fasciola gigantica: the growth and larval productivity of redial generations in the snail lymnaea truncatula.bimiracidial infections of french lymnaea truncatula with a madagascan isolate of fasciola gigantica were carried out under laboratory conditions to study the growth of rediae and their larval productivity in relation to the different redial generations. the total numbers of rediae and their mean lengths significantly increased with the duration of infection until day 49 post-exposure (p.e.). significant differences in the lengths between the different redial generations were noted. at day 49 p. ...200211999026
nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial co i and ribosomal its ii genes of opisthorchis viverrini in northeast thailand.the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (co i) gene and the second internal transcribed spacer region (its ii) gene of opisthorchis viverrini were compared among o. viverrini from various areas in northeast thailand. the nucleotide sequences of partial co i gene (417 bp) of o. viverrini differed among o. viverrini originated from ubon ratana, leongpleuy, ban phai, maha sarakham, and chatturat. these intraspecific variations were classified into 5 patterns but no area-specific pattem was ...200112041584
fascioliasis in vietnam.a confirmed diagnosis of human fascioliasis was rare in vietnam until 1978 when two cases were reported in humans. since 1997, we have confirmed 500 cases of human fascioliasis. the majority of cases come from the central provinces of vietnam: da nang, quang ngai, binh dinh, phu yen and khanh hoa. patients were treated in hospitals in ho chi minh city. all had high peripheral blood eosinophilic counts (16-70%) and positive serology with fasciola gigantica antigen with positive titers of 1/1,600 ...200112041604
identification and characterization of a 26- to 28-kda circulating antigen of fasciola a disease of domestic ruminants, fascioliasis is of considerable economic importance. although serological tests are available for the diagnosis of the disease, they are of generally low specificity because of cross-reactivity with antigens from other parasites. there is a need to identify other fasciola antigens on which more specific tests could be based. in the present study, a specific rabbit anti-serum and western-blot analyses were used to demonstrate the presence of a highly reactive a ...200212061974
characterisation and expression of the fasciola gigantica cathepsin l gene.the gene structure of a cathepsin l from fasciola gigantica was characterised. the gene spans approximately 2.0 kb and comprises four exons and three introns and is a compact gene as in the cases of crustaceous and platyhelminth cathepsins l. southern blot analysis suggested that a few copies of the genes are sparsely organised in the genome. of the three intron insertion positions, two of which are in the same position as in the mammalian cathepsin l gene. phylogenetic analysis revealed that f. ...200212076632
morphological and ecological studies on lymnaea natalensis the snail vector of fasciola gigantica in egypt.lymnaea natalensis were collected from several localities in giza governorate (el-mansouria, kafr hakim and the nile). the collected snails were examined for cercarial shedding and measurement of shell was carried out using a virner caliper. a total of 217 lymnaea was collected from all habitats and 24 snails were found to shed fasciola gigantica cercariae with infection rate 11.1%. the ratio of shell height to shell width (h/w) ranged 1.7-2.1. the ratio between length of aperture to shell heigh ...200212214922
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against 28.5 kda tegument antigen of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against the 28.5 kda tegumental antigen of fasciola gigantica was produced by the hybridoma technique using spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the tegumental extract from adult f. gigantica. this moab was found to be of the isotype igg(1), kappa-light chain, and shown by immunoblotting to specifically react with the 28.5 kda antigen present in the tegument, excretion-secretion material of the adult, whole-body extracts of newly excysted juveniles, 5-week-ol ...200212387905
28 kda fasciola gigantica cysteine proteinase in the diagnosis of prepatent ovine fasciolosis.coprological confirmation of ovine fasciolosis in the field, prior to out breaks of the disease and/or strategic antifluke medication, seem to be of little consequence. efforts are, therefore, being made to evolve a putative antigen specific to serodiagnostic test for early diagnosis during prepatency. in the present investigation, 28 kda cysteine proteinase was used in eli sa and western blot to detect fasciola gigantica antibodies and further dipstick-elisa was developed for field application, ...200212423935
a pcr-rflp assay for the distinction between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis is of well-known veterinary importance and an increasing human health problem, with reported cases in the five continents. the causative agents, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, present geographical distributions, which overlap in many regions of africa and asia, and in which the differentiation of both species is usually difficult because of the many variations in their morphological characteristics. moreover, in humans, liver fluke classification cannot be achieved by cli ...200212477436
recognition of antigenic components of fasciola gigantica and their use in immunodiagnosis.antigenicity of the tegumental extract, excretory-secretory products and the whole somatic extract of fasciola gigantica were evaluated to detect the most sensitive and specific antigen out of them that could be used as an immuno-diagnostic tool. scanning electron microscopic study was carried out to have a full picture about the tegumental structure. the immunohistochemical staining technique was done using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on f. gigantica sections before and after removal o ...200212512802
