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detection of circulating antigen in sera of fasciola gigantica-infected cattle with antibodies reactive with a fasciola-specific 88-kda antigen.antibodies against a specific 88-kda antigen of fasciola gigantica were used for the detection of circulating antigen in the sera of cattle with experimental and natural infections of f. gigantica by a double antibody elisa. circulating antigen was detectable as early as the second and third weeks after infection and positive absorbance values were obtained for the entire duration of infection. absorbance values decreased below the cutoff point 3 weeks after chemotherapy with oxyclozanide. this ...19957571328
time-course analysis of antibody response by eitb and elisa before and after chemotherapy in sheep infected with fasciola gigantica.the time-course analysis of the antibody response to fascicola gigantica infection in sheep was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb). sera from sheep experimentally infected with f. gigantica were reacted with excretory-secretory antigens of the worm before and after chemotherapy with oxyclozanide. in elisa, there was a significant increase in anti-fasciola antibody by 2 weeks after infection and there was a sharp decrease in an ...19957571329
separation of outer cysts from metacercariae of fasciola gigantica in an aqueous two-phase system.the outer cysts (oc) of fasciola gigantica metacercariae (mc) were separated in an aqueous two-phase system composed of polyethylene glycol and dextran in distilled water. a large number of separated mc without oc were recovered in the bottom layer rich in dextran in the system. ten separated mc in the layer were used to inoculate the mouse with a syringe and juveniles were recovered from the animals on the 14th day. when the number of juveniles recovered was compared with that from the mice inf ...19957622796
immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants using a 28-kda cysteine protease of fasciola gigantica adult worms.a homogeneous extract of a 28-kda cysteine protease of fasciola gigantica adult worms was used as the antigen for immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle, sheep and goats using the falcon assay screening test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. this antiprotease assay technique was found to be very rapid and sensitive and may be useful as a supplementary method for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants.19957660568
development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody reactive with a 28 kda protease of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody that was reactive with a 28-kda protease of fasciola gigantica was produced after hyperimmunizing balb/c mice with a partially purified extract and a purified 28-kda protease obtained from the fluke. isotype analysis showed that the immunoglobulin is igg3. seven other monoclonals of isotypes igg1, igg2 and igg3 which reacted with the protease and one to three other protein bands were also produced. in addition, four other clones of hybridoma produced antibodies which recogn ...19957660572
[immunodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica fascioliasis by elisa technique in senegal. preliminary observations in 2 lambs].the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of the elisa test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis (fasciola gigantica) in sheep, in senegal, using fasciola gigantica metabolic excretion-secretion products as antigens. coprological analysis results were negative until the fourteenth week following infection; using the elisa test, the first anti-fasciola gigantica antibodies can be detected as early as the fourth week following infection.19947709030
[epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in small ruminants in the tree-cropping pasture zone in senegal].an epidemiological survey on gastrointestinal helminthiasis in 51 sheep and 51 goats was held in the tree-cropping pasture region in senegal from october 1990 to september 1991. all the animals examined were infected with at least 1 helminth species. three trematodes (fasciola gigantica, schistosoma bovis, amphistomatids), 2 cestodes (moniezia expansa, cysticercus tenuicollis) and 9 nematodes were identified. the most important parasite in sheep was haemonchus contortus while trichostrongylus co ...19957735304
biomphalaria alexandrina naturally infected with fasciola gigantica in egypt. 19957747303
partial characterization of larval antigens of strongyloides papillosus by western blot analysis.western blotting was used to analyse the antigens in extracts of adult and infective larvae (sil) of strongyloides papillosus with serum of infected rabbits. several proteins in both the extracts reacted with immunoglobulin g in the serum. a protein of about 16 kda in the extract of sil showed an especially strong reaction. no cross-reaction was observed among proteins in the extracts of adult worms of such cattle helminths as fasciola gigantica, homalogaster paloniae, trichuris discolor and set ...19947812315
efficacy of triclabendazole against fasciola gigantica in buffaloes in eastern nepal. 19947886900
cloning and sequence analysis of the major cysteine protease expressed in the trematode parasite fasciola sp.a cdna encoding the fasciola cysteine protease precursor has been cloned and sequenced. the deduced precursor contains 325 amino acid residues (m(r) 36,768) consisting of a signal sequence (pre-region, 15 residues), pro-region (90 residues), and mature protease (220 residues, m(r) 24,371). cys27, his164, and asn184 form the catalytic triad in the active site of the mature enzyme, and their adjacent regions are highly conserved. the parasite enzyme showed 50, 44, and 27% amino acid sequence homol ...19938118429
liver fluke infections in livestock in borno state, nigeria.a survey was conducted on the prevalence of fasciola gigantica and dicrocoelium hospes eggs in gall bladders of cattle and small ruminants (sheep and goats) slaughtered between november 1987 and december 1988 in maiduguri, borno state, nigeria. prevalence rates of 42.7% and 5.7% were recorded for f. gigantica and d. hospes eggs, respectively, in 246 cattle and 718 sheep and goats examined. out of the 246 cattle examined, 52 (21.1%), 45 (18.3%) and 8 (3.3%) excreted eggs of f. gigantica, d. hospe ...19938122358
schistosomiasis and intestinal parasites in rural villages in southwest nigeria: an indication for expanded programme on drug distribution and integrated control programme in nigeria.a cross sectional survey of schistosomiasis, intestinal parasite infections and pattern of schistosomiasis transmission was undertaken in four rural villages around the erinle dam, nigeria. the prevalence of schistosoma haematobium ranged from 10% to 60%. 30% of infected school children excreted over 50 eggs/10 ml urine and high rates of haematuria, proteinuria, leucocyturia and nitrites in urine were observed in infected children and the villagers. prevalence of infection with s. mansoni ranged ...19938256092
