. with a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origi ...201019943357
molecular cloning and characterization of two genes encoding 2-cys peroxiredoxins from fasciola fasciola species, peroxiredoxin (prx) serves as the major antioxidant enzyme to remove hydrogen peroxide that is generated from various metabolic reactions, because the parasites lack catalase, and only express glutathione peroxidases at minimal levels. we have cloned and characterized two genes, fgprx-1 and fgprx-2, belonging to the 2-cys prx family, by immunoscreening of an expressed adult stage fasciola gigantica cdna library using a rabbit anti-serum against its tegumental antigens. predi ...201020093115
discrimination of the its1 types of fasciola spp. based on a pcr-rflp method.molecular characterization is important for discriminating fasciola specimens having the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) sequences of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and both fasciola species, since three fasciola forms coexist in asian countries. we have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified dna (pcr-rflp) of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region in fasciola species. the band patterns of the fragments digested with a restriction enzyme, ...201020107839
elisa-based coproantigen in human strongyloidiaisis: a diagnostic method correlating with worm order to overcome the false negative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in the absence of rhabditiform larvae in stools, an elisa-based strongyloides stercoralis-specific coproantigen detection assay in stools of infected patients was evaluated. in a sandwich elisa, a rabbit hyperimmune serum against s. stercoralis es (excretory/secretory) adult antigen succeeded in capturing s. stercoralis coproantigen from infected patients and did not react with coproantigens prepared from the stool samples of ...200920120743
fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of sheep-derived miracidia in radix natalensis and galba truncatula.experimental infections of egyptian radix natalensis and french galba truncatula with miracidia of fasciola gigantica of sheep were carried out to determine the larval productivity of this parasite. rediae and cercariae were thus counted in snails dissected at regular intervals from day 21 to day 49 postexposure (p.e.) at 24 degrees c, while cercarial shedding was studied in other two groups of snails after day 30 p.e. at day 49, the total number of free rediae and that of cercariae-containing r ...200920120750
serum enzyme and hematological profile of fasciola gigantica immunized and experimentally infected riverine buffaloes.sixteen male, yearling murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups of four buffaloes each. each animal in gr-i and ii were immunized, respectively, with 4.8 mg of excretory secretory antigen and 1,300 microg infection specific antigen, in three divided doses. subsequently, each animal in gr-i, ii, and iii was per os infected with 800 viable fasciola gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week-6 after the start of the experiment, while animals in gr-iv served as healthy controls. ...201020135148
epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia.a cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of ada, akaki, bereh and boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia. faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. there was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. the overall prevalence of the i ...201020138432
assessment of a 27-kda antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in vietnamese patients.fasciolosis has emerged as an important zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. in recent years, an increasing number of human cases were reported in vietnam. in this study, the 27-kda component protein from the excretory/secretory production of adult fasciola gigantica, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, was assessed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies against fasciola spp. for diagnosis of human fasciolosis. the elisa showed a high sensiti ...201020149166
fasciola gigantica: histology of the digestive tract and the expression of cathepsin l.the digestive tract of fasciola gigantica is composed of the oral sucker, buccal tube, pharynx, esophagus, and caecum. the tegumental-type epithelium lines the first four parts of the digestive tract while the caecal-type epithelium lines the remaining parts from the caecal bifurcation. the caecal-epithelial cells are classified into 3 types according to their staining properties and ultrastructural characteristics, as related to the amount of food contents in the caecal lumen. all caecal-type e ...201020214898
evaluation of the diagnostic potential of different immunological techniques using polyclonal antibodies against fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in sheep.the early detection of fasciola antigens (ags) in serum or stool could be more valuable in diagnosis as early treatment would be applied before irreparable damage occurs. in this study, fresh adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) worms were cultivated for 16 hrs. excretory/secretory (e/s) ags were extracted from the culturemedium and used to raise rabbit antibodies (abs) to fasciola. the purified abs were then used in sandwich elisa (s-elisa) to detect fasciola ags in serum and stool samples f ...200820306670
bioimmunological responses to schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica worm homogenates either with or without this study, we evaluated the biochemical, immunological, histopathological and antischistosomal activities of schistosoma mansoni or fasciola gigantica worm homogenates mixed either with or without saponin that was extracted from atriplex nummularia.201020539066
comparative analysis of two fatty acid binding proteins from fasciola gigantica.fatty acid binding proteins are considered to be promising vaccine candidates against trematodiasis. in order to provide additional information about their function in fasciola gigantica we performed a comparative analysis of fgfabp1 and fgfabp3, two isoforms with quite different isoelectric points of 4.9 and 9.9 and 67% sequence identity. both are expressed in the juvenile and adult parasite but differ in their tissue-specific distribution. in addition, the sequence of fabp3 is identical in f. ...201020550752
toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant croton tiglium.the compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant croton tiglium linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarck in order to test its toxicity. l. acuminata is the intermediate host of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. it was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against l. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. there was a ...201020653234
rapid identification of lymnaeid snails and their infection with fasciola gigantica in thailand.freshwater snails of the family lymnaeidae are the intermediate hosts of the liver fluke fasciola worldwide. while distinct species have been identified at the molecular level in other parts of the world such data have not been published for thailand. in this study we collected lymnaeidae from different localities across thailand and analyzed their 16s rdna sequences as a molecular signature for classification. in addition to the ubiquitous radix rubiginosa, we have confirmed the presence of aus ...201020685274
fasciola gigantica: production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin b3.a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin b3 (rcatb3) of fasciola gigantica were produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were assessed by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. six stable clones, namely 1c4, 1e9, 2e5, 2f9, 5b4, 5d7 were obtained. all moabs reacted with rcatb3 at molecular weight (mw) 37 kda as well as the glycosylated peptide at 55-75 kda and with the native catb3 at mw 37 kda in wb extracts of metacercariae (met) ...201120736007
bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic binh dinh province in central vietnam.a cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the binh dinh province of central vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. in vietnam, both pure fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica infect humans and animals. in this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were ...201020920452
rapid identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay.the present study developed and validated a species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid detection and discrimination of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the lamp assay is inexpensive, easy to perform and shows rapid reaction, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 45 min under isothermal conditions of 61 °c or 62 °c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and results can be checked through naked-eye visualization. the opti ...201020933335
functional analysis of novel aquaporins from fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis, caused by liver flukes of the genus fasciola, is an important disease of ruminants. in order to identify a potential new drug target we have studied aquaporin (aqp) in fasciola gigantica. aqps facilitate the transport of water, glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. the structure, function, and pathology of aqps have been extensively studied in mammals but data for aqps from trematodes is still limited. in the present study, we have functionally characterized ...201021073907
sensitive and rapid detection of paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed and validated for the detection of paragonimus westermani adults, metacercariae, and eggs in human and animal samples. the lamp amplification can be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 60°c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and the results can be checked by naked-eye visualization. no amplification products were detected with deoxyribunucleic acid (dna) of related trem ...201021107864
behavioural responses of the snail lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets.snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. in a recent study, the attractiveness to lymnaea acuminata (an intermediate host of the digenean trematode fasciola gigantica) of potential compo ...201021144185
evaluation of dipstick-elisa using 28 kda fasciola gigantica cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in naturally infected the present investigation 100 goats presented for slaughter were used to evaluate the 28kda cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) dipstick-elisa for the diagnosis of fasciolosis. presence of fasciola gigantica worms in liver at the time of slaughter was taken as a gold standard for the evaluation of the assay. faeces, blood and liver were taken from all slaughtered goats. biochemical parameters and coprological examinations using sedimentation technique were also taken into consideration. t ...201021145662
a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp.the present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp. based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of the nuclear ribosomal dna, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of fasciola its-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. these primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the pcr products were analyzed by ...201021170657
investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) in the kafue basin.abstract:201021182793
analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a promising antigen for diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection: a preliminary study.buffalo fasciolosis induced by fasciola gigantica causes important economic losses in tropical areas of asia. detection of prepatent infection is essential to control this disease. classical tools such as coprology, necroscopy or elisa based on crude extracts from f. gigantica are poorly sensitive or specific. purified antigens could be used to increase these parameters. western blot analysis and mass spectrometry of a fraction of f. gigantica excretory-secretory products obtained by gel filtrat ...201021185945
