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molecular cloning and analysis of stage and tissue-specific expression of cathepsin b encoding genes from fasciola gigantica.the transcriptional products of fasciola gigantica genes encoding cathepsin b proteases were cloned from adult, newly excysted juvenile (nej), and metacercarial stages. the obtained cdnas were named fg cat-b1, fg cat-b2, and fg cat-b3. the deduced amino acid sequences of the encoded proteases have identities ranging from 64 to 79%. sequence comparison with homologous proteins showed that all functional important residues formerly described for cathepsin b are conserved. southern analysis confirm ...200415138062
immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using an antigen of fasciola gigantica adult worm with the molecular mass of 27 kda by a dot-elisa.immunodominant antigens of an approximate molecular mass of 27 kda (fg 27) were obtained from an excretory-secretory product of adult fasciola gigantica by a simple continuous-elution method. a dot-elisa using the fg 27 antigen was developed for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with f. gigantica. control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers. the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive v ...200315115076
spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the liver fluke fasciola gigantica cobbold, 1856 (digenea: fasciolidae), a parasite of cattle in senegal.the present paper describes the spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of fasciola gigantica, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. spermiogenesis in f. gigantica begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing 2 centrioles with associated striated roots and an intercentriolar body between them. each centriole develops a flagellum. proximodistal fusion of these flagella with the median cytoplasmic extension gives rise to the spermatozoon. spermiogenes ...200415040664
detection of fasciola gigantica infection in snails by polymerase chain reaction.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. fasciola specific primers amplified a 124 bp fragment in pcr when the genomic dna isolated from f. gigantica infected lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. in addition to the 124 bp amplicon, a ladder of dna fragments representing amplification of the 124 bp repetitive sequences was observed. genomic dna of the parasite was used as a positive control, which also gave an ampl ...200415019146
characterisation of fasciola species from mainland china by its-2 ribosomal dna sequence.isolates of fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from different host species and geographical locations in mainland china were characterised genetically. the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna) was amplified from individual trematodes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the representative amplicons were cloned and sequenced. the length of the its-2 sequences was 361-362bp for all chinese fasciola specimens sequenced. while there was no variati ...200415019145
experimental bubalian fasciolosis: kinetics of antibody response using 28 kda fasciola gigantica cysteine proteinase as antigen. 200414979558
cross-reaction: a common trait among helminthes.cross-reaction between three important zoonotic helminths, fasciola gigantica, trichinella spiralis and echinococcus granulosus, was proved by elisa. cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera were strongly directed towards protoscolices and hydatid fluid antigens of e. granulosus rather than to f. gigantica and t. spiralis antigens. two sets of polypeptides were identified in each antigen by immunoblot; species-specific and cross-reactive. cross-reactive components in f. gigantica antige ...200314964660
[lymnea (radix) natalensis undussumae of martens, natural transmitter of fasciola gigantica cobbold in the belgian congo; experimental reproduction of the evolutive cycle of fluke]. 195114915307
detection of circulating 54 kda antigen in sera of bovine calves experimentally infected with f. gigantica.the antibody response and circulating antigen levels in bovine calves, infected experimentally with fasciola gigantica, were monitored using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) and sandwich elisa, respectively. by eitb, the infected calves' sera recognized the polypeptides in the range of 54-58 kda as early as 2 weeks post-infection. by 12th week post-infection, the lower two polypeptides of 12 and 8 kda had disappeared. in sandwich elisa, the circulating 54 kda and whole worm antige ...200414746978
diagnosis of fasciola gigantica in snail using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay.the 124-bp repetitive and highly abundant dna sequence--used as a specific probe for the detection of fasciola hepatica infection in snails--was tested in the detection of f. gigantica infection in lymnaea natalensis. the probe did not show any positive pcr results with lymnaea natalensis, physa acuta, biomphalaria alexandrina and bulinus trucatus or with schistosoma mansoni, s. haematobium and echinostoma liei. however, the probe was found capable to detect f. gigantica infection within l. nata ...200314708850