effects of ration and fasciola infection on some blood parameters of ewes.this study was conducted using fourty cross-bred ewes in 5 groups of which one was kept as a control and the others were infected with metacercariae of fasciola gigantica twice at the beginning of the experiment and 200 days from the first. the four infected groups fed on basal ration or high protein ration with or without mineral mixture. blood samples were taken from the five groups to assess the concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, calcium and inorg ...19938308350
comparison of the second internal transcribed spacer (ribosomal dna) from populations and species of fasciolidae (digenea).the nucleotide sequence of the 3' end of the second internal transcribed spacer region (its2) was determined for four isolates of fasciola hepatica, two isolates of fasciola gigantica, one isolate of fascioloides magna and one isolate of fasciola sp. from japan. intraspecific sequence divergence was negligible. sequence divergence between f. hepatica and f. gigantica was 2.8% and between fasciola hepatica and fascioloides magna was 13.2%. the sequence of fasciola sp. from japan matched closely t ...19938359995
banding patterns of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (trematoda) by isoelectric focusing.liver flukes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica are polymorphic and vary morphologically depending upon the host being parasitized. it is known also that mixed infection occurs where both species are present. a technique involving protein separation was used to distinguish the 2 species. isoelectric focusing of soluble proteins was performed on polyacrylamide gels using whole-body proteins from adult flukes. although many bands appeared common to both species and some were shared with host ...19938437051
distribution of antigens of fasciola gigantica at various stages of development.an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test on the serum of a fasciola gigantica-infected rabbit, showed specific fluorescence on the tegumental surface of miracidia, sporocysts, rediae, cercariae, metacercariae and juvenile worms aged between one and seven weeks. the same reaction occurred in the gut cells of cercariae and metacercariae and in the gut caeca of juveniles in the liver. the results of the absorption test indicated that stage-specific antigen(s) in metacercariae and seven-week-old ...19938460268
efficacy of ivermectin against internal parasites of sheep.ivermectin in an oral formulation was evaluated by the non-parametric method against a wide range of endoparasites of sheep in 15 trials involving a total of 297 sheep. ivermectin at 200 micrograms/kg was more than 80% effective in more than 80% of the treated animals (i.e. class a) against induced infestations of 3rd and 4th stage larvae and adults of chabertia ovina, dictyocaulus filaria, haemonchus contortus (including a benzimidazole-resistant strain), nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum ...19846549472
specific inhibitors and substrates studies on the cholinesterases of fasciola gigantica from sheep and goats. 19836871931
changes in blood cellular components, serum protein concentrations and serum enzyme activities in buffaloes infested with fasciola gigantica.of 510 adult buffaloes examined, 88 (17.3 per cent) were found to be suffering from fasciola gigantica infestation. there was a reduction in the haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell count in the fasciola affected buffaloes and an increase in their white blood cell count. there was no significant change in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the fasciola affected buffaloes. there was also a decrease in total serum pr ...19827146634
cytochemical localization of cytochrome c oxidase activity in mitochondria in the tegument and tegumental and parenchymal cells of the trematodes echinostoma trivolvis, zygocotyle lunata, schistosoma mansoni, fasciola gigantica and paragonimus ohirai.cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria of the tegument and tegumental and parenchymal cells was examined cytochemically in echinostoma trivolvis, zygocotyle lunata, schistosoma mansoni, fasciola gigantica and paragonimus ohirai, trematodes that inhabit different sites in their vertebrate hosts. clear differences in enzyme activity occurred in the mitochondria of these species, probably reflecting the different energy metabolisms of these worms. marked aerobic metabolism occurred in s. mansoni ...19958522764
helminth parasites and hypobiosis of nematodes in n'dama cattle during the dry season in the gambia.three series of necropsies of cattle were performed, corresponding to early dry season, approximately 1 month after the last rains (november, n = 6), mid dry season (february, n = 6) and end dry season (april, n = 3). eggs per gram of faeces (epg) were determined just before necropsy. three trematodes (fasciola gigantica, schistosoma spp. and paramphistomatids) and 11 nematodes were identified from cattle, with the prevalence rate varying from 6.7% to 100%. haemonchus contortus was the most abun ...19958644452
[paramphostomid infestation in equids in egypt].the investigation of 156 donkeys in the area of the veterinary faculty of the tanta university in kafr el-sheikh showed that 49 animals (31.41%) were infected with trematodes, 34 donkeys (21.80%) served as hosts for gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, 22 (14.10%) were infected with fasciola gigantica und 7 (4.49%) with both trematodes. 6 of 40 examined horses (15.0%) showed monoinfections with g. aegyptiacus only. because of the fragmentary knowledge on these paramphistomides of equids, some aspects conce ...19968765538
fasciola gigantica in the common bile duct: diagnosis by ercp. 19968781802
efficacy and pharmacokinetics of triclabendazole in buffalo with induced fasciolosis.a study was conducted to understand pharmacokinetics and flukicidal activity of intraruminal administration of triclabendazole (tcbz) at 12.0, 24.0 and 36.0 mg kg-1 body weight in experimentally fasciola gigantica-infected buffaloes on week 2 and 10 post-infection. no fluke eggs in faeces and no flukes could be recovered from the liver of buffaloes following intraruminal administration of triclabendazole at 24.0 and 36.0 mg kg-1 body weight both on weeks 2 and 10 post-infection, while the recomm ...19968792582
studies on helminthosis at the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm).the research work relating to helminths, which has been conducted within the helminthology section of the ctvm, often in collaboration with colleagues from the tropics is reviewed and placed into a historical perspective. the research has, in the main, concentrated on the trematodes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and the cestodes taenia saginata and taenia solium, but work on other parasites including gastro-intestinal nematodes is also considered. all of these parasites are of obvious ...19968815611
seroepidemiological survey of taenia saginata cysticercosis in kenya.a sero-epidemiological study of taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of kenya. serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. cattle origin and the presence of t. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such as echinococcus granulosus and fasciola gigantica. serum samples were screened for circulating parasi ...19968888551