characterization and localization of saposin-like protein-2 (sap-2) in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein-2 (fgsap-2) belongs to a family of lipid-interacting proteins that are involved in the cytolysis of target cells. in this study, we have cloned and expressed fgsap-2 and produced the antibody against this recombinant protein. rabbit antiserum against rfgsap-2 reacted with a similar native protein in the whole body extracts of the 4-week-old juvenile and adult stage, as well as a protein in their excretion-secretion, but not in the tegument. in situ hybridi ...201021188603
towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.fasciola hepatica, along with fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. the dominant components of these excretory-secretory (es) products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin l (cat l) protease family.201121245911
tropical liver fluke-induced stress in experimentally infected and immunised buffaloes.disease-related stress associated with fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in 16 male, yearling murrah buffaloes. the animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups. animals in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4.8 mg of excretory-secretory antigen (group 1) or 1300 μg infection-specific antigen (group 2), in three doses. subsequently, all the animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 were infected orally with 800 viable f gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week 6 o ...201021257419
comparative assay of glutathione s-transferase (gsts) activity of excretory-secretory materials and somatic extract of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fascioliasis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. in the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. fasciola spp has detoxification system including gst enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of gst enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica helmi ...201021287474
innate and adaptive resistance of indonesian thin tail sheep to liver fluke: a comparative analysis of fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica the current study, three independent trials directly compared fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica infection of itt sheep. in all trials, f. hepatica infection resulted in higher worm burden recoveries and greater physiological damage to itt sheep. developmental differences of the two fasciola species were also observed during the first twelve weeks of a primary infection, where the migration and growth of f. hepatica was more rapid than f. gigantica. various immunological blood parameter ...201121320754
lack of protective efficacy in buffaloes vaccinated with fasciola gigantica leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin recombinant proteins.gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (lap), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, fasciola hepatica. the recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in escherichia coli. f. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in e. coli. a vaccination trial i ...201121376699
a portrait of the transcriptome of the neglected trematode, fasciola gigantica--biological and biotechnological implications.fasciola gigantica (digenea) is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. the present study repor ...201121408104
a case of biliary fascioliasis by fasciola gigantica in turkey.a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in turkey. the patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. a total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp). a single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. she was living in a village of southeast of anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. she ...201121461271
genetic analysis of fasciola isolates from cattle in korea based on second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) sequence of nuclear ribosomal dna.nuclear ribosomal dna sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) has been used efficiently to identify the liver fluke species collected from different hosts and various geographic regions. its-2 sequences of 19 fasciola samples collected from korean native cattle were determined and compared. sequence comparison including its-2 sequences of isolates from this study and reference sequences from fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and intermediate fasciola in genbank revealed ...201121494845
genetic diversity and relatedness of fasciola spp. isolates from different hosts and geographic regions revealed by analysis of mitochondrial dna sequences.the present study examined sequence variability in a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1) and nadh dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (pnad4 and pnad5) among 39 isolates of fasciola spp., from different hosts from china, niger, france, the united states of america, and spain; and their phylogenetic relationships were re-constructed. intra-species sequence variations were 0.0-1.1% for pcox1, 0.0-2.7% for pnad4, and 0.0-3.3% for pnad5 for fasciola hepatica; 0.0-1.8% for ...201121524854
pcr-based molecular characterization and insilico analysis of food-borne trematode parasites paragonimus westermani, fasciolopsis buski and fasciola gigantica from northeast india using its2 fluke infections/trematodiases are emerging as a major public health problem worldwide with over 40 million people affected and over 10% of world population at risk of infection. the major concentration of these infections is in southeast asian and western pacific regions, where the epidemiological factors (including the prevalent socio-cultural food habits) are conducive for transmission of these infections. the preponderance of these infections is usually in food deficit poor commun ...201121544167
molecular characterization of fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern iran based on nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola spp. (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. in the endemic regions of the north of iran, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. samples from buffa ...201121440546
