serological changes in goats experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica in buea sub-division of s.w.p. cameroon.based on the recent increase in the rearing of west african dwarf (wad) goats in this environment, a study of biochemical parameters was carried out in healthy and infected goats to obtain baseline data for monitoring the health and productive indices in breeding programmes for the goats. the results revealed variations in some of the parameters studied. the serum minerals potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate did not show any significant differences (p>0.05) between the infected and control group ...200515978727
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant fatty acid binding protein.recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rfabp) of fasciola gigantica was expressed in escherichia coli and used as vaccine in freund's adjuvant to evaluate the level of protection induced in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves. fifteen buffalo calves were distributed to three groups of five calves each. an antigen dose of 400 mug for each of the three immunizations at 3-week intervals, and a challenge dose of 600 metacercariae was administered per calf. levels of anti-fabp antibodies increased rapi ...200515986249
proteases in egg, miracidium and adult of fasciola gigantica. characterization of serine and cysteine proteases from adult.proteolytic activity of 0-12 day old eggs, miracidium and adult worm of fasciola gigantica was assessed and proteases were partially purified by deae-sepharose and cm-cellulose columns. four forms of protease were separated, pia, pib, pic and pii. purifications were completed for pic and pii using sephacryl s-200 chromatography. a number of natural and synthetic proteins were tested as substrates for f. gigantica pic and pii. the two proteases had moderate activity levels toward azoalbumin and c ...200516102991
humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes.humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes were studied. the results showed that 33.4+/-9.1% of the infection dose was recovered as adult flukes from infected animals at necropsy. significant differences of weight gain between infected and non-infected buffaloes was observed at 4 mpi (months post-infection). anti f. gigantica excretory-secretory products (fgesp)-igg levels increased significantly from 3 wpi (weeks post-infection) and displayed ...200616143354
cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in iringa district, tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and flukes (fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of gi nematodes and flukes. the preval ...200616362610
prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with fasciola gigantica infections in zambian cattle from communal grazing estimate prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with bovine fasciola gigantica infections in zambia, 709 faeces of cattle presented for slaughter from three major cattle rearing areas of central, southern and western provinces were analysed. the prevalence rate of amphistomes was 51.6%. egg counts per gram (epg) of faeces ranged from 0 to 385 with a mean (+/- sem) of 11.96 +/- 1.07. the origin of the cattle had a significant influence (p < 0.001) on the prevalence rate. fasciola gig ...200616469175
the saposin-like proteins 1, 2, and 3 of fasciola gigantica.the sap genes of fasciola encode proteins belonging to the saposin-like protein family. the saposin signature, a compact domain of mainly alpha-helical character, contains six conserved cysteine residues and has been implicated in membrane-binding, pore formation, and subsequent cell lysis in several family members. recombinant sap-2 of f. hepatica has been shown to induce lysis of human erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this suggests that the saps are involved in the nutritio ...200616626816
effect of fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen on rat hematological indices.the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen (fg-esa) on rat hematological indices. fg-esa was prepared by keeping thoroughly washed 40 f. gigantica flukes in 100 ml phosphate buffer saline (pbs) for 2 h at 37 degrees c, and centrifuging the supernatant at 12,000 g at 4 degrees c for 30 min. the protein content of fg-esa was adjusted to 1.8 mg/ml. the rats were randomly divided into two groups of six rats each. rats in group a recei ...200616645335
immuno-diagnosis of bubaline fasciolosis with fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l and recombinant cathepsin l 1-d proteases.fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase and recombinant cathepsin l 1-d were assessed for their potential in the immuno-diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in buffaloes. a diagnostic elisa, based on these two antigens, was developed to detect antibodies against f. gigantica in water buffaloes. sensitivity of the elisa was assessed using sera from buffaloes experimentally or naturally infected with f. gigantica from f. gigantica endemic areas and its specificity by probing the sera of ...200616647680
epidemiological studies of fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of zimbabwe.during the period between january 1999 and december 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the clim ...200616715877
effect of fasciola gigantica infection on adrenal and thyroid glands of riverine buffaloes.effect of fasciola gigantica infection on adrenal and thyroid glands was investigated using eight male, yearling murrah buffaloes. the animals were randomly assigned to two groups of four buffaloes each (group-a, infected; group-b, non-infected control). animals of group-a were orally infected with 1000 f. gigantica viable metacercariae, keeping other four animals of group-b as uninfected control. in the infected buffaloes, the clinical signs began appearing from 7th week postinfection (p.i.) an ...200716797621
serum antibody isotype responses of fasciola-infected sheep and cattle to excretory and secretory products of fasciola species.this study investigated the immunoglobulin isotype responses of sheep and cattle chronically infected with fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica to adult f. hepatica excretory/secretory products (fh-es) or f. gigantica excretory/secretory products (fg-es), respectively. an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ab-elisa) was used to determine serum antibody (total ig, igg(1), igm, igg(2) and iga) responses. at necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was lower in cattle than in shee ...200616797844
biological control of fasciola gigantica with echinostoma revolutum.a field trial was carried out in west java to investigate the potential for control of fasciolosis of antagonism between larvae of fasciola gigantica and echinostoma revolutum in lymnaea rubiginosa. the trial was undertaken in 26 farmers' irrigated rice fields, each chosen because it was adjacent to a cattle pen the effluent from which flowed into or was used as fertiliser in the rice field. fourteen of the fields chosen at random were retained as controls and received no treatment while in 12, ...200616854529