the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of long-term low-level intraruminal administration of triclabendazole in buffalo with induced fasciolosis.a study was conducted on the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of triclabendazole at three low dose rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg body weight in buffaloes experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. the pharmacokinetics were compared with the effects of a single intraruminal dose at 24.0 mg/kg body weight in uninfected buffaloes. at all three dose rates, an equilibrium between the absorption of triclabendazole and the disposition of its metabolites was observed by days 3 and 4 and ...19968908726
detection of circulating fasciola gigantica antigen in experimental and natural infections of sheep with fasciolosis.detection of circulating fasciola gigantica antigen was performed in sera of sheep with experimental and natural f. gigantica infections using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. sera from sheep with monoinfections of schistosoma bovis, dicrocoelium hospes and paramphistomum microbothrium were included in the assay to ascertain specificity. circulating f. gigantica antigen (cfa) was detected as early as 1 week after infection in the experimentally infected sheep. no detectable c ...19968916398
approaches to the control of fasciolosis in ruminants.approaches to the control of fasciolosis in ruminants are compared for developed countries, and for developing countries with particular reference to regions growing irrigated rice. in all environments problem definition and investigation are based on one or more of observation, abattoir surveys, faecal egg counts, tracer animals and snail studies. in developed countries each husbandman grazes a large number of animals, controls access to pasture and water, and markets high value products. strat ...19968923144
antibody and circulating antigen profiles before and after chemotherapy in goats infected with fasciola gigantica.the profiles of antibody response and circulating antigen levels in goats infected with fasciola gigantica were studied by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in the antibody assay, sera from goats experimentally infected with f. gigantica were reacted with whole worm antigen of the worm before and after chemotherapy with oxyclozanide. in elisa, there was a significant increase in antibody level 2 weeks after infection. after chemotherap ...19969017880
isolation, cloning, and expression of fatty-acid binding proteins from fasciola gigantica. 19979024206
resistance of indonesian thin tail sheep against fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica.high resistance of indonesian thin tail (itt) sheep against fasciola gigantica has been confirmed. naive itt sheep had only 17% of the number of mature parasites collected from control st. croix sheep. in contrast, the level of resistance of itt sheep against f. hepatica was the same as that of the low resistance merino breed after both primary and secondary infections. it is suggested that resistance of itt sheep against f. gigantica was manifested in two phases. the major phase appeared to be ...19979066053
the isolation of fasciola gigantica-specific antigens and their use in the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep by the detection of circulating antigens.the 17kda and 69kda polypeptide antigens which are specific to fasciola gigantica were excised from polyacrylamide gels and used for the immunization of rabbits to raise monospecific antisera against these polypeptides. these sera were labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used for the detection of circulating 17 kda and 69 kda antigens by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sera of sheep that were experimentally or naturally infected with f. gigantica. the 17 kda antigen was de ...19979066072
evidence for a major gene determining the resistance of indonesian thin tail sheep against fasciola gigantica.the genetic basis of the high resistance of indonesian thin tail (itt) sheep against fasciola gigantica has been studied by measuring the resistance levels of itt sheep, st. croix sheep and their f2 and f3 crossbreds. all of the sheep were bred and reared in the same environment. approximately half of the f2 and f3 crossbreds were as resistant as the itt parental breed, one-quarter had the low resistance of the st. croix parental breed and the rest had an intermediate level of resistance. it is ...19979106952
the use of monoclonal antibody for the immunodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in cattle.antigens that were specific to fasciola gigantica were obtained from the whole worm homogenate of the parasite by immunoaffinity chromatography in cyanogen bromide-activated sepharose 4b columns and used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. the f. gigantica-specific monoclonal antibody was labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used for the detection of circulating antigen by the direct elisa method in the sera of cattle experimentally infected with the parasite. circulating antigens w ...19979195733
specific monoclonal antibodies to fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against soluble metabolic products (excretory/secretory; es) of the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica. the es antigen was obtained from spent culture medium in which the adult flukes had been maintained in vitro. from two cell fusions, the mabs produces were exclusively associated with either igg or igm isotypes. when screened against a panel of homologous and heterologous parasite antigens by indirect elisa, two mabs were highly specific for f. gigantica ...19979251848
evaluation of antigens of fasciola gigantica as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis in cattle.vaccine trials were conducted in brahman cross cattle evaluating the efficacy of 4 native antigens purified from adult fasciola gigantica flukes, and 1 recombinant f. gigantica antigen, as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis. the antigens tested were native glutathione s-transferase, cathepsin l, paramyosin, fatty acid binding protein (fabp), and a recombinant fabp expressed in e. coli, and were formulated in 1 or more of several adjuvants (quil a, squalene montanide 80, mf59-100, auspharm, na ...19979421734
diagnosis of cattle fasciolosis by the detection of a circulating antigen using a monoclonal antibody.a monoclonal antibody (moab) 1c12 that reacts with a 66 kda surface tegumental (st) antigen of adult worms of fasciola gigantica was used to detect circulating antigen in sera of experimentally and naturally infected cattle. a combination of rabbit anti st-antigens and moab 1c12 were used to capture and detect the circulating antigen in sandwich elisa. the dilutions of 1:1,000 of rabbit anti st-antigens and 1:100 for moab 1c12 were used to reduce cross-reactivity with other trematodes' antigens. ...19979438548