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein.fasciola gigantica, causative agent of tropical fasciolosis, inflicts substantial economic losses on the livestock industry, affecting severely buffalo productivity in the tropical countries. very few vaccination trials with different target antigens against f. gigantica infection have been conducted in this host. present study describes a vaccination trial in buffaloes with f. gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein. the two recombinant proteins were expre ...201121750874
resistance to liver fluke infection in the natural sheep host is correlated with a type-1 cytokine response.indonesian thin-tail (itt) sheep can resist infection with fasciola gigantica but not f.-áhepatica and presents an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms of liver fluke resistance in a natural host. this study examines the local and systemic immune responses of sheep during fasciola infection and demonstrates that different anatomical tissues display distinct cytokine profiles consistent with liver fluke migration. the study also reveals a significant difference in the cytokine and antibody p ...201121711360
biliary fasciola gigantica case report from turkey.we present a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis diagnosed and treated via endoscopy and trichlorobendazole treatment. this is the first case of fasciola gigantica treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ercp and drug treatment reported from turkey.201121706928
Development and evaluation of a dipstick assay in diagnosis of human fasciolosis.For the diagnosis of human fasciolosis, a new dipstick assay was developed and its diagnostic efficacy was evaluated in comparison to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory antigen. Sera samples were collected from patients with confirmed fasciolosis and patients with other parasitic diseases as well as from normal healthy individuals. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the dipstick assay as well as ELISA were 100%, 96.7%, and ...201122015473
diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool.this research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of active fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes.201121917183
tegumental alterations of fasciola gigantica due to in vitro treatment with ro-354.triclabendazole is the drug of choice against fasciola infections in humans and animals. however, parasite resistance against triclabendazole is spreading in veterinary field, and there are no drugs of comparable activity currently available for the treatment and control of fascioliasis. the efficacy of a new rhodanine derivative ro-354 against adult fasciola gigantica in vitro was investigated. one hour post incubation, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examination reveal ...201122041747
Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study r ...201122186976
cholangiocarcinoma in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and fascioliasis in endoscopic ultrasonography.fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the zoonoses are particularly endemic in sheep-raising countries and are also endemic in iran. typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by phases of the disease, including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. cholestatic symptoms may be absent, and in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long pe ...201122110417
Evaluation of a 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis. 14.5 kDa FABP was isolated from the crude extract of adult F. gigantica worms by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography and then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing condition. Anti-FABP IgG polyclonal antibody (pAb) was generated in rabbits and pu ...201122113304
development of cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase based dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.native cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase (28 kda) was purified from the excretory secretory products of fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in buffaloes by dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa). the test detected f. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ∼ 90%. no specific igg antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of ...201222055612
in vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke fasciola gigantica.the present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as allium sativum, lawsonia inermis, and opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, oxyclozanide on fasciola gigantica adults. the efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of f. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. based on the in vitro trials conducted us ...201123543611
extra-hepatic fascioliasis with peritoneal malignancy tumor feature.fascioliasis is a zoonose parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and is widespread in most regions of the world. ectopic fascioliasis usually caused by juvenile fasciola spp., but in recent years a few cases of tissue-embedded ova have been reported from different endemic areas. a 79-year-old iranian man resident in eird-e-mousa village from ardabil province, north-west of iran, complained with abdominal pain, nausea, and intestinal obstruction symptoms referred to ...201123542770
effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica under laboratory evaluate the effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions.201223569864
[clinical diagnosis and treatment in an outbreak of fasciola gigantica infection in yunnan province].to carry out clinical diagnosis and treatment of fasciola gigantica infection during an outbreak in yunnan province.201223484257