bacterial-parasite interaction between salmonella and each of fasciola gigantica and trichinella spiralis.the possibility of bacterial-parasite interaction between salmonella typhimurium and the surface of each of fasciola gigantica metacercariae and trichinella spiralis larvae was investigated in vitro. two studies were carried out. in the first, s. typhimurium were incubated in vitro with the metacercariae of f. gigantica. in the second, s. typhimurium was incubated with larvae of t. spiralis. the interactions of s. typhimurium with each of f. gigantica metacercariae and t. spiralis larvae were st ...200212512807
cercarial shedding from galba truncatula infected with fasciola gigantica of distinct geographic origins.galba truncatula snails were experimentally infected with either of two different isolates of fasciola gigantica, originating from egypt or china, to determine the influence of these isolates on the characteristics of snail infections. the survival rates of g. truncatula on day 30 post-exposure were 90.0% and 60.2% in the egyptian and chinese groups, respectively. the frequency of cercaria-shedding snails within the egyptian group was 79.8%, whereas in the chinese group it was 22.4%. the parasit ...200312541059
infection of two lymnaeid snails with fasciola gigantica in giza, a field study.population density of lymnaea natalensis and l. columella and their natural infection with fasciola gigantica were followed in two water bodies in abu rawash area, giza governorate over two years. l. natalensis snails were more abundant during december-february, while l. columella snails had high density during autumn. according to the snail size, we found that the reproduction of the two vector snails occurred in summer and early autumn. fasciola was present in 0.6 and 2.0% of the examined l. n ...199912561910
scanning electron microscopical studies on cercariae and metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.the surface topography of fasciola gigantica cercariae and metacercariae was studied by scanning electron microscopy. the head of f. gigantica cercaria is covered with several small knobs and its tail is provided with two lateral folds, fused ventrally, near the distal end of the tail. the oral sucker is smaller than the ventral one and possesses a characteristic surface structure. the outermost layer (layer i) of the outer cyst wall of the metacercaria is roughened with irregular furrows. the i ...199912561923
fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of three different miracidial isolates in the snail lymnaea truncatula.bimiracidial infections of lymnaea truncatula with three isolates of fasciola gigantica, originating from china, egypt and madagascar, were carried out to determine the effect of geographic origin of the parasite on the larval productivity of redial generations. the prevalences of experimental infections in snails exposed to strains from madagascar, china and egypt were 20.8%, 60.0% and 80.0%, respectively. at day 49 post-exposure (p.e.), the total number of free rediae in snails infected with t ...200312590658
detection of opisthorchis viverrini in experimentally infected bithynid snails and cyprinoid fishes by a pcr-based method.a pcr procedure for the detection of opisthorchis viverrini in experimentally infected bithynid snails and cyprinoid fishes was developed. this procedure was based on primers designed from a pov-a6 specific probe sequence giving a 330 base-pair product. the detection was accomplished in host tissue homogenates to which a single cercaria or metacercaria was introduced. pcr can detect as little as a single cercaria artificially inoculated in a snail or a single metacercaria artificially inoculated ...200312613764
electron miscroscopy and histochemical studies on four egyptian helminthes eggs of medical sem the fasciola gigantica egg is ovoid with a small knob like operculum, while the egg of heterophyes heterophytes is broad oval with the operculum more tapering. the egg shell of fertilized ascaris lumbricoides has interconnected ridges and peak-like projections, while the egg of enterobius vermicularis is flattened with a thicker margin at the curved side. by tem, fasciola egg shell consists of fine reticulum fibrils of three layers. the outer lipoprotein of perivitelline membrane beneath ...200312739814
the effect of potassium permanganate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate on metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.batches of encysted metacercariae of f. gigantica, adhered to transparent polyethylene sheets, were treated with kmno4, while others were treated with nadcc at specific concentrations and exposure times. assessment of the effects was carried out by the detached percentage and viable metacercariae and by scanning electron microscope (sem) ultrastructure changes. in addition, their effects on leaves of green vegetables were reported. the results showed that all metacercariae were detached and were ...200312739819
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant glutathione s-transferase (gst) of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against a recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rgst) of f. gigantica was produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of this monoclonal antibody was assessed by elisa and immunoblotting. six stable clones, namely 3a3, 3b2, 3c6, 4a6, 4b1 and 4d6 were obtained, all these moab reacted with rgst and native gst at a molecular weight of 28 kda and found to be igg1, kappa-light chain isotypes. these moab cross-reacted with schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma japon ...200212744627
[histochemical study on trematodes: distribution of carbonic anhydrase activity]the purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the distribution of carbonic anhydrase pattern in the various termatodes (fasciola gigantica, paramphistoma orthocoelium, paragonimus westermani) by means of kurada staining method, and to correlate these findings with the histochemical data and harboring location. the results are summarized as follows: 1. in fasciloa gigantica, carbonic anhydrase activity was positive in the vitelline gland cells and eggs in the uterus. 2. in paramphistoma orth ...197212913508