acquisition of resistance against fasciola gigantica by indonesian thin tail sheep.the plasma levels of gldh and the dynamics of development of the numbers of surface lesions on livers, and numbers of parasites, within two to three weeks of a challenge infection, indicated that the major component of the high resistance of indonesian thin tail (itt) sheep against fasciola gigantica was acquired, and acted against juvenile parasites. few parasites reached the livers of itt (exposed) sheep, but many had been inhibited, probably in the wall of the jejunum. itt (naive) sheep showe ...19979477508
laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of the egyptian weed, solanum nigrum l.the molluscicidal properties of solanum nigrum l. were tested against three egyptian snail species (biomphalaria alexandrina, bulinus truncatus and lymnaea natalensis), each an intermediate host of parasites causing human schistosomiasis or fascioliasis. the plant was collected in two regions within egypt: fayium and giza. snails were exposed for 24 and 48 h, to the dry powdered fruits and leaves or to crude water extracts of the powders, and mortality was recorded. the water extract of the leav ...19979579213
triploid form of fasciola in japan: genetic relationships between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica determined by its-2 sequence of nuclear rdna.the its-2 sequences from seven worms of the japanese triploid form of fasciola, two of fasciola hepatica from uruguay and four of fasciola gigantica from zambia and indonesia were determined. the its-2 sequences of the japanese triploid worms were divided into two distinct types, one of which was almost identical to that of f. hepatica and the other to f. gigantica from indonesia.19989650058
pharmacokinetics and efficacy of long-term low-level administration of triclabendazole in urea molasses blocks against induced bovine and bubaline fasciolosis.the pharmacokinetics and flukicidal efficacy of triclabendazole delivered in low doses on a daily basis through urea molasses blocks were studied in cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. the observations were compared with single therapeutic doses at 12.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight in cattle and buffaloes, respectively, prior to becoming experimentally infected. after receipt of triclabendazole by cattle and buffaloes at 0.83 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight, respectivel ...19989653990
comparison of production losses caused by chronic fasciola gigantica infection in yearling friesian and boran cattle.yearling friesian and boran cattle were given a standard dose of fasciola gigantica metacercariae designed to produce chronic infection. their liveweights were then monitored for 23 weeks post-infection. following standard meat inspection procedures, all the livers from the infected cattle were condemned. at 22 kg per animal, the mean reduction in liveweight gain in infected borans was significantly greater than in infected friesians. compared to the control cattle and based on current sale pric ...19989719825
sequence heterogeneity in a repetitive dna element of fasciola.a repetitive dna sequence used as a specific probe for fasciola hepatica infections in snails was examined in f. hepatica and fasciola gigantica (36 individuals) specimens from five continents. the degree of intraspecific identity ranged from 79 to 99% in f. hepatica and from 93 to 99% in f. gigantica. the interspecific identity ranged from 81 to 100%, confirming the suggestion that the dna probe sequence could be used worldwide as an epidemiological tool for the examination of the intermediate ...19989925273
primary experimental infection of riverine buffaloes with fasciola gigantica.the clinical course of the primary experimental fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in riverine buffalo calves of the murrah breed. nine male calves aged 12-15 months were randomly assigned to two groups of five (group i) and four (group ii) animals. each animal in group i, was orally infected with 1000 metacercariae (mc) of f. gigantica, whereas group ii animals did not receive any infection dose and served as uninfected controls. no clinical signs of fasciolosis were observed until t ...199910384904
immunodiagnostic moieties in somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of fasciola gigantica.immunodiagnostic potential fractions in fluke antigens and excretory/secretory (e/s) antigen of f. gigantica have been identified using double immunodiffusion (did), immunoelectrophoresis (iep) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (sds) page electrophoresis. hyperimmunised rabbits elicited considerable level of antibody response with few precipitin lines showing reaction of identity in did suggesting presence of some common fractions in all antigens. mature fluke somatic (mfsag) and immature fluke somati ...19958786154
identification of circulating antibodies in fasciolosis and localization of 66 kda antigenic target using monoclonal antibodies.we identified three specific circulating antibodies in serum of cattle naturally infected with fasciola gigantica. two of the antibodies were found to react specifically to 97 and 66 kda antigenic molecules of adult worm tegumental membrane extract. the third antibody was identified by the reaction with 26-28 kda molecule of the excretory/secretory antigens. monoclonal antibody against 66 kda protein was developed and used for localization of its antigenic target in adult worm frozen sections. t ...199910403009
studies on the viability of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.the viability of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica was tested by in vitro and in vivo methods. in vitro testing was based upon the motility of juvenile flukes within the inner cyst as examined under the light microscope. in vivo testing was undertaken through experimental infections of rabbits (two groups) and natural definitive hosts, lambs (one group). in the first group, out of six rabbits each given 25 metacercariae, worm establishment only took place in one rabbit with a single fluke reco ...199910431377
effect of fasciola gigantica somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products on superoxide production by activated neutrophils.somatic extracts and excretory/secretory (es) products from fasciola gigantica suppress the release of toxic oxygen intermediates by activated sheep neutrophils. at the concentrations used both the somatic extracts and es products had no effect on neutrophil viability and in both cases the inhibitory effect was reversible. in the somatic extracts, heating or treatment with trypsin destroyed the inhibitory effect. however, the es products contained at least two immunomodulatory factors. one was l ...199910435794
molecular weight determination of fasciola antigens specific for diagnosis of acute fascioliasis.acute human fascioliasis depends in its diagnosis on detecting specific antibodies in the sera of patients. it was observed that both somatic fraction i and crude e/s products of adult fasciola gigantica worm gave sensitive and specific results. using igm elisa, the cut off o.d was 0.6 and 0.3 nm. and the accuracy was 93% and 98% for the two antigens respectively. determination of the molecular weight of these two antigens was undertaken by sds-page. the molecular weight of the somatic fraction ...19947844411