opisthorchis viverrini: identification of a glycine-tyrosine rich eggshell protein and its potential as a diagnostic tool for human opisthorchiasis.a cdna encoding a novel eggshell protein (ovesp) with high-glycine (49.2%) and -tyrosine (27.8%) content was cloned from the human liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini. in the adult parasite, the rna products of the ovesp gene are limited to the vitelline follicles. they have a size of 800 nucleotides and are already present in 2-week-old juveniles. immune sera of hamsters, experimentally infected, and humans, naturally infected with o. viverrini, detect bacterially expressed recombinant ovesp (ro ...200616876169
phenotypic analysis of adults of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and intermediate forms from the endemic region of gilan, iran.fascioliasis is an important human and animal disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. in iran, the distribution of these two species overlaps in most areas, including the northern human endemic province of gilan where both fasciolids are simultaneously found in individual cattle and buffaloes. a phenotypic study of fasciolid adult flukes from naturally infected bovines from gilan was carried out by means of an exhaustive morphometric analysis using traditional microscopic mea ...200616901748
the relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with fasciola gigantica.the association between visual hepatic damage, burden of fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (ggt) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gldh) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the philippines. in another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of f. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. the degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of f. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of ggt and gldh. red blood ...200616923272
molluscicidal activities of aqueous extract of the sea anemone parasicyonis actinostoloides against vector snails bulinus truncatus and lymnaea natalensis.the aqueous extract of the sea anemone parasicyonis actinostoloides showed molluscicidal effect against vector snails of schistosoma hacematobium and fasciola gigantica after 24 hours of exposure. lc50) and lc90 values for p. actinostoloides were 40 & 78.6 ppm for b. runcatus and 46.6 & 86.5 ppm for l. natalensis respectively. the effect of continuously exposure of b. truncatits and l. naltlensis to sublethal aqueous extract concentrations (lc0, lc10 & lc25) on survival rate, egg production and ...200616927866
impact of various salts on biology, physiology and tissue soluble proteins (sds-page) of lymnaea natalensis and their infection with fasciola gigantica miracidia.the effect of sublethal concentrations of magnesium sulphate (mgso4), sodium chloride (nacl), potassium chloride (kcl), calcium sulphate (caso4) and sodium carbonate (na2co3) on survival, fecundity, lymnaea natalensis infection with fasciola gigantica miracidia and the activities of certain enzymes in tissue homogenate of these snails were evaluated. tissue soluble proteins of the snails were analyzed by sds-page. the results indicated that na2co3 was more toxic to l. natalensis than the other s ...200616927867
molecular and immunological characterization of encoding gene and 14-3-3 protein 1 in fasciola gigantica.a cdna encoding fg14-3-3 protein 1 was cloned by immunoscreening of an adult-stage fasciola gigantica cdna library using a rabbit antiserum against tegumental antigens of the parasite. the protein has a deduced amino acid sequence of 252 residues and a calculated molecular weight of 28.7 kda. it shows sequence identity values between 57.6 and 58.1% to the human 14-3-3 beta, zeta, theta, and eta proteins and is in a phylogenetic cluster with the 14-3-3 protein 1 of schistosoma spp. nucleic acid a ...200616938151
classification of the parenchymal cells in fasciola gigantica based on ultrastructure and their expression of fatty acid binding proteins (fabps).parenchymal cells in adult fasciola gigantica can be classified into three types based on their ultrastructural features and different quantities of fatty acid binding protein (fabp) being stored. parenchymal cell type 1 (pc1) has pale cytoplasm consisting largely of a loose network of fine fibers, and it contains few mitochondria but numerous glycogen particles. this cell type may be specialized in the storage and metabolism of glycogen and glucose. parenchymal cell type 2 (pc2) has similar cyt ...200616973288
prepatent detection of fasciola gigantica infection in bovine calves using metacercarial antigen.metacercarial antigen of fasciola gigantica was evaluated for early immunodiagnosis of experimental bovine fasciolosis using elisa and western blot. in elisa, the experimental f. gigantica infection was detected as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi). the gradual increasing trend of antibody level was observed from 2 to 7 wpi, followed by a plateau, which was maintained up to 14 wpi. in western blot, sera from experimentally infected calves recognized one distinct polypeptide of 21 kda in frac ...200616999031
the serum glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in sheep with experimental fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica infection.the influence of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica infection on serum glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-hob) in sheep was evaluated. this was done by setting up two groups of sheep. the first group (n=13) was split in two sub-groups, one experimentally infected with f. hepatica (n=9) and the other (n=4) as uninfected control. a second group consisting of a sub-group experimentally infected with f. gigantica (n=9) the other sub-group (n=6) left as uninfected control was also set up. t ...200717011709
validation of a geographic information system model for mapping the risk of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes in cambodia.maps showing gradations of risk of fasciolosis due to fasciola gigantica in cambodia were produced using geographic information systems (gis) technology in conjunction with determinants of fasciolosis. a comparison between levels of risk predicted by the maps and field measurements of prevalence in 11 provinces (n=1406) showed general agreement, which suggested the epidemiological determinants and weightings used to produce the maps were appropriate. however, due to logistical constraints, preva ...200717045401
host responses during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica or fasciola hepatica in merino sheep i. comparative immunological and plasma biochemical changes during early infection.this study reports the early biochemical changes in plasma, comparative host-immune responses and parasite recovery data in merino sheep during the first 10 weeks of infection with fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica. one group of sheep were uninfected, four groups of sheep received incremental challenge doses of f. gigantica metacercariae (50, 125, 225 and 400, respectively) and the sixth group was challenged with 250 f. hepatica metacercariae. at 10 weeks post infection (wpi), sheep chall ...200717069976
distribution of 28.5 kda antigen in the tegument of adult fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibody (moab) specific to 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (ta) was used to localize this antigen in various tissues of adult fasciola gigantica by means of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques. the indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase detections revealed that this antigen was concentrated in the tegument particularly in its outer rim, tegumental cells and their processes, epithelial linings of the oral sucker and the proximal part of digest ...200617078917