comparison of adult somatic and cysteine proteinase antigens of fasciola gigantica in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.fasciolosis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in iran. considering that stool examination for fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, so the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (s) and cysteine proteinase (cp) antigens of f. gigantica in igg-elisa to diagnose human fasciolosis. serum samples obtained from 100 individuals collected during th ...200312943979
the evolution of enzyme specificity in fasciola spp.fasciola spp., commonly known as liver fluke, are significant trematode parasites of livestock and humans. they secrete several cathepsin l-like cysteine proteases, some of which differ in enzymatic properties and timing of expression in the parasite's life cycle. a detailed sequence and evolutionary analysis is presented, based on 18 cathepsin l-like enzymes isolated from fasciola spp. (including a novel clone identified in this study). the enzymes form a monophyletic group which has experience ...200312962301
production of monoclonal antibodies against partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced by the in vitro fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica. the surface membrane and tegument antigens were purified by using gel filtration chromatography. sds-page performed on the processed proteins demonstrated that the proteins had molecular weights of 20 to 97 kda. in this study, fifteen monoclonal antibody clones were selected from the hybridoma clones, namely: 1b7, 1b11, 1 ...200212971484
human infestation with fasciola gigantica. 195313065418
life-history of fasciola gigantica cobbold 1856. 195313072541
observations on the succession of redial generations of fasciola gigantica cobbold in a snail host. 195613443395
a short account on the economic importance of fasciola gigantica, its effect on livestock and the snail vector. 195713525526
the incidence of liver flukes (fasciola gigantica) and hydatid cysts (echinococcus granulosus) in kenya catle. 196013702295
haemoglobin in trematodes. 1. fasciola gigantica. 2. cotylophoron indicum. 196113706337
physiological studies on trematodes--fasciola gigantica rate of oxygen consumption. 196113706338
penetration of fasciola gigantica cobbold, 1856 into snail hosts. 196013814561
uganda zebu cattle naturally infected with fasciola gigantica with special reference to changes in the serum proteins. 196013843561
physiological studies on trematodes--fasciola gigantica carbohydrate metabolism. 196113899581
the use of antigens prepared from adult fasciola gigantica, schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma bovis in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis by the intra-dermal test (idt). 196314081299
fasciola gigantica and fascioliasis in turkey. 196414103225
the influence of temperature on the succession of redial and cercarial generations of fasciola gigantica in a snail host. 196414124283
a comparative study on the levels of ca, inorganic p and mg in the blood serum and bile of the normal healthy buffalo (bos bubalus) and those of buffaloes infested with liver fluke (fasciola gigantica). 196414134899
prevalence of schistosomiasis in various governorates in the united arab republic as revealed by the intradermal test with antigens from adult fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mansoni. 196414206693
in vitro uptake of racobalamin-60 in fasciola gigantica and its effect on experimentally infected rabbits. 196414242259
observations on the anthelmintic acitivity of combinations of hexachlorophene and bithionol against fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes in cattle. 196514286148
the life-history of some vectors of fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions. 196514297347
the use of antigens prepared from adult fasciola gigantica, schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma bovis in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis by the complement fixation test (cft). 196514311785
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: comparative morphometric studies on the redial stage of both species.experimental infections of galba truncatula with fasciola gigantica or f. hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions (20 degrees c) to determine the characteristics of rediae of both species via their morphometry and to find reliable measurements that might be efficiently used to discriminate between the rediae of both species of fasciola. these results were compared to those of another snail: radix natalensis, infected with either f. gigantica or f. hepatica under the same protocol. ...200314505040
characterisation of fasciola gigantica adult 27-kda excretory-secretory antigen in human fascioliasis.the 27-kda excretory-secretory antigen partially purified from adult fasciola gigantica adult worms (fg27) has been used as the sensitive and specific antigen for immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis. lectin-blot analyses have shown that the fg27 possesses both n - and o -glycans. in two-dimensional electrophoresis, silver staining, lectin blotting and immunoblotting, fg27 displayed at least four antigenic-glycosylated protein spots at the pi values of 4.8, 4.9, 5.2 and 5.4, respectively. after ...200314574564
diagnosis of fasciola gigantica in snail using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay.the 124-bp repetitive and highly abundant dna sequence--used as a specific probe for the detection of fasciola hepatica infection in snails--was tested in the detection of f. gigantica infection in lymnaea natalensis. the probe did not show any positive pcr results with lymnaea natalensis, physa acuta, biomphalaria alexandrina and bulinus trucatus or with schistosoma mansoni, s. haematobium and echinostoma liei. however, the probe was found capable to detect f. gigantica infection within l. nata ...200314708850