comparative characterization of micrornas from the liver flukes fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica.micrornas (mirnas) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. the present study specifically explored and compared the mirna expression profiles of f. gigantica and f. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time pcr. nineteen and 16 mirna candidates were identified from f. gigantica and f. hepatica, respectively. the two parasites shared 11 mirnas, with 8 also showing similarity to mirnas of schistosoma japonicum. ano ...201223300925
[acute fasciolosis: a cuban case report].fasciolosis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fasciolosis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica but, in cuba, only f. hepatica has been notified. as others neglected diseases, f. hepatica is more common in people living in rural areas where infected animals, intermediate hosts and susceptible hosts coexist. we describe the clinical features of a case that could contribute to the process of continuing medical education of health profess ...201223282500
antigenic components, isolation and partial characterization of excretion-secretion fraction of paramphistomum cervi.the immunogenic components of adult paramphistomum cervi excretion-secretion (es) fraction were revealed by sds-page and immunoblotting technique using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. cervi, fasciola gigantica, strongylids, trichuris sp., and strongyloides sp. by sds-page, it was found that the es fraction comprised 13 distinct protein bands. immunoblotting analysis of these proteins exhibited nine prominent antigenic bands which were recognized by paramphistomosis antisera. these an ...201223266486
a prospective view of animal and human fasciolosis.fasciolosis, a food-borne trematodiasis, results following infection with the parasites, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. these trematodes greatly affect the global agricultural community, infecting millions of ruminants worldwide and causing annual economic losses in excess of us $3 billion. fasciolosis, an important zoonosis, is classified by who as a neglected tropical disease with an estimated 17 million people infected and a further 180 million people at risk of infection. the sign ...201627314903
molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica from mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. from africa, f. gigantica has been previously characterized from burkina faso, senegal, kenya, zambia and mali, while f. hepatica has been reported from morocco and tunisia, and both species have been observed from ethiopia and egypt on the basis of morphometric dif ...201121763690
protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. cysteine proteinases (cp) released by fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. there has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. multiple doses (2 mg of cp in fre ...201222451733
fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) as a prophylactic agent against schistosoma mansoni infection in cd1 mice.although schistosomicidal drugs and other control measures exist, the advent of an efficacious vaccine remains the most potentially powerful means for controlling this disease. in this study, native fatty acid binding protein (fabp) from fasciola gigantica was purified from the adult worm's crude extract by saturation with ammonium sulphate followed by separation on deae-sephadex a-50 anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration using sephacryl hr-100, respectively. cd1 mice were immunized w ...201222451732
immunodetection of fasciola gigantica circulating antigen in sera of infected individuals for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis.currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. here, a 27-kda-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a fasciola giganti ...201323945158
complete mitochondrial genomes of the 'intermediate form' of fasciola and fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with f. hepatica.fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus fasciola. fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear.201424685294
genetic characterization of fasciola gigantica from different geographical regions of india by ribosomal dna markers.ribosomal dna sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) and 28s ribosomal dna (618 bp) of fasciola gigantica collected from cattle and buffaloes from four different geographical locations of india, were characterized for genotyping. its-2 sequence was analyzed in 28 worms that was typical of f. gigantica and differed at six positions, with one of these being a distinguishing deletion (t) at the 327th position in f. gigantica relative to f. hepatica. however, fasciola specimens ...201325698855
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica (rfgcatl1) were produced in vitro by fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with rfgcatl1 and mouse myeloma cells. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were evaluated by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. seven moab clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1e10, 1f5, 3d11, 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e7. clones 1e10, 1f5 and 3d11 were igm, whereas clones 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e ...201424736227
molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun bos frontalis from north-east india.helminth infections in the mithun bos frontalis, including the liver fluke fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes explanatum explanatum, paramphistomum epiclitum and calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes echinococcus granulosus and e. ortleppi were studied in north-east india over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. cystic echinococcosis caused by e. granulosus and e. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with e. ortleppi being reported for the first time. molecul ...201626343353
[cloning, expression and immunodiagnostic evaluation of the fasciola gigantica thioredoxin peroxidase].to immunoscreen the gene encoding thioredoxin peroxidase (tpx) from a cdna library made from adult fasciola gigantica worms, clone and express the gene, and evaluate the immunodiagnostic value of tpx recombinant protein.201526245114