a case of human fasciolosis: discrepancy between egg size and genotype of fasciola human fasciolosis, differential diagnosis of the causative flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, is problematic. we report a rare case of human fasciolosis in which an adult worm was recovered from the bile duct of a japanese man. morphometric data of the worm were consistent with those of f. hepatica, whereas the size of eggs in the stool indicated infection with f. gigantica. nucleotide sequences of its-1 and -2 and co1 genes of the dna extracted from the eggs revealed that the ...200717102984
an in vitro effect of propolis on adult worms of fasciola gigantica.the effect of siwa propolis on adult flukes was evaluated using scanning electron microcopy. it gave an overview of the surface architecture of the tegument of fasciola gigantica apical cone. the base of the spines appeared to be "flaking off" and showed severe blebbing after 24h incubation with 10 micro/ml propolis. this swelling became so sever and the spines were barely visible, on increasing the concentration to 20 micro/ml. besides, there were many large blebs on the apical cone, a number o ...200717113712
molecular confirmation that fasciola gigantica can undertake aberrant migrations in human hosts.two cases of aberrant migration by the liver fluke fasciola gigantica in humans are reported. in both cases, subadult worms emerged through the skin. the identity of the worms was confirmed from their dna sequences. this uncommon human pathogen might be more likely than f. hepatica to undertake aberrant migrations in humans.200717135435
effect of non target snails on some biological of lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to fasciola gigantica.the influence of non-target freshwater snails (melanoides tuberculata and planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of fasciola egg production f. gigantica miracidia to infect lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against l. natalensis. the mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. the egg production and growth rate were negatively affected ...200617153707
the effect of temperature and humidity on longevity of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.studies were undertaken on the viability of the metacercariae of fasciola gigantica when stored in water at 13 degrees c for periods up to 23 weeks, exposed to the sunlight for up to 8 h or stored at a range of temperatures and humidities for up to 10 weeks. excysted metacercariae were catergorized microscopically as viable (motile and undamaged), dubious (not motile and undamaged) or dead (visible necrosis). the infectivity of viable and dubious metacercariae and unselected reference metacercar ...200617165607
variations in the survival of fasciola gigantica eggs in bovine dung stored in the sun as opposed to the shade.eggs of f. gigantica were placed in dung heaps that were located in the shade or exposed to sun light, and examined at intervals for up to 14 weeks. the rate and extent of decline in viability of eggs was greater in dung exposed to sun light than in shaded dung. this difference was attributed the higher temperature in dung in sun light, owing to the effect of direct sunlight and to a higher rate of fermentation in exposed than in shaded dung. it was concluded that strategies for storing dung tha ...200617165608
optimization of the procedure for counting the eggs of fasciola gigantica in bovine faeces.this paper describes a method for counting eggs of f. gigantica in bovine faeces that optimizes the proportion of eggs recovered and the repeatability of estimates. the method uses 3 g of faeces suspended in 0.05% tween 20. the suspension is passed through three 6 cm diameter sieves in tandem to remove fibrous debris, with respective apertures of 1 mm, 450 microm, and either 266 or 200 microm. the filtrate is allowed to sediment for 3 min in a conical flask; the sediment is recovered, then resus ...200617165609
peritoneal lavage cells of indonesian thin-tail sheep mediate antibody-dependent superoxide radical cytotoxicity in vitro against newly excysted juvenile fasciola gigantica but not juvenile fasciola hepatica.indonesian thin-tail (itt) sheep resist infection by fasciola gigantica by an immunological mechanism within 2 to 4 weeks of infection yet are susceptible to f. hepatica infection. studies of itt sheep show that little liver damage occurs following f. gigantica infection, suggesting that the invading parasites are killed within the peritoneum or shortly after reaching the liver. we investigated whether cells isolated from the peritoneums of itt sheep could kill newly excysted juvenile f. giganti ...200717210661
endoscopic removal of one live biliary fasciola gigantica.biliary fascioliasis was diagnosed in a woman from angthong province, who presented herself with anorexia, weight loss, and jaundice for one month. intraoperative retrograded cholangiopancreatography revealed a filling defect considered as a stone and bile sludge. by the sphincterotomy and balloon-extraction technique, one live fluke was removed and identified as fasciola gigantica. a single dose of praziquantel, 25 mg/kg of body weight/day, was given although the postoperative stool examination ...200617214071
experimental infection of rabbits with fasciola gigantica and treatment with triclabendazole (tcbz) or bt6: parasitological, haematological and immunological findings.the responses of rabbits experimentally infected orally with 25 fasciola gigantica metacercariae each, to treatment with triclabendazole (tcbz) in a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight or with the newly synthesized drug (bt6) in repeated oral doses of 500 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days, were monitored by faecal egg and fluke counts and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), both treatments at 4-, 8- and 12- weeks of infection. in all infected rabbits, eggs appeared in the faeces betwe ...200117216940
the prevalence and economic significance of fasciola gigantica and stilesia hepatica in slaughtered animals in the semi-arid coastal kenya.fasciola gigantica and stilesia hepatica constrain ruminant productivity. the prevalence and economic losses caused by f. gigantica and s. hepatica in the ruminant production systems of taveta division of kenya were estimated in a retrospective appraisal of the slaughter records on the total number of animals slaughtered and livers condemned over the period 1989 to 2004. only liver condemnations based on infestation by f. gigantica and s. hepatica were considered for purposes of this study. live ...200617243475
vaccines against the zoonotic trematodes schistosoma japonicum, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.schistosoma japonicum, fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are digenetic trematodes and, therefore, possess similar life cycles. while schistosomiasis japonica has for a long time been recognised as a major disease of both humans and animals, infection with fasciolids has only been considered of relevance to animals. however, a number of recent reports indicate that fasciolosis is becoming a serious public health problem, especially in south america, egypt and iran (sporadic cases are also on the ...200617274848