detection of circulating 54 kda antigen in sera of bovine calves experimentally infected with f. gigantica.the antibody response and circulating antigen levels in bovine calves, infected experimentally with fasciola gigantica, were monitored using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) and sandwich elisa, respectively. by eitb, the infected calves' sera recognized the polypeptides in the range of 54-58 kda as early as 2 weeks post-infection. by 12th week post-infection, the lower two polypeptides of 12 and 8 kda had disappeared. in sandwich elisa, the circulating 54 kda and whole worm antige ...200414746978
[lymnea (radix) natalensis undussumae of martens, natural transmitter of fasciola gigantica cobbold in the belgian congo; experimental reproduction of the evolutive cycle of fluke]. 195114915307
cross-reaction: a common trait among helminthes.cross-reaction between three important zoonotic helminths, fasciola gigantica, trichinella spiralis and echinococcus granulosus, was proved by elisa. cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera were strongly directed towards protoscolices and hydatid fluid antigens of e. granulosus rather than to f. gigantica and t. spiralis antigens. two sets of polypeptides were identified in each antigen by immunoblot; species-specific and cross-reactive. cross-reactive components in f. gigantica antige ...200314964660
experimental bubalian fasciolosis: kinetics of antibody response using 28 kda fasciola gigantica cysteine proteinase as antigen. 200414979558
characterisation of fasciola species from mainland china by its-2 ribosomal dna sequence.isolates of fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from different host species and geographical locations in mainland china were characterised genetically. the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna) was amplified from individual trematodes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the representative amplicons were cloned and sequenced. the length of the its-2 sequences was 361-362bp for all chinese fasciola specimens sequenced. while there was no variati ...200415019145
detection of fasciola gigantica infection in snails by polymerase chain reaction.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. fasciola specific primers amplified a 124 bp fragment in pcr when the genomic dna isolated from f. gigantica infected lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. in addition to the 124 bp amplicon, a ladder of dna fragments representing amplification of the 124 bp repetitive sequences was observed. genomic dna of the parasite was used as a positive control, which also gave an ampl ...200415019146
spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the liver fluke fasciola gigantica cobbold, 1856 (digenea: fasciolidae), a parasite of cattle in senegal.the present paper describes the spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of fasciola gigantica, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. spermiogenesis in f. gigantica begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing 2 centrioles with associated striated roots and an intercentriolar body between them. each centriole develops a flagellum. proximodistal fusion of these flagella with the median cytoplasmic extension gives rise to the spermatozoon. spermiogenes ...200415040664
immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using an antigen of fasciola gigantica adult worm with the molecular mass of 27 kda by a dot-elisa.immunodominant antigens of an approximate molecular mass of 27 kda (fg 27) were obtained from an excretory-secretory product of adult fasciola gigantica by a simple continuous-elution method. a dot-elisa using the fg 27 antigen was developed for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with f. gigantica. control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers. the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive v ...200315115076
molecular cloning and analysis of stage and tissue-specific expression of cathepsin b encoding genes from fasciola gigantica.the transcriptional products of fasciola gigantica genes encoding cathepsin b proteases were cloned from adult, newly excysted juvenile (nej), and metacercarial stages. the obtained cdnas were named fg cat-b1, fg cat-b2, and fg cat-b3. the deduced amino acid sequences of the encoded proteases have identities ranging from 64 to 79%. sequence comparison with homologous proteins showed that all functional important residues formerly described for cathepsin b are conserved. southern analysis confirm ...200415138062
comparison of humoral response in sheep to fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica experimental infection.humoral response of sheep to f. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to f. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. in this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to f. gigantica than to f. hepatica infection was confirmed. humoral response to f. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. igg level of f. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2wpi) and display ...200415224576
fasciola gigantica: immunization of rabbits with proteins isolated from coproantigen.two fractions were isolated from coproantigen by ion-exchange chromatography in which deae cellulose was utilized. both fractions and crude antigen were characterized by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which revealed 13 bands of molecular weight ranged from 205-31 in crude coproantigen. while fraction i resolved into six bands of molecular weight 198, 178, 148, 111, 101 & 45. fraction ii showed seven bands of 191 kda, 178kda, 166kda, 118kda, 98.5kda, 72kda & 32kda. fraction 1i was higher ...200415287185