cyclophosphamide as a potential chemosterilant for harmful snails.cyclophosphamide induced changes in the ovotestis of the snail lymnaea acuminata, the vector of the giant liverflukes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica were studied in order to explore potential of the drug as a chemosterilant for snails. the drug caused a dose dependent reduction in the levels of dna, rna and proteins and the activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. it increased the activity of acid phosphatase and the levels of total free amino acids in the ovotestis. while the anim ...19817336977
fasciola gigantica-specific antigens: purification by a continuous-elution method and its evaluation for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis.immunodominant antigens of an approximate molecular mass of 27 kd were obtained from an excretory-secretory product of adult fasciola gigantica by a continuous-elution method. an indirect elisa using the antigens obtained by this relatively simple procedure was developed for detecting specific antibodies from patients infected with f. gigantica. sera from patients with other parasitic infections, healthy volunteers, and cholangiocarcinoma were also analyzed. the sensitivity, specificity, and pos ...199910548303
circulating antibodies and antigens correlate with egg counts in human fascioliasis.we explored the relationships between specific igg antibody levels and circulating e/s antigen to intensity of fasciola infection in the human host. twenty patients with patent infection and six healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. intensity of infection was determined by repeated egg counts in stools, while igg antibodies against adult fasciola gigantica somatic fi, fii and against e/s antigens were measured as elisa o.d. readings. the level of circulating e/s antigens was determined ...199910583903
comparative parasitological and haematological changes in two breeds of sheep infected with fasciola gigantica.twelve each of red masai and dorper sheep, aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fasciola-free area of eastern kenya. each breed was divided into two groups of 6. the sheep in one group of each breed were experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of fasciola gigantica. the other group of 6 sheep of each breed remained as uninfected controls. the animals were monitored regularly for any evidence of disease. blood samples taken weekly revealed a general reduction in red cel ...199910599131
[the large island--impressions of a medical parasitological trip to madagascar].the course of an investigation trip through madagascar is sketched. it allowed to analyze the parasitological situation. it is explained with the sociological and economical facts and the unusual fauna of this island. the two biggest problems are malaria tropica and schistosomatosis (bilharziasis). further, ancylostoma, ascaris, taeniids, and wuchereria occur. plague is rare. fasciola gigantica has been introduced since short time only. introduction of other parasites must be feared. sleeping il ...19817235291
effects of fasciola gigantica infection on growth and nutrient utilisation of buffalo calves.the effects of fasciola gigantica infection on bodyweight gain, dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and feed conversion efficiency in buffalo calves were investigated. nine male buffalo calves of the murrah breed, aged 12 to 15 months with a mean (se) bodyweight of 166 (12.5) kg, were randomly assigned to groups of five (group 1) and four (group 2). the animals in group 1 were given 1000 viable, mature metacercariae of f gigantica orally, while the animals in group 2 served as uninfect ...199910638797
the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections in dairy cattle in central kenya.a survey of gastrointestinal parasite infections of young (< 6 months old), immature (6-12 months old) and adult (> 12 months old) dairy cattle on 16 farms in kiambu district, kenya was conducted during a dry season (september 1991 to january 1992) and during a wet season (march to july 1992). the survey was based on monthly coproparasitological examination of cohorts and worm counts in tracer calves. the effects of age, sex, farm and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccid ...200010703753
susceptibility of different species of lymnaea snails to miracidia of fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica in iran. 19807217650
fasciolicidal efficacy of albizia anthelmintica and balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole.an attempt was made to evaluate the oral doses of 9 g/kg-body weight of albizzia anthelmintica brong. mimoaseae stem bark water extract and 9 g/kg body weight of b. aegyptiaca (l) del. (balanitaceae) fruit mesocarp water extract (traditionally used as an anthelmintic in the sudan) compared with 20 mg/kg body weight (recommended dose) of albendazole against fasciola gigantica adult worm (12 weeks old) in five groups each of three goats (6 month old). group (i) uninfected control, group (ii) infec ...200010904170
soluble adhesion molecules as a marker of disease severity in human fascioliasis.fasciola gigantica is one of the parasites which affect the liver by producing biliary tract lumen syndrome. soluble adhesion molecules namely soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sicam-1) and soluble e-selection (selam-1) were assayed in human fascioliasis cases with or without complications. it was found that sicam-1 and selam-1 were significantly increases in complicated cases more than the control group, while only sicam-1 was significantly increased in complicated cases more than non ...200010946501
camel: a new egyptian host for fasciola gigantica.f. gigantica is a known liver fluke in egypt. infection has been reported in sheep, goats, buffaloes, cows and donkeys. human cases have been reported from several governorates. this paper records camels as an additional host for f. gigantica in egypt. in such materials worms attained a length of 6.0-6.3 cm.200010946507
the enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis in a range of parasitic protozoa and helminths.the activities of carbamoylphosphate synthase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase, five of the six enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis, have been measured in crithidia fasciculata, trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania major, trichomonas vaginalis, eimeria tenella, toxoplasma gondii, plasmodium berghei, fasciola gigantica, schistosoma mansoni, hymenolepis diminuta, nippostrongylus brasiliensis and trichuris muris. the m ...19816111750