comparative fluke burden and pathology in condemned and non-condemned cattle livers from selected abattoirs in zambia.after dissecting 70 condemned and 32 non-condemned cattle livers collected from lusaka, chisamba, mongu and senanga abattoirs and turnpike slaughter slab, significantly higher numbers of liver flukes (fasciola gigantica) (p < 0.001) were found in the condemned livers (mean +/- sd = 100.6 +/- 16.7) than in the non-condemned livers (mean +/- sd = 0.7 +/- 0.5). liver flukes found in 9.4% of the non-condemned livers suggest that abattoir records of liver inspection may underestimate f. gigantica inf ...200617283728
seasonal differences in the incidence of infection with fasciola gigantica in cambodian cattle.farmer's cattle were treated with triclabendazole and used as tracer animals to detect new infections with fasciola gigantica in three villages located on the bank of the bassac river (a major tributary of the mekong river) and in a fourth village located on farmland away from the river, from april 1999 until january 2001. the month of infection was estimated by subtracting 4 months from the date when eggs of f. gigantica were detected in faeces. farmers were interviewed each month to record the ...200617405625
host differences in response to trickle infection with fasciola gigantica in buffalo, ongole and bali weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (bubalis bubalis), 7 ongole (bos indicus) and four bali calves (bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 ongole calves and 3 bali calves maintained fluke- ...200617405628
fasciola gigantica cathepsin l proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.sheep fasciolosis is a devastating burden for the livestock industry. we herein report on immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis, and significant protection of sheep against challenge infection with fasciola gigantica following immunization with a peptide based on the h-asp(110)-lys-ile-asp-trp-arg-glu-ser-gly-tyr-val-thr-glu-val(123)-oh (fas14p) sequence of f. gigantica cathepsin l-cysteine proteinase. this sequence was synthesized in three different forms: as n(alpha) acetylated (ac-asp(110)-lys-ile-a ...200817549696
charge modification at conserved positively charged residues of fatty acid binding protein (fabp) from the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica: its effect on oligomerization and binding properties.fatty acid binding proteins (fabps) are capable of binding hydrophobic ligands with high affinity; thereby facilitating the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of fatty acids. in this study, functional characteristics of a cytoplasmic fabp from the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica (fgfabp) were determined. binding of a fluorescent fatty acid analogue 11-[[5-dimethy aminonaphtalene-1-sulphonyl] amino] undecanoic acid (dauda) to fgfabp resulted in changes in the emission spectrum. th ...200717594059
characterization of fasciola samples from different host species and geographical localities in spain by sequences of internal transcribed spacers of the present study, 25 samples representing fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from nine host species and 19 geographical locations in spain were characterized genetically by sequences of the first (its-1) and second (its-2) internal transcribed spacers (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from individual liver flukes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the amplicons were sequenced directly. the lengths of the its-1 and its-2 sequences were 422 and ...200717610081
fasciola gigantica: enzymes of the ornithine-proline-glutamate pathway--characterization of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.ornithine aminotransferase (oat), proline oxidase (po), delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (p5cr), and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (p5cd) were assessed in fasciola gigantica. all enzymes are involved in the conversion of ornithine into glutamate and proline. high levels of p5cd suggest that the direction of the metabolic flow from ornithine is more toward glutamate than proline. f. gigantica p5cd1 and p5cd2 were separated from the majority of contaminating proteins in cr ...200817655846
abattoir study on fasciola gigantica in cambodian cattle. 200617682595
distribution of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica on rice straw. 200617682596
evaluation of immunoglobulin g4 subclass antibody in a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.summaryto improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by fasciola gigantica, we developed a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (peptide-based elisa) based on the detection of specific igg4 subclass antibody. two identified b-cell epitopes of f. gigantica cathepsin l1 were synthesized as single synthetic peptides, acetyl-dkidwresgyvtelkdqgnc-carboxamide (peptide l) and acetyl-dkidwresgyvtevkdqgnc-carboxamide (peptide v), and their diagnostic potential was evaluated. the sera o ...200717714604
comparative molecular analysis of two asparaginyl endopeptidases and encoding genes from fasciola this study we describe the first cysteine proteinases of the merops clan cd family c13 in fasciola gigantica. family c13 contains asparaginyl endopeptidases and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor transamidases and is also called the legumain family due to the discovery of the first asparaginyl endopeptidase in a legume. the cdnas encoding two asparaginyl endopeptidases, fglgmn-1 and fglgmn-2, were cloned and used for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein properties. the deduced amino acid ...200717714804
paramphistomum cervi: antigenic profile of adults as recognized by infected cattle antigenic profile of adult paramphistomum cervi was revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. cervi, fasciola gigantica and strongylids. sds-page of whole worm extracts exhibited 26 distinct protein bands. immunoblotting analysis of these proteins showed five major antigenic bands which were recognized by serum of individual cattle naturally infected with p. cervi. these antigenic prot ...200817892871
fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory products for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.excretory-secretory products (esp) products of ex vivo fasciola gigantica adult worms were used for immunodiagnosis of sheep experimental infection with f. gigantica and natural infection with fasciola spp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blotting. specific igg antibody binding to native or denatured esp was detected as early as 2 weeks after experimental sheep infection with 100 or 200 metacercariae. no specific igg antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 1 ...200717897786
the surface ultrastructure of the egyptian liver fluke fasciola gigantica.scanning electron microscopy (sem) of adult fasciola gigantica, a known liver fluke in egypt, shows the presence of tegumental spines and folds giving the appearance of a rough surface. the spines are small and closely-spaced anteriorly, increasing in size and number on the in the mid-lateral aspect of the ventral surface. towards the posterior end the spines progressively decrease in both size and number. tegumental transverse folds or invaginations are interspaced between the spines. there are ...200717985594