detection of genetic variabiltiy in nonhuman isolates of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica by the rapd-pcr technique.the present study shows the molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica isolates collected from cows and sheep, using the random amplified polymorphic dna fragments-polymerase chain reaction (rapds-pcr) technique. optimal standardization of amplification conditions and thermocyclation were made, using genetic markers. the methodology used compared the genetic pattern between the two species (inter-species) and inside each species (intra-species) between cow and sheep and the ...200415287188
behavioural responses of the snail lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets.snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. in order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. this study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. these were tested on lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the ...200415309310
partially purified fraction (ppf) antigen from adult fasciola gigantica for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using dot-elisa technique.human fascioliasis has been reported in many countries, including iran. various techniques have been evaluated for diagnosis of human fascioliasis using different antigens. we evaluated fasciola gigantica partially purified fraction antigen (ppf) isolated from sheep's liver fluke for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis.200415310008
humoral immune response against fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein.recombinant fatty acid binding protein of fasciola gigantica was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by nickel chelating affinity chromatography. the recombinant protein along with native fatty acid binding protein (fabp) isolated from the parasite were evaluated for their potential in the diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in sheep, cattle and buffaloes, both by elisa and western blotting. results of this study indicate that there is no humoral immune response generated against this pro ...200415350662
role of excretory-secretory metabolites of fasciola gigantica in modulating delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats.the role of excretory-secretory metabolites of fasciola gigantica in modulating the delayed type of hypersensitivity in the host (rats) was investigated. eighteen rats of either sex, aged 3-4 months, were assigned to three groups of 6 animals each. rats in group 1 served as non-inoculated controls and each rat in this group was administered only freund's complete adjuvant on day 7. animals in groups 2 and 3 were administered inoculation dose(s) of somatic f gigantica antigen (sfga) and excretory ...200415379433
larval productivity of fasciola gigantica in two lymnaeid snails.two groups of galba truncatula and two groups of lymnaea natalensis were experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica to determine if snail species had an influence on the redial burden and cercarial shedding of this trematode when snails of both species were infected with the same isolate of miracidia. in the two groups used for the study of redial burden, the total number of free rediae was significantly higher at day 49 post-exposure in l. natalensis than in g. truncatula. in the groups us ...200415469623
a retrospective study of the prevalence and seasonal variation of fasciola gigantica in cattle slaughtered in the major abattoirs of zimbabwe between 1990 and 1999.a retrospective study covering a period of 10 years (1990--1999) was conducted using post mortem meat inspection records of the veterinary department information management unit at harare to determine the prevalence and seasonal variation of bovine fasciolosis in zimbabwe. records of monthly and annual returns from five major abattoirs were examined in regard to total cattle slaughtered and the corresponding number of livers condemned due to fasciola gigantica infection. prevalence of fasciolosi ...200415580766
toxicological effect and biochemical alterations induced by different fractions of euphorbia royleana latex in freshwater harmful vector snail lymnaea acuminata.laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of different fractions of euphorbia royleana (family- euphorbiaceae) latex obtained through sephadex gel column against freshwater snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarack. this snail is the vector of liver fluke, fasciola hepatica linnaeus and fasciola gigantica cobbold, which causes endemic fascioliasis in cattle and livestock. the toxic effect of the different fractions was time dependent and fifth fraction obtained through b ...200415623235
induction of protective antibody response in rabbits against fascioliasis with toxocara/fasciola cross- reactive defined antigen.a method of affinity chromatography purification of toxocara vitulorum antigen cross- reacts with fasciola gigantica antiserum is described. characterization of the isolated cross- reactive fraction by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis resulted in a fraction consists of five polypeptides of 137.7kda, 81kda, 75kda, 48kda and 21.6kda with isoelectric points of 8, 7.5, 7.2, 6.7 and 6.6. seventeen amino acids were identified in the fraction with hig ...200415658065
ingestion of fasciola gigantica metacercariae by the intermediate host snail, lymnaea ollula, and infectivity of discharged metacercariae.the rate of ingestion of fasciola normal metacercariae (nmc) encysted on plants by lymnaea ollula was examined, and the infectivity of the ingested metacercariae (imc) in the feces of the host snail to mice was studied. as a result of ingestion by snails, the metacercarial outer cyst disappeared in about 50% of imc in feces. there was no significant difference in the liver juvenile recovery at autopsy between mice inoculated with nmc and imc kinds of metacercariae. compared with nmc, the number ...200415689062