prevalence of hepatic helminths and associated pathology in impala (aepyceros melampus) in swaziland.the livers of impala (aepyceros melampus) collected in the mlawula-mbuluzi-simunye nature reserve and protected area complex in northeastern swaziland from october 1985 to september 1986 were infected with three species of helminths: a nematode (cooperioides hepaticae), a cestode (stilesia hepatica), and a trematode (fasciola gigantica). cooperioides hepaticae caused a severe cholangitis. lambs were infected at 1.5 to 2 mo of age, and the prevalence increased to 100% by 5 mo of age. the prevalen ...19968627927
evaluation of fasciola excretory-secretory (e/s) product in diagnosis of acute human fasciolosis by igm elisa.diagnosis of fasciolosis in the acute phase depends on a sensitive and accurate serological test. the present study is an evaluation of the efficacy of excretory-secretory fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen by igm elisa. thirty eight patients with acute fasciolosis and 14 in the chronic phase together with 23 patients with different parasitic infections were introduced in the study. seventeen healthy, parasite free individuals, were served as controls. a crude excretory-secretory antigen and ...19958525282
use of a partially purified fasciola gigantica worm antigen in the serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis in egypt.crude extracts of fasciola gigantica adult worms, when used as an antigen in indirect hemagglutination (iha) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep) tests, detected all independently diagnosed human f. gigantica and f. hepatica infections but cross-reacted with sera of patients with schistosomiasis and amebiasis. fractionation of this crude worm extract using sephadex g-200 chromatography demonstrated four major protein peaks. antigen from the crest and descending portion of peak ii (mol. wt. ap ...19836305221
natural infection of trematodes in lymnaea (radix) auricularia rubiginosa in water reservoirs in amphoe muang, khon kaen province.lymnaea (radix) auricularia rubiginosa (michelin, 1831) was surveyed in 54 reservoirs of 18 districts in amphoe muang, khon kaen province during february to may 1994. lymnaeid snails were found in the water of 20 reservoirs, of which 16 reservoirs contained clear water and 4 turbid water. two of the four turbid water reservoirs received drainage water from khon kaen town. two thousand four hundred and eight l. auricularia rubiginosa were collected and examined by shedding and crushing. trematode ...19979656379
fasciola gigantica: surface topography of the adult tegument.adult fasciola gigantica are leaf-shaped with tapered anterior and posterior ends and measure about 35 mm in length and 15 mm in width across the mid section. under the scanning electron microscope its surface appears rough due to the presence of numerous spines and surface foldings. both oral and ventral suckers have thick rims covered with transverse folds and appear spineless. on the anterior part of the ventral surface of the body, the spines are small and closely-spaced. each spine has a se ...200111316471
early immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants using recombinant fasciola hepatica cathepsin l-like protease.a diagnostic elisa with recombinant fasciola hepatica cathepsin l-like protease as antigen was developed to detect antibodies against f. hepatica in sheep and cattle. the recombinant cathepsin l-like protease was generated by functional expression of the cdna from adult stage f. hepatica flukes in saccharomyces cerevisiae. specificity and sensitivity of the cathepsin l enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was assessed using sera from sheep and calves experimentally or naturally mono-infecte ...200111336755
evaluation of cercarial antigen for the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in experimentally and naturally infected sheep.the value of cercarial antigen for diagnosis of experimental and natural sheep fasciolosis was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (eitb). in elisa, the antibody levels of experimentally infected sheep with fasciola gigantica appeared at 2 weeks post infection (pi), gradually increased till 7 weeks pi and nearly remained at the same level from 7 to 13 weeks pi (the end of experiment). also, the sensitivity and specificity of cercarial antige ...200111337126
molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin l encoding genes from fasciola gigantica.in this study cdnas encoding cathepsin l-like proteins of fasciola gigantica were cloned by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method (rt-pcr) from total rna of adult specimens. dna sequence analyses revealed that six different cathepsin l cdna fragments were isolated, which have dna sequence identities of 87-99% towards the homologous genes from f. hepatica. gene expression was studied at the rna level by northern and rna in situ hybridizations. northern analysis showed the cat ...200111438432
identification of the egyptian species of fasciola.reports on the species of fasciola present in the nile delta, egypt, appear controversial. some authors reported the presence of both fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica, others reported f. gigantica only and mentioned that f. hepatica was found only in imported animals. this study was an attempt to identify the species of fasciola flukes collected from locally bred animals. morphologic, morphoanatomic, morphometric, and chemotaxonomic criteria of the fluke isolates were studied. speciation ...200211777611
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (es) antigens were developed from balb/c mice. four were selected for further study, from the panel of hybridomas. the antigen specificities of these mabs were characterized and localized by enzyme-linked immunoeletrotransfer blot (eitb) and immunoperoxidase technique. the target epitopes of these mabs are 66 kda protein (mab 2d10), 66 and 27-26 kda proteins (mabs 5d10 and 4f5) and 27-26 kda protein (mab 2d9). m ...19979656363
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant fatty acid binding protein of fasciola gigantica.in fasciola parasites fatty acid binding proteins (fabps) are the carrier proteins that help in the uptake of fatty acids from the hosts' fluids. attempts have been made to utilize both native and recombinant fabp (rfabp) for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development for fasciolosis. in this study, we have produced a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against rfabp of fasciola gigantica. these moabs were initially screened against rfabp by elisa and then tested for their specificities by immu ...200211900926
immunization of sheep against fasciola gigantica with glutathione s-transferase.glutathione s-transferase in fasciola gigantica (fggst) was isolated by affinity chromatography, by which highly purified enzyme was obtained. fggst on the sds-page showed three protein bands ranging 24.5-26.5kda. glutathione s-transferase (gst) activity was determined by habig method. fggst was evaluated as vaccine alone or in combination with either aluminum hydroxide or saponin in sheep against f. gigantica infection. elisa was used for detection of anti-fggst igg. after vaccination, all shee ...200211900929