first phenotypic description of fasciola hepatica/fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the nile delta, egypt.fasciola gigantica is the main fasciolid species in africa; however, f. hepatica and f. gigantica overlap in some countries. egypt deserves mentioning because of the emerging situation of human fascioliasis in the nile delta area. the morphometric characteristics of fasciolid adults infecting the main livestock species present in the nile delta human endemic area are analyzed through a computer image analysis system (cias) on the basis of standardized measurements known to be useful for the diff ...200818006385
human fascioliasis and the presence of hybrid/introgressed forms of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in vietnam.the two species common of liver fluke, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, cause human fascioliasis. hybrids between these species, and introgressed forms of fasciola, are known from temperate and subtropical regions of eastern asia. here, we report the presence of hybrid and/or introgressed liver flukes in vietnam where it has recently been recognised that human fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease. specimens examined came from domestic stock (cattle and buffalo) at slaughter and ...200818031748
effects of fasciola gigantica experimental infection on some inorganic elements in the snail host lymnaea natalensis.flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration in the concentrations of metallic ion pb, zn, k, na, fe, cu and co in the soft parts of the lymnaea natalensis snails shedding fasciola gigantica cercariae and to determine the alteration in the concentration of ca in the soft parts and shells of the same snails. the co was found to be present at concentration level below the detection limits of the analytical method used. regarding detected elements, three elements z ...200818053991
genetic characterisation of fasciola samples from different host species and geographical localities revealed the existence of f. hepatica and f. gigantica in the present study, 16 samples representing fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from sheep and cattle from seven geographical locations in niger were characterized genetically by sequences of the first (its-1) and second (its-2) internal transcribed spacers (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from individual liver flukes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the amplicons were sequenced directly. the lengths of the its-1 and its-2 sequences were 422 a ...200818183422
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: cloning and characterisation of 70 kda heat-shock proteins reveals variation in hsp70 gene expression between parasite species recovered from sheep.fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica are trematode parasites responsible for fasciolosis, a disease of ruminant animals which is also increasingly recognised as a disease in humans. by biochemical and in silico methods, we have cloned and characterised the 70 kda heat-shock proteins (hsp70s) of f. hepatica and f. gigantica. the nucleotide and protein sequences for hsp70 were found to be 98% and 99% identical between liver fluke species, respectively, and to encode conserved amino acid motifs ...200818190913
interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 expression during fasciola gigantica primary infection in crossbred bovine calves as determined by real -time pcr.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and interleukin-4 (il-4) expression in crossbred (bos taurusxbos indicus) bovine calves during primary infection with fasciola gigantica was measured. ten crossbred calves of 1-year age were divided into two groups of five calves each, group i uninfected control and group ii calves orally infected with a dose of 1000 metacercariae of f. gigantica. the two cytokines were measured 10, 30 and 75 days post-infection (pi) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) wi ...200818201826
the distribution of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica within southern tanzania--constraints associated with the intermediate east africa, fasciola gigantica is generally the causative agent of fasciolosis but there have been reports of f. hepatica in cattle from highland regions of kenya, ethiopia, uganda and zaire. the topography of the southern highlands of tanzania provides an environment where the climatic conditions exist for the sustenance of lymnaeid species capable of supporting both fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. theoretically this would allow interaction between fasciolid species and the possible cre ...200818205983
fasciola gigantica: evaluation of the effect of phenyl vinyl sulfone in vitro.phenyl vinyl sulfone is a synthetic inhibitor of cysteine protease and has antihelminthic and antiprotozoal properties. phenyl vinyl sulfone was assayed in vitro for antifasciola activity against adult fasciola gigantica worms using a well-established culture medium. worms were treated with phenyl vinyl sulfone for incubation periods ranging from 0 to 12h and its activity was assessed in terms of viability, motility and death of worms. phenyl vinyl sulfone exhibited a minimum effective concentra ...200818291373
biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. this article focuses on primary biliary parasites: ascaris lumbricoides, clonorchis sinensis, opisthorchis viverrini, opisthorchis felineus, dicrocoelium dendriticum, fasciola hepatica, and fasciola gigantica. tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, d ...200818321435
fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mansoni: vaccine potential of recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rfggst26) against infections in mice.recombinant fasciola gigantica glutathione s-transferase (rfggst26) was expressed in escherichia coli. this protein had 86% and 56% sequence identity with 26 kda gst from fasciola hepatica and schistosoma mansoni, respectively. polyclonal antibody raised in icr mice against rfggst26 recognized immunoblotted 26 kda native gsts from f. gigantica and s. mansoni. rfggst26 was used as a vaccine in combination with freund's adjuvant to evaluate the induction of immune responses and protection against ...200818329021
a randomized controlled pilot study of artesunate versus triclabendazole for human fascioliasis in central vietnam.human fascioliasis caused by fasciola hepatica or fasciola gigantica is an increasing global problem. the mainstay of current treatment is triclabendazole, but resistance in animals has been described, and it is not available in many countries. the antimalarial artesunate has an excellent safety profile, and there is increasing evidence of its efficacy against other parasites both in vitro and in vivo. we performed a study to investigate the usefulness of artesunate in symptomatic human fascioli ...200818337331
early detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent an attempt to develop a suitable serological test for early detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes, a group of proteins were isolated from the somatic antigen of the parasite by immunoaffinity chromatography. the process of isolation of the proteins has been standardized and significant level of repeatability was achieved. to test the diagnostic potentiality of the antigens, two serological tests, viz., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and dot enzyme-linked immunosorb ...200818344058