comparison of modulation of sheep, mouse and buffalo lymphocyte responses by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory order to explain the difference in susceptibility to fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica between animal species, the activity of their excretory-secretory products (fhesp and fgesp, respectively) on concanavalin a (cona)-induced proliferation of different animal species (sheep, mouse and buffalo) lymphocytes was compared. at high doses, fhesp inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes of all the animal species tested, and at low doses they inhibited the proliferation of sheep lymphocytes and incre ...200515711847
serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis by a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l antigen.cathepsin l1, a cysteine protease secreted by the gastrodermis of juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica, was expressed in escherichia coli as a calmodulin binding peptide fusion protein with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kd. the recombinant cathepsin l1 (rctl1) was tested for its antigenic potential in a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to diagnose human fascioliasis. the elisa plates were sensitized with chicken egg cystatin and incubated with bacterial lysates ...200515728871
27 kda fasciola gigantica glycoprotein for the diagnosis of prepatent fasciolosis in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using 27 kda glycoprotein of fasciola gigantica has been evaluated for its potential use in the diagnosis of bovine fasciolosis. following experimental infection of rabbits, f. gigantica infection-induced antibodies were isolated and later used as ligands in affinity chromatography for isolation of infection-induced antibody-specific proteins. among the five infection-specific proteins isolated, a glycoprotein of 27 kda was later isolated by ...200515730136
prevalence of infection with fasciola gigantica and its relationship to carcase and liver weights, and fluke and egg counts in slaughter cattle and buffaloes in southern mindanao, philippines. 200515747858
molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase encoding gene from opisthorchis adult stage opisthorchis viverrini cdna library was constructed and screened for abundant transcripts. one of the isolated cdnas was found by sequence comparison to encode a glutathione s-transferase (gst) and was further analyzed for rna expression, encoded protein function, tissue distribution and cross-reactivity of the encoded protein with other trematode protein counterparts. the cdna has a size of 893 bp and encodes a gst of 213 amino acids length (ov28gst). the most closely-related gst ...200415783135
detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure for the detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with stoll's egg count method. the primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pph-13-specific dna probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. this pcr method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of p. heterotremus genomic dna. the a ...200515856902
cross-protection induced by cross-reactive antigen against fasciola gigantica and trichinella spiralis infections.trichinella spiralis /fasciola gigantica cross-reactive fraction was purified from t. spiralis larval extract by affinity column chromatography in which cnbr-sepharose 4b was coupled with f. gigantica antibodies. the fraction consisted of six polypeptides of 191kda, 178kda, 149kda, 106kda, 101kda and 32 kda as revealed by sds-page. analysis of the free amino acids of the fraction revealed 17 amino acids with high proportions of tyrosine and glutamic. immunization of rabbits subcutaneously with t ...200515881013
epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in zimbabwe: a this paper the main epidemiological aspects of the major domestic ruminant trematode infections in zimbabwe are reviewed and discussed with regard to the available options for control. seasonal occurrence of amphistomes, fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mattheei are considered both in the definitive and intermediate hosts. the regional distribution of the trematodes is reviewed in relation to the distribution patterns of their snail intermediate hosts. based on the epidemiological features ...200515900894
evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in cattle, sheep and buffaloes in australia.a commercially available elisa for detecting antibodies to liver fluke was evaluated for use in australia. milk and serum samples from cattle and sheep in which infection with fasciola hepatica was confirmed by detection of eggs in faeces were used to estimate sensitivity. similar samples collected from cattle and sheep outside the f. hepatica-endemic area were used to estimate specificity. the elisa was also evaluated for detecting antibodies to f. hepatica in milk from sheep and antibodies to ...200515925723
serum interferon-gamma and interleukins-6 and -8 during infection with fasciola gigantica in cattle and buffaloes.this study investigated the presence of cytokines interferon (ifn)-gamma, interleukins (il) -6 and -8 in serum of cattle and buffaloes infected with fasciola gigantica from one to 16 weeks post-infection to determine their t cell response during infection. the concentration of these cytokines was determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). no ifn-gamma was detected in these animals while il-6 was elevated from one to 16 weeks postinfection. levels of il-8 were also elevated ...200515933433
control of fasciolosis in stall-fed buffaloes by managing the feeding of rice straw.fasciolosis, caused by fasciola gigantica, presents major disease and production problems, particularly in the rice producing areas of south and south-east asia. in nepal, buffaloes are commonly stall-fed and the most usual fodder is rice straw, which is produced in large quantities in the area. here we describe a relatively simple way of controlling fasciolosis in these animals. we demonstrate that infectious metacercariae of f. gigantica are concentrated in the bottom part of the rice straw an ...200515934636