the protective role of fasciola tegument antigen against trichinella spiralis infection.fasciola gigantica tegument antigen was prepared to be used for induction of immunity against trichinella spiralis in albino mice. the results of the study showed that the antigen was more effective when administered in a dose of 3 micrograms than in a dose of 30 micrograms. this was evidenced by the reduction in adult count 72%, adult length 61.4%, larval count 78.7%, length of muscle larvae 32.2% and the significant reduction in reproductive capacity index.19938376868
fasciola gigantica: the growth and larval productivity of redial generations in the snail lymnaea truncatula.bimiracidial infections of french lymnaea truncatula with a madagascan isolate of fasciola gigantica were carried out under laboratory conditions to study the growth of rediae and their larval productivity in relation to the different redial generations. the total numbers of rediae and their mean lengths significantly increased with the duration of infection until day 49 post-exposure (p.e.). significant differences in the lengths between the different redial generations were noted. at day 49 p. ...200211999026
a geographic information system forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in ethiopia.a geographic information system (gis) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, fasciola gigantica, in ethiopia. agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the food and agriculture organization (fao) crop production system zones (cpsz) database on ea ...19989735916
taxonomic status of the japanese triploid forms of fasciola: comparison of mitochondrial nd1 and coi sequences with f. hepatica and f. gigantica.because it is difficult to identify morphologically the japanese forms of fasciola, additional taxonomic criteria are required. in order to clarify the genetic relationships between fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and the japanese triploid forms of fasciola, we compared nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nd1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) genes. intraspecific variation in the nd1 and coi sequences was low, except for 1 specimen of f. gigantica i ...19989576524
identification and characterization of a 26- to 28-kda circulating antigen of fasciola gigantica.as a disease of domestic ruminants, fascioliasis is of considerable economic importance. although serological tests are available for the diagnosis of the disease, they are of generally low specificity because of cross-reactivity with antigens from other parasites. there is a need to identify other fasciola antigens on which more specific tests could be based. in the present study, a specific rabbit anti-serum and western-blot analyses were used to demonstrate the presence of a highly reactive a ...200212061974
characterisation and expression of the fasciola gigantica cathepsin l gene.the gene structure of a cathepsin l from fasciola gigantica was characterised. the gene spans approximately 2.0 kb and comprises four exons and three introns and is a compact gene as in the cases of crustaceous and platyhelminth cathepsins l. southern blot analysis suggested that a few copies of the genes are sparsely organised in the genome. of the three intron insertion positions, two of which are in the same position as in the mammalian cathepsin l gene. phylogenetic analysis revealed that f. ...200212076632
fasciola gigantica and f hepatica: a comparative study of some characteristics of fasciola infection in lymnaea truncatula infected by either of the two trematodes.experimental infections were carried out using three lymnaea truncatula populations and two fasciola species in order to determine the trematode influence on six parameters of snail infection by either of the two trematodes. all experiments were performed using snails 4 mm long, two miracidia for each l truncatula, and a constant temperature of 20 degrees c. no significant influence of trematode species was detected in the following parameters: snail survival at day 30, the life span of infected ...19979112734
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against 28.5 kda tegument antigen of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against the 28.5 kda tegumental antigen of fasciola gigantica was produced by the hybridoma technique using spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the tegumental extract from adult f. gigantica. this moab was found to be of the isotype igg(1), kappa-light chain, and shown by immunoblotting to specifically react with the 28.5 kda antigen present in the tegument, excretion-secretion material of the adult, whole-body extracts of newly excysted juveniles, 5-week-ol ...200212387905
serodifferentiation of human fascioliasis from schistosomiasis.a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa) was developed using excretory-secretory (es) antigens of fasciola gigantica adult worms and freeze-thaw antigen (aft) of adult schistosoma mansoni worms. specific igg and igm antibodies were simultaneously investigated in sera from 17 febrile eosinophilic hospitalized patients and 20 healthy controls. dot-elisa was shown useful and could differentiate fascioliasis from schistosomiasis prior to parasite egg detection in patient's stool. this ass ...19947855923
a pcr-rflp assay for the distinction between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis is of well-known veterinary importance and an increasing human health problem, with reported cases in the five continents. the causative agents, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, present geographical distributions, which overlap in many regions of africa and asia, and in which the differentiation of both species is usually difficult because of the many variations in their morphological characteristics. moreover, in humans, liver fluke classification cannot be achieved by cli ...200212477436
recognition of antigenic components of fasciola gigantica and their use in immunodiagnosis.antigenicity of the tegumental extract, excretory-secretory products and the whole somatic extract of fasciola gigantica were evaluated to detect the most sensitive and specific antigen out of them that could be used as an immuno-diagnostic tool. scanning electron microscopic study was carried out to have a full picture about the tegumental structure. the immunohistochemical staining technique was done using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on f. gigantica sections before and after removal o ...200212512802
relationship between system of raising egyptian buffaloes and the effect of climate conditions on the helminthic infection rate, middle delta, egypt.no doubt climate conditions are of sound influence in both prevalence of helminthic infection and the physiology of the host. fewer studies have been done on this relationship on farm animals. to complete the view, one thousand, two hundred and seventy eight buffaloes owned by farmers from 160 herds belong to 32 villages in the middle delta of egypt were randomly chosen to study factors which influence the infection with gastrointestinal parasites. relationship between number of parasites, herd ...199910605501