fasciola gigantica: purification and characterization of adenosine deaminase.nucleotidase cascades (apyrase, 5' nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ada) were investigated in the parasitic trematode fasciola gigantica. ada had the highest activity in the nucleotidase cascades. adenosine deaminase was purified from f. gigantica through acetone precipitation and chromatography on cm-cellulose. two forms of enzyme (adai, adaii) were separated. adaii was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on sephacryl s-200. the molecular mass was 29 kda for the native and denatu ...200818436213
screening for indian isolates of egg-parasitic fungi for use in biological control of fascioliasis and amphistomiasis in ruminant livestock.wild isolates of the egg-parasitic fungi paecilomyces lilacinus and verticillium chlamydosporium, obtained from the organic environment of durg, chhattisgarh, india, were subjected to screening for in vitro growth using different media types, range of incubation temperature and ph, and their predatory activity to the eggs of fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle explanatum. maximum growth of p. lilacinus was obtained in corn-meal agar compared to any other media types. the preferred medium for gr ...200818462555
host responses during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica in merino sheep ii. development of a predictive index for fasciola gigantica worm burden.this study reports on the predictive relationship between serological, immunological and pathological responses following experimental inoculation with incremental doses of fasciola gigantica in sheep. fifty, 6-month-old, naive merino wethers were allocated to one of 5 experimental groups, four of which received 50, 125, 225 and 400 metacercariae, respectively, whilst a 5th group acted as non-inoculated control. strong individual correlations were observed between liver score, gldh (glutamate de ...200818468797
expression of atp-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics.atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide spectrum of different substrates. certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. the role of abc proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes increasingly evident. however, studies on abc transporters in helminths have been limited to mdr1 and mrp orthologues. in the pr ...200818543082
elucidation of genetic variability among different isolates of fasciola gigantica (giant liver fluke) using random-amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction.the present communication focuses on molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica isolates derived from cattle, buffalo, and goat using random-amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis to elucidate genetic variability between the three isolates. seventeen random oligonucleotide primers of 10-11 bases with gc content varying from 50-81.8% were used in the study. depending upon the f. gigantica isolate-primer combination, one to five fragments in the range of 32 ...200818626662
molecular identification of the indian liver fluke, fasciola (trematoda: fasciolidae) based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions.the species of liver flukes of the genus fasciola (platyhelminthes: digenea: fasciolidae) are obligate parasitic trematodes residing in the large biliary ducts of herbivorous mammals. while fasciola hepatica has a cosmopolitan distribution, the other major species, i.e., fasciola gigantica is reportedly prevalent in the tropical and subtropical regions of africa and asia. to determine the phylogenic location of fasciola sp. of assam (india) origin based on rdna molecular data, ribosomal its regi ...200818696113
development and application of a fecal antigen diagnostic sandwich elisa for estimating prevalence of fasciola gigantica in cattle in central java, indonesia.the purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of an elisa test to detect fasciola gigantica antigens (coproantigens) in bovine feces, with fecal egg counting and an elisa for detecting anti-f. gigantica antibodies in serum. monoclonal antibodies to cathepsin l were generated and used to capture this antigen in feces of infected cattle. blood, feces, and livers were collected from 150 cattle at an abattoir in jakarta, indonesia, for anti-fasciola antibodies, coproantige ...200918763850
detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the process of isolation of the 27-kda glycoprotein from the somatic antigen of fasciola gigantica was standardized and the diagnostic potentiality was evaluated for the detection of bubaline fasciolosis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. initially, the test was standardized using the sera from experimentally noninfected(n = 20) and infected (n = 5)animals. further, the sensitivity and the specificity of the test were evaluated through the sera of buffaloes with different natural inf ...200818781327
helminth pathogen cathepsin proteases: it's a family affair.helminth pathogens express papain-like cysteine peptidases, termed cathepsins, which have important roles in virulence, including host entry, tissue migration and the suppression of host immune responses. the liver fluke fasciola hepatica, an emerging human pathogen, expresses the largest cathepsin l cysteine protease family yet described. recent phylogenetic, biochemical and structural studies indicate that this family contains five separate clades, which exhibit overlapping but distinct substr ...200818848453
efficacy of temperature, and two commonly used molluscicides and fertilizers on fasciola gigantica eggs.this study evaluated the effect of temperature, molluscicides (copper sulphate and niclosamide), fertilizers (superphosphate and ammonium sulphate) on the hatchability of fasciola gigantica eggs. the results showed that hatchability decreased to 4% when eggs were incubated in bile secretion at 37 degrees c for 5 days and to 1.4% for 10 days, but few eggs incubated in water at 37 degrees c hatched. bile secretion at 37 degrees c was a poor medium for in-vitro egg preservation. but, hatching occur ...200818853633
concurrent infections of fasciola, schistosoma and amphistomum spp. in cattle from kafue and zambezi river basins of zambia.this study investigated interactions among fasciola gigantica, schistosoma spp. and amphistomum spp. concurrent natural infections in zambian cattle, based on egg and worm counts. in the abattoir 315 cattle were screened for worms of f. gigantica in the liver, schistosoma spp. in mesenteric veins and/or amphistomum spp. in the rumen. one hundred and thirty-three (42.2%) of the abattoir-examined cattle harboured one, two or all three trematodes. of 133 cattle, 50 were randomly selected for worm a ...200818854056
using indirect elisa to assess different antigens for the serodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) was evaluated for its diagnostic capability in detecting antibodies against fasciola gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and donkeys sera using crude worm, excretory-secretory and glutathione s-transferase antigens prepared from adult liver fluke. presence of f. gigantica worms at post-mortem examination of cattle, sheep and donkey's livers was taken as a gold standard for the evaluation of the assay. the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity ...200918947842