mitochondrial genome of hypoderaeum conoideum - comparison with selected trematodes.hypoderaeum conoideum is a neglected but important trematode. the life cycle of this parasite is complex: snails serve as the first intermediate hosts: bivalves, fishes or tadpoles serve as the second intermediate hosts, and poultry (such as chickens and ducks) act as definitive hosts. in recent years, h. conoideum has caused significant economic losses to the poultry industry in some asian countries. despite its importance, little is known about the molecular ecology and population genetics of ...201525889473
specific diagnosis of opisthorchis viverrini using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) targeting parasite microsatellites.opisthorchis viverrini and other food-borne trematode infections are major health problems in thailand, the lao people's democratic republic, vietnam and cambodia. differential diagnosis of o. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) has been widely used for detection and identification of trematode for its simple method that is usef ...201525268466
first insight into cd59-like molecules of adult fasciola hepatica.the present study focussed on investigating cd59-like molecules of fasciola hepatica. a cdna encoding a cd59-like protein (termed fhcd59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the f. hepatica tegument was isolated. this homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (orf) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human cd59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved cd59/ly-6 family motif "ccxxxxcn". an analysis of cdnas from tw ...201424955521
trematode infections: liver and lung trematodiases are an emerging public health problem in southeast asia and latin america and of growing importance for travel clinics in europe and north america. the disease is caused by chronic infections with liver, lung, and intestinal flukes. this article focuses on the most important liver and lung flukes that parasitize man, namely clonorchis sinensis, fasciola gigantica, fasciola hepatica, opisthorchis felineus, opisthorchis viverrini, and paragonimus spp. the article describes ...201222632646
development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini (opisthorchiidae; trematoda; platyhelminthes).mitochondrial dna sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-lamp) because multiple copies occur in every cell. four lamp primers [f3, fip(f1c+f2), bip(b1c+b2), and b3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-ovlamp) to distinguish dna of o. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes ...201222322346
survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in west java, evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in indonesia have never been performed.201424507639
thiosulphate: cyanide sulphur transferase activity in some species of helminth parasites.investigation on the characteristic pattern of enzymes in various organisms may be of particular importance, as this type of information can help to understand certain physiological and biochemical processes in living organisms. thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) is a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme, which its major function is generally believed to be in cyanide detoxification. the present study was conducted to determine the activity of this enzyme in some parasitic helminths ...201424808648
update on trematode infections in sheep.trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke fasciola hepatica. hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are fasciola ...201222521973
cross-sectional study of fasciola gigantica and other trematode infections of cattle in edu local government area, kwara state, north-central nigeria.trematode infections of livestock are of global veterinary and public health importance causing serious economic losses. majority of data on burden of trematode infections in nigeria are based on abattoir surveys and there are very few data on herd level risk factors. the present study investigated the prevalence of, and herd level risk factors for, fasciolosis and other trematode infections in cattle in edu local government area (lga).201627565768
development and evaluation of real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cystic echinococcosis.cystic echinococcosis (ce) or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus (eg)-complex, is a neglected parasitic disease of public health importance. the disease is endemic in many african and mediterranean countries including the sudan. the objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for simple and rapid detection of ce in humans and domestic live stock in sudan.201627619674
a singleplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr with melting curve analysis for the differential detection of paragonimus heterotremus, echinostoma malayanum and fasciola gigantica eggs in faeces.because the eggs of paragonimus, echinostoma and fasciola are very similar in size and shape, it is difficult to distinguish and accurately identify species by the morphology of their eggs, which is a standard diagnostic method.201626740365
characterization and vaccine potential of fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (sap-1).the recombinant fasciola gigantica saposin-like protien-1 (rfgsap-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from nej cdna, expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rfgsap-1). by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit igg anti-rfgsap-1 reacted with rfgsap-1 at a molecular weight 12kda, but not with rfgsap-2. the rfgsap-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with f. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and ...201728043381
microsatellite analysis of fasciola spp. in egypt.recently, the topic of diversity in fasciola population in egypt is controversial. the present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in egypt. control samples of fasciola hepatica from france as well as fasciola gigantica from cameroon were included in the study. collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four micro ...201121744021