cercarial shedding from galba truncatula infected with fasciola gigantica of distinct geographic origins.galba truncatula snails were experimentally infected with either of two different isolates of fasciola gigantica, originating from egypt or china, to determine the influence of these isolates on the characteristics of snail infections. the survival rates of g. truncatula on day 30 post-exposure were 90.0% and 60.2% in the egyptian and chinese groups, respectively. the frequency of cercaria-shedding snails within the egyptian group was 79.8%, whereas in the chinese group it was 22.4%. the parasit ...200312541059
a comparison of serum biochemical changes in two breeds of sheep (red masai and dorper) experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica.twelve red masai and 12 dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of fasciola gigantica. the other groups acted as uninfected controls. blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. following the establishment of in ...199910396762
scanning electron microscopical studies on cercariae and metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.the surface topography of fasciola gigantica cercariae and metacercariae was studied by scanning electron microscopy. the head of f. gigantica cercaria is covered with several small knobs and its tail is provided with two lateral folds, fused ventrally, near the distal end of the tail. the oral sucker is smaller than the ventral one and possesses a characteristic surface structure. the outermost layer (layer i) of the outer cyst wall of the metacercaria is roughened with irregular furrows. the i ...199912561923
an erratic parasitism found in the lungs of sheep during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica (japanese strain).an erratic parasitism was observed in the lungs of sheep experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica at autopsy 14 weeks after inoculation. macroscopically, several hyperaemia of 7.5-12.5 mm in diameter were found on the surface of the lungs. juvenile flukes detected in the lungs were much smaller than those in the liver of the same sheep. a slight inflammatory reaction was observed in the lungs and it is likely that the flukes had migrated in the pleural cavity for some time. occasionally, ...19989765374
antigenic components of somatic extract from adult fasciola gigantica recognized by infected human sera.the antigenic components of fasciola gigantica somatic extract were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting technique using sera from patients with f. gigantica infection, patients with clinically diagnosed fascioliasis, patients with other infections/illness and healthy adults. by sds-page, it was found that the somatic product comprised more than 22 polypeptides. immunoblotting analysis revealed at least 13 components which were stro ...19979579615
several observations concerning cercarial sheddings of fasciola gigantica from lymnaea natalensis.the shedding of cercariae from lymnaea natalensis and their transformation into metacercariae occurred mainly at night, and 70.7% of the cysts were counted between 7 p.m. and 1 a.m. there is no infradian rhythm in the numerical distribution of the daily mean values as related to experiment duration or patent period duration. one quarter of the snails shed their cercariae in a single wave and the others in 2 to 13 waves. floating cysts represent 35% of the total number of metacercariae and their ...19949235192
the effect of experimental fascioliasis on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine in desert sheep.healthy adult male desert sheep were experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica, to investigate the influence of experimental fasciolasis on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine. each animal received 500 metacercariae orally. the experimental infection was confirmed histologically, by detection of fasciola eggs in faeces and by measuring the activities of the enzymes sorbitol dehydrogenase (sd), glutamate dehydrogenase (gd) and aspartate aminotransferase (ast) in plasma dur ...19979185081
excretory-secretory antigenic components of adult fasciola gigantica recognized by infected human sera.the immunogenic components of fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (es) products were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting technic using sera from patients with f. gigantica infection, from patients with clinical suspected fascioliasis, from patients with other illness and from healthy adults. by sds-page, it was found that the es products comprised more than 6 polypeptides. immunoblotting analysis revealed 12 components which wer ...199810437961
[histochemical study on trematodes: distribution of carbonic anhydrase activity]the purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the distribution of carbonic anhydrase pattern in the various termatodes (fasciola gigantica, paramphistoma orthocoelium, paragonimus westermani) by means of kurada staining method, and to correlate these findings with the histochemical data and harboring location. the results are summarized as follows: 1. in fasciloa gigantica, carbonic anhydrase activity was positive in the vitelline gland cells and eggs in the uterus. 2. in paramphistoma orth ...197212913508
immune responses in indonesian thin tail and merino sheep during a primary infection with fasciola gigantica: lack of a specific igg2 antibody response is associated with increased resistance to infection in indonesian sheep.after a primary infection with fasciola gigantica, the immune responses in a resistant (indonesian thin tail) and a susceptible (merino) breed of sheep were analysed. the number of adult flukes recovered from the livers of the indonesian thin tail sheep were significantly lower than those found in the merino animals. on days 8, 14 and 25 p.i., indonesian thin tail sheep exhibited a significantly higher eosinophilia than merino sheep, whereas neutrophilia was significantly elevated in the indones ...199910501613
the evolution of enzyme specificity in fasciola spp.fasciola spp., commonly known as liver fluke, are significant trematode parasites of livestock and humans. they secrete several cathepsin l-like cysteine proteases, some of which differ in enzymatic properties and timing of expression in the parasite's life cycle. a detailed sequence and evolutionary analysis is presented, based on 18 cathepsin l-like enzymes isolated from fasciola spp. (including a novel clone identified in this study). the enzymes form a monophyletic group which has experience ...200312962301
production of monoclonal antibodies against partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced by the in vitro fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica. the surface membrane and tegument antigens were purified by using gel filtration chromatography. sds-page performed on the processed proteins demonstrated that the proteins had molecular weights of 20 to 97 kda. in this study, fifteen monoclonal antibody clones were selected from the hybridoma clones, namely: 1b7, 1b11, 1 ...200212971484
life-history of fasciola gigantica cobbold 1856. 195313072541
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