in vitro effect of artemether and triclabendazole on adult fasciola gigantica.triclabendazole "fasinex" is the drug of choice against fasciolosis because of its high efficacy against both mature and immature flukes, however parasite resistance against this drug is increasing. hence, there is pressing need for new fasciolicidal drugs. in the present study, the in vitro effect of artemether on adult flukes was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. after 24 h incubation with 10 microg/ml artemether, the tegument of the apical cone appeared to be slightly more swollen ...200919036519
effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in iringa region, tanzania.a longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. a total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine small-scale dairy farms were randomly selected. the selected animals on each farm were ear tagged and allocated into three groups based on live weight and treated as follows: group t4 was treated with al ...200919052899
immune responses to polyethylenimine delivered plasmid dna encoding a fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein in mice and rabbits.fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was evaluated for evoking an effective immune response in mice and rabbits, when delivered as a dna vaccine in muscle cells. polyethylenimine (pei), 25 kda, branched cationic polymer was used as a delivery vehicle for this dna in the muscle cells of mice and rabbits. naked dna evoked mixed th1 and th2 responses in mice. pei condensed dna, at amine nitrogen over dna phosphate (n/p) ratios of 4, 6 and 8 and with various dna concentrations, faile ...200919063770
biochemical changes in the livers of bovines naturally infected with fasciola gigantica.the present study was carried out to determine the total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid content in the non-infected (control) and naturally infected with fasciola gigantica liver samples of buffaloes and cows. the estimated total protein and lipid content in the infected livers of these animals were found significantly higher as compared to their control samples. total carbohydrate content in the infected livers of buffaloes and cows did not show any significant change as compared t ...200719070098
evaluation of snail derived antigens of fasciola gigantica for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.serum samples collected from a total number of twenty parasitologically confirmed cases of human fasciolosis were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of snail derived antigens; non infected snail (sa), infected snail (isa), redia (ra), cercaria (ca) and encysted metacercaria (emca) of f. gigantica using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (eitb). elisa results showed that the highest level of sensitivity (100%) was with the ...200719070170
inhibitory effect of egyptian propolis on fasciola gigantica eggs with reference to its effect on clostridium oedematiens and correlation to chemical composition.the chemical composition of the propolis samples was investigated by gc/ms and hplc. 91 compounds have been identified, 26 compounds are being new to propolis. siwa oasis propolis was characterized by the presence of diprenyl-dihydrocoumaric acids (4.15%), coumarate esters (10.93%), benzofuran lignans (13.47%) and valeric acids derivatives (11.42%). matrooh sample was characterized by the presence of new ferulate esters, hydroxy acetophenones and furanon derivatives, furofuran lignans and sterol ...200719090144
fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.little is known about the response of fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. the effect of long-term exposure of lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (cd) on the infection rates with f. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. the snails were exposed to cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. the poss ...200919101545
the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola gigantica coproantigen in naturally infected cattle and buffaloes.monoclonal antibody sandwich elisa was used detect f. gigantica coproantigen in 33 selected animals according to the faecal history to evaluate sensitivity and specificity by using three different rabbit hyper-immune sera; copro his, egg his and es his. the results showed that copro his & es his detected f. gigantica coproantigen in faecal of naturally infected cattle and buffaloes, but egg his failed. the 26-28 kda coproantigen proved sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (90.9%) in diagnosis of ...200819143125
efficacy of some fasciola gigantica antigens.the present study tested the antigenic relationship between the three egyptian strain of fasciola gigantica antigens; coproantigen, excretory-secretory and egg antigens, versus their related hyper-immune sera and select the most specific one. by using sds-page, a structural homology was demonstrated in f. gigantica es and egg antigens. this homology was resided in the components of the similar molecular weights between both antigens. when no cross-reaction was recorded with the coproantigen, the ...200819143134
[prevalence of liver flukes in hair goats slaughtered in hakkari (yüksekova) province].the aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of distomatosis in 267 hair goats which were slaughtered in the slaughterhouses belonging to butchers located in yüksekova district of hakkari province. in the study, distomatosis were detected in 165 (61.80%) of the 267 hair goats. distomatosis was found in 20/98 (20.41%) hair goats which were younger than one year old and in 145/169 (85.80%) which were older than one year. it was found that the species most often responsible were fa ...200819156606
effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in kilolo district, tanzania.a longitudinal demonstration project was carried out in 2005/2006 for thirteen months to determine the effectiveness of a strategic community-based worm control (cbwc) programme in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. two villages namely, a cbwc village (ilula-masukanzi) and a village without cbwc (kilolo-luganga) were randomly selected in kilolo district, iringa region of tanzania. animals in both villages were under the traditional management system ...200919190995
sequence-related amplified polymorphism, an effective molecular approach for studying genetic variation in fasciola spp. of human and animal health the present study, a recently described molecular approach, namely sequence-related amplified polymorphism (srap), which preferentially amplifies orfs, was evaluated for the studies of genetic variation among fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and the "intermediate" fasciola from different host species and geographical locations in mainland china. five srap primer combinations were used to amplify 120 fasciola samples after ten srap primer combinations were evaluated. the number of fragmen ...200919204953
efficacy of five chemicals on fasciola gigantica encysted metacercariae infectivity.the efficacy of treating encysted metacercariae (emc) of fasciola gigantica with different concentrations (conc.) of acetic acid, citric acid, cetrimide, potassium permanganate and sodium hydroxide, for 15 & 30 minutes was evaluated. the efficacy of these chemicals on the vitality and infectivity of the emc was evaluated by the development of fascioliasis infection, and the histopathological changes in the livers of experimentally infected albino rabbits. the results showed that 1% sodium hydrox ...200819209774