cytosolic superoxide dismutase can provide protection against fasciola gigantica.superoxide dismutases (sod), antioxidant metallo-enzymes, are a part of the first line of defense in the trematode parasites which act as the chief scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ros). a recombinant fasciola gigantica cytosolic sod (fgsod) was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) and used for immunizing rabbits to obtain polyclonal antibodies (anti-rfgsod). this rabbit anti-rfgsod reacted with the native fgsod at a molecular weight of 17.5kda. the fgsod protein was expressed at high ...201627338185
vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsinl1g against fasciola gigantica in this study, we characterized and investigated the vaccine potential of fgcatl1g against fasciola gigantica infection in mice. recombinant mature fgcatl1g (rmfgcatl1g) was expressed in escherichia coli bl21. the vaccination was performed in imprinting control region (icr) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rmfgcatl1g combined with freund's adjuvant. two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by the oral route. the percents of protection of rmfgca ...201627514897
vaccine potential of recombinant pro- and mature cathepsinl1 against fasciolosis gigantica in fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 (catl1) is a family of predominant proteases that is expressed in caecal epithelial cells and secreted into the excretory-secretory products (es). catl1 isotypes are expressed in both early and late stages of the life cycle and the parasites use them for migration and digestion. therefore, catl1 is a plausible target for vaccination against this parasite. recombinant pro-f.gigantica catl1 (rprofgcatl1) and recombinant mature f.gigantica catl1 (rmatfgcatl1) were ...201526116785
molecular cloning and characterization of fasciola gigantica thioredoxin-glutathione reductase.the fasciola gigantica thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (fgtgr) gene is a fusion between thioredoxin reductase (tr) and a glutaredoxin (grx) gene. fgtgr was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from adult complementary dna (cdna), and its sequences showed two isoforms, i.e., the cytosolic and mitochondrial fgtgr. cytosolic fgtgr (cytfgtgr) was composed of 2370 bp, and its peptide had no signal sequence and hence was not a secreted protein. mitochondrial fgtgr (mitfgtgr) was composed of 250 ...201525782678
anthelmintic activity of chlorophyllin against different larval stages of fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode fasciola. freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (fcu) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of f. gigantica. the larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. toxicit ...201627253741
isolation and characterization of cu/zn-superoxide dismutase in fasciola gigantica.a full-length complementary dna (cdna) encoding cu/zn-superoxide dismutase was isolated from fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with cu/zn-superoxide dismutase (sod) of the temperate liver fluke, f. hepatica. expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and at the protein l ...201525655406
identification and expression of fasciola gigantica the present study, a cdna encoding trx from f. gigantica (fgtrx) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the sequence of fgtrx, analyzed by blast, signalp, and clustralw programs, showed 315 bp of an open reading frame (orf), 12 bp 5'utr, 78 bp 3'utr, and the putative fgtrx peptide comprising of 104 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 11.68 kda, with the active site containing five amino acids (tryptophan, cysteine, glycine, proline, cysteine) with a conserved dithiol motif from th ...201424718754
a 170kda multi-domain cystatin of fasciola gigantica is active in the male reproductive system.cystatins are functional as intra- and extracellular inhibitors of cysteine proteases and are expressed as single or multi-domain proteins. we have previously described two single domain type 1 cystatins in the trematode fasciola gigantica that are released into the parasite's intestinal tract and exhibit inhibitory activity against endogenous and host cathepsin l and b proteases. in contrast, the here presented 170kda multi-domain cystatin (fgmdc) comprises signal peptide and 12 tandem repeated ...201425176159
immunization with recombinant leucine aminopeptidase showed protection against fasciola gigantica in mice.leucine aminopeptidase (lap) is expressed in all stages of fasciola gigantica and, hence, is considered as a potential vaccine candidate. in this study, we have tested a vaccine potential of lap and the types of immune responses it elicited in vaccinated mice. recombinant f. gigantica leucine aminopeptidase (rfglap) was expressed in escherichia coli, bl21 (de3). the imprinting control region mice subcutaneously immunized with 50 μg of rfglap combined with freund's adjuvant (n = 10) exhibited a s ...201323917327
fhcabp3: a fasciola hepatica calcium binding protein with ef-hand and dynein light chain domains.a dna sequence encoding a protein with predicted ef-hand and dynein light chain binding domains was identified in a fasciola hepatica est library. sequence analysis of the encoded protein revealed that the most similar known protein was the fasciola gigantica protein fgcabp3 and so this newly identified protein was named fhcabp3. molecular modelling of fhcabp3 predicted a highly flexible n-terminal region, followed by a domain containing two ef-hand motifs the second of which is likely to be a f ...201323142130
antigenic profile, isolation and characterization of whole body extract of paramphistomum antigenic component of adult paramphistomum gracile was characterized by means of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect elisa), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. gracile, eurytrema pancreaticum, fasciola gigantica, moniezia benedeni, strongylids, trichuris sp. and strongyloides sp. the whole body (wb) extracts of p. gracile were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography ...201627135198
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