epidemiology of fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of tanzania.a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in iringa district, southern highlands of tanzania. coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both fasciola and amphistomes. the prevalence of flukes ...200515934638
cellular and humoral responses in liver of cattle and buffaloes infected with a single dose of fasciola gigantica.the cellular components of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in cattle and buffaloes infected with a single dose of 1000 fasciola gigantica were analysed by immunohistochemistry and histology. t and b lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and mast cells were present in the hepatic lesions. it is proposed that both cellular and humoral immune responses were induced in the liver of cattle and buffaloes during infection with f. gigantica probably by antigens released by the developing flukes and ...200515936148
characterization of specific and cross-reacting antigens of fasciola gigantica by immunoblotting.somatic antigens of f. gigantica, g. explanatum, s. spindale and hydatid cyst ingredients were analysed to identify the cross-reactive antigens among them using western blot technique. when probed with f. gigantica infected cattle sera, the immunodominant 156 kda and 28 kda proteins of f. gigantica was found common amongst the antigens prepared from hydatid cysts ingredients like germinal layer, fertile and sterile, hydatid fluid, fertile and sterile, while another protein of 34 kda was shared b ...200515952043
serological changes in goats experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica in buea sub-division of s.w.p. cameroon.based on the recent increase in the rearing of west african dwarf (wad) goats in this environment, a study of biochemical parameters was carried out in healthy and infected goats to obtain baseline data for monitoring the health and productive indices in breeding programmes for the goats. the results revealed variations in some of the parameters studied. the serum minerals potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate did not show any significant differences (p>0.05) between the infected and control group ...200515978727
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant fatty acid binding protein.recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rfabp) of fasciola gigantica was expressed in escherichia coli and used as vaccine in freund's adjuvant to evaluate the level of protection induced in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves. fifteen buffalo calves were distributed to three groups of five calves each. an antigen dose of 400 mug for each of the three immunizations at 3-week intervals, and a challenge dose of 600 metacercariae was administered per calf. levels of anti-fabp antibodies increased rapi ...200515986249
comparative diagnostic potentiality of elisa and dot-elisa in prepatent diagnosis of experimental fasciola gigantica infection in cattle.a glycoprotein (27 kda) was isolated from crude somatic antigen of fasciola gigantica by two steps affinity chromatography and was used in early detection of experimental fasciolosis in cattle by indirect elisa and in dot-elisa formats. although, anti-27 kda antibodies could be detected after 3 weeks post infection (wpi) by dot - elisa which was one week later than indirect elisa. the test, dot-elisa, was more convenient in field application. by the test (dot-elisa) the infection could be equall ...200515991579
seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the kafue and zambezi catchment areas of order to establish seasonality of bovine fasciolosis in the southern province of zambia, 288 cattle were examined at slaughter at turnpike slaughter slab for 1 year. the examination involved liver inspection and coprological examination. liver condemnation rates were relatively high at the beginning of both the cold dry season and the rainy season (may/june and december, respectively). all cattle, regardless of age, had higher fluke abundances in the post-rainy season (39.1% young and 42.1% a ...200516043299
proteases in egg, miracidium and adult of fasciola gigantica. characterization of serine and cysteine proteases from adult.proteolytic activity of 0-12 day old eggs, miracidium and adult worm of fasciola gigantica was assessed and proteases were partially purified by deae-sepharose and cm-cellulose columns. four forms of protease were separated, pia, pib, pic and pii. purifications were completed for pic and pii using sephacryl s-200 chromatography. a number of natural and synthetic proteins were tested as substrates for f. gigantica pic and pii. the two proteases had moderate activity levels toward azoalbumin and c ...200516102991
urea cycle of fasciola gigantica: purification and characterization of arginase.the ornithine-urea cycle has been investigated in fasciola gigantica. agrinase had very high activity compared to the other enzymes. carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase had very low activity. a moderate enzymatic activity was recorded for argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. the low levels of f. gigantica urea cycle enzymes except to the arginase suggest the urea cycle is operative but its role is of a minor important. the high level of arginase ...200516125991
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: comparison of cellular response to experimental infection in sheep.cellular responses to fasciola gigantica and to fasciola hepatica infection in sheep were compared. eosinophil numbers increased more quickly and strongly in f. gigantica-infected sheep than in f. hepatica-infected sheep. in both groups, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc) proliferation in response to the parasitic excretory-secretory products (esp) showed similar kinetics. interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) production by esp-stimulated pbmc was early and showed similar kinetics in both groups. i ...200516126202
humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes.humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes were studied. the results showed that 33.4+/-9.1% of the infection dose was recovered as adult flukes from infected animals at necropsy. significant differences of weight gain between infected and non-infected buffaloes was observed at 4 mpi (months post-infection). anti f. gigantica excretory-secretory products (fgesp)-igg levels increased significantly from 3 wpi (weeks post-infection) and displayed ...200616143354
fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses.fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and fasciolopsis buski (fasciolidae), gastrodiscoides hominis (gastrodiscidae), watsonius watsoni and fischoederius elongatus (paramphistomidae). whereas f. hepatica and f. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. the fas ...200516150452
potent epitopes derived from fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 in peptide-based immunoassay for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and evaluated for its diagnostic ability to detect human igg antibodies against fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1. two previously identified b-cell epitopes of cathepsin l1 were synthesized as single synthetic peptides (acetyl-dkidwresgyvtevkdqgnc-carboxamide and acetyl-dkidwresgyvtelkdqgnc-carboxamide) and their diagnostic potential was evaluated. the peptide-based elisa was compared with an indirect elisa with crude excretor ...200516168617
evaluation of immunoglobulin g subclass antibodies against recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 antigen was developed to detect specific immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass antibodies (igg1, igg2, igg3, and igg4) and was evaluated for its diagnostic potential for human fasciolosis. in an analysis of the sera of 13 patients infected with f. gigantica, 209 patients with other parasitic infections, 32 cholangiocarcinoma patients, and 42 healthy controls, the igg4-elisa gave the highest d ...200516210476
fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase in the detection of early experimental fasciolosis in ruminants.cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase was purified from fasciola gigantica regurgitant by two-step alcoholic fractionation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography. the purification strategy was evolved to eliminate other contaminating proteins co-precipitating with the purified proteinase during alcoholic fractionation. the enzyme was stable on long-term storage at -20 degrees c rendering it more suitable for field diagnostic use. the purified cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase was assayed for detection ...200516222528
clinicopathological indications of resilience of swamp buffaloes to infection with fasciola gigantica. 200516248216
population dynamics of fasciola gigantica in cattle slaughtered in uyo, nigeria. 200516274007
prevalence of fasciolosis in zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and some factors influencing occurrence of fasciolosis in cattle, carried out at selected major abattoirs in zambia. of 841 cattle livers inspected and 677 faecal samples analysed, prevalence rates of 53.9% and 48.9%, respectively, were found. cumulative prevalence of 60.9% (n = 677) was recorded. according to age, no significant difference of infection was found. female cattle on liver inspection (59.3%) and coprological examination (65.2%) ...200516283922
an analysis of the calcium-binding protein 1 of fasciola gigantica with a comparison to its homologs in the phylum platyhelminthes.a full-length cdna encoding the fasciola gigantica calcium-binding protein 1 (fgcabp1) was cloned from an adult stage cdna expression library in an immunoscreen using rabbit immune serum against the parasite's excretion/secretion antigens. the deduced amino acid sequence showed 96.3% identity to fh22cbp of fasciola hepatica. during development in the mammalian host fgcabp1 rna was detected in metacercariae, juveniles and adults and was exclusively localized to the tegumental cell bodies. immune ...200616297461
host reactions in rabbits experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. 197616300137
cathepsin l cysteine proteinase in the diagnosis of bovine fasciola gigantica infection.cathepsin l cysteine proteinase from fasciola gigantica was evaluated for its potential in the early prepatent detection of this helminth infection in bovine calves. five cross-bred bovine calves were experimentally infected with 400 metacercariae/calf and evaluated for anti-cathepsin l antibody response. f. gigantica infection in these calves could be detected 4 weeks post-infection using an elisa, dipstick elisa and western blotting with 100% sensitivity. the antigen was also used to detect f. ...200616300897
immunolocalization of cytoskeletal components in the tegument of the 3-week-old juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica.components of three cytoskeletal elements, namely, microtubule, intermediate and actin filaments have been localised in the tegument of the 3-week-old juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica by means of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques, using mouse monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin, anti-cytokeratin antibodies and biotinylated-phalloidin, respectively. the immunostaining with the above probes were also performed in adult schistosoma mansoni for comparison. the presence of tubulin, in ...200616310956
cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in iringa district, tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and flukes (fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of gi nematodes and flukes. the preval ...200616362610
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