localization of antigenic molecules of adult fasciola gigantica using monoclonal antibodies against the parasite tegumental this study, monoclonal antibodies were developed from the partially purified surface tegumental antigens of f. gigantica. nine moabs: 2g11, 1g2, 1b12, 2g2, 2g5, 3c6, 3g2, 3g3 and 3f6 were used for anatomical localization of adult f. gigantica. the reaction was demonstrated by avidin-biotin method. the results revealed that among the sections stained with non-immune sera and control group, there were no reaction products on either the tegument or the cecal epithelium. the only brownish areas w ...200319230580
use of sequence motifs as barcodes and secondary structures of internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2, rdna) for identification of the indian liver fluke, fasciola (trematoda: fasciolidae).most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary dna sequence information. however, rna secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information which is not found in the primary sequence. also dna sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (its) of the nuclear rrna repeat are useful for identification of trematodes. the species of liver flukes of the genus fasciola (platyhelminthes: di ...200919294000
fasciola gigantica: immunolocalization of 28.5 kda antigen in the tegument of metacercaria and juvenile fluke.specific monoclonal antibody (moab) to 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (ta) was used to localize this antigen in the tissues of metacercariae, newly excysted juvenile (nej), 1, 3, 5, and 7-week-old juveniles of fasciola gigantica by using indirect immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques. both indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase detections showed that this antigen was concentrated in the tegument particularly in its outer rim, tegumental cells and their processes a ...200919303872
cloning, characterization, and expression of vitelline protein bi and its encoding gene in the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.a cdna containing a 813 bp open reading frame encoding vitelline protein bi (fgvpbi) of fasciola gigantica was cloned. fgvpbi has 96% sequence identity with vpbi of fasciola hepatica and 84% identity with vpbii f. hepatica. it is far less similar to eggshell precursor proteins of other trematode species, for example, 29% identity with c. sinensis. northern blot hybridization of total rna from adult parasites demonstrated a fgvpbi transcript with a size of 1,000 nucleotides. fgvpbi mrna is locali ...200919323003
[emergence in humans of fascioliasis (from fasciola gigantica) and intestinal distomatosis (from fasciolopsis buski) in laos].distomatoses due to fasciola spp. and fasciolopsis buski are very common in the developing countries of southeast asia. the flukes in laos have not yet been completely studied and described, however. in 2004, we began screening for these two distomatoses in the province of savannakhet, in southern laos. our initial results showed that the causal agent of fascioliasis in humans and animals is fasciola gigantica. the infestation rate of fascioliasis in cattle in slaughterhouses ranged from 17 to 5 ...200819359231
fasciola gigantica: anthelmintic effect of the aqueous extract of artocarpus lakoocha.the effect of the crude extract of artocarpus lakoocha (70% composition is 2,4,3',5'- tetrahydroxystilbene -ths) on adult fasciola gigantica was evaluated after incubating the parasites in m-199 medium containing 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microg/ml of the crude extract, or triclabendazole (tcz) at the concentrations of 80 and 175 microg/ml as the positive control, for 3, 6, 12 and 24h, using relative motility (rm) assay and observation by scanning electron microscope (sem). decreased contraction an ...200919393239
type i cystatin (stefin) is a major component of fasciola gigantica excretion/secretion the present study we describe type 1 cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, as a major released antigen of the tropical liver fluke fasciola gigantica (fgstefin-1). immunohistochemical analysis showed that fgstefin-1 is abundant in (a) tissue of tegumental type, including oral and ventral sucker, pharynx, genital atrium, metraterm, cirrus and (b) the intestinal epithelium. faint staining was observed in the epithelia of ovary and proximal uterus. immunoblots showed the presence of fgstefin- ...200919416741
molecular characterization of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and aspermic fasciola sp. in china based on nuclear and mitochondrial dna.parthenogenic fasciola forms as well as bisexual fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in mainland china have been identified on the basis of their spermatogenesis and genotypes in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase i (ndi). the chinese aspermic fasciola would include forms originating in interspecific hybrids between f. hepatica and f. gigantica, since they showed the genotype of its1-fh/fg that had mixed sequences of the two fasciola ...200919424719
cross-reactivity of schistosoma mansoni-fasciola gigantica influenced by saponins.the aim of the present work was to investigate the schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica cross-reactivity between adult worms and egg homogenates of the parasites. immunoprophylactic effects of crude schistosoma mansoni worms and egg antigens mixed with or without saponins extracted from atriplex nummularia were studied followed by challenge with 80 cercariae of schistosoma mansoni. our results showed that post 1st immunization with schistosome egg antigens (sea) there was a significant cha ...200919526726
detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes of fasciola gigantica worms under triclabendazole sulphoxide (tcbz-sx): an in vitro study.triclabendazole (tcbz) is an efficient fasciolicide that affects both juvenile and adult worms. after oral administration it is rapidly metabolized to tcbz sulphoxide and sulphone that were found responsible for its fasciolicidal activity. parasite defense mechanisms include detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes that would suppress its oxidative killing. the present work aimed at evaluating these enzymes under tcbz-sx. thirty juvenile and 30 adult f. gigantica worms collected from the liver paren ...200919530611
botanical study of meryta denhamii seem. and its antihelminthic activity against fasciola gigantica.the anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic extracts of stems and leaves of meryta denhamii seem. against adult liver flukes "fasciola gigantica" was studied in vitro. although leaves extract was inactive, stems extract exhibited anthelmintic activity and recorded lc50 and lc90 values, 16 and 26 gm/l respectively. the mode of action of the ethanolic extract of the stems on the adult flukes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (sem). tegumental sloughing, loss of spines and deformity of s ...200919530627
gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of ethiopia.the general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. for the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. the study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.coprol ...201019548106
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