characterisation of fasciola gigantica adult 27-kda excretory-secretory antigen in human fascioliasis.the 27-kda excretory-secretory antigen partially purified from adult fasciola gigantica adult worms (fg27) has been used as the sensitive and specific antigen for immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis. lectin-blot analyses have shown that the fg27 possesses both n - and o -glycans. in two-dimensional electrophoresis, silver staining, lectin blotting and immunoblotting, fg27 displayed at least four antigenic-glycosylated protein spots at the pi values of 4.8, 4.9, 5.2 and 5.4, respectively. after ...200314574564
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: comparative morphometric studies on the redial stage of both species.experimental infections of galba truncatula with fasciola gigantica or f. hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions (20 degrees c) to determine the characteristics of rediae of both species via their morphometry and to find reliable measurements that might be efficiently used to discriminate between the rediae of both species of fasciola. these results were compared to those of another snail: radix natalensis, infected with either f. gigantica or f. hepatica under the same protocol. ...200314505040
the use of antigens prepared from adult fasciola gigantica, schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma bovis in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis by the complement fixation test (cft). 196514311785
the life-history of some vectors of fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions. 196514297347
observations on the anthelmintic acitivity of combinations of hexachlorophene and bithionol against fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes in cattle. 196514286148
in vitro uptake of racobalamin-60 in fasciola gigantica and its effect on experimentally infected rabbits. 196414242259
prevalence of schistosomiasis in various governorates in the united arab republic as revealed by the intradermal test with antigens from adult fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mansoni. 196414206693
a comparative study on the levels of ca, inorganic p and mg in the blood serum and bile of the normal healthy buffalo (bos bubalus) and those of buffaloes infested with liver fluke (fasciola gigantica). 196414134899
the influence of temperature on the succession of redial and cercarial generations of fasciola gigantica in a snail host. 196414124283
fasciola gigantica and fascioliasis in turkey. 196414103225
the use of antigens prepared from adult fasciola gigantica, schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma bovis in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis by the intra-dermal test (idt). 196314081299
physiological studies on trematodes--fasciola gigantica carbohydrate metabolism. 196113899581
uganda zebu cattle naturally infected with fasciola gigantica with special reference to changes in the serum proteins. 196013843561
penetration of fasciola gigantica cobbold, 1856 into snail hosts. 196013814561
physiological studies on trematodes--fasciola gigantica rate of oxygen consumption. 196113706338
haemoglobin in trematodes. 1. fasciola gigantica. 2. cotylophoron indicum. 196113706337
the incidence of liver flukes (fasciola gigantica) and hydatid cysts (echinococcus granulosus) in kenya catle. 196013702295
a short account on the economic importance of fasciola gigantica, its effect on livestock and the snail vector. 195713525526
observations on the succession of redial generations of fasciola gigantica cobbold in a snail host. 195613443395
life-history of fasciola gigantica cobbold 1856. 195313072541
human infestation with fasciola gigantica. 195313065418
production of monoclonal antibodies against partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced by the in vitro fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with partially purified surface tegument antigens of fasciola gigantica. the surface membrane and tegument antigens were purified by using gel filtration chromatography. sds-page performed on the processed proteins demonstrated that the proteins had molecular weights of 20 to 97 kda. in this study, fifteen monoclonal antibody clones were selected from the hybridoma clones, namely: 1b7, 1b11, 1 ...200212971484
the evolution of enzyme specificity in fasciola spp.fasciola spp., commonly known as liver fluke, are significant trematode parasites of livestock and humans. they secrete several cathepsin l-like cysteine proteases, some of which differ in enzymatic properties and timing of expression in the parasite's life cycle. a detailed sequence and evolutionary analysis is presented, based on 18 cathepsin l-like enzymes isolated from fasciola spp. (including a novel clone identified in this study). the enzymes form a monophyletic group which has experience ...200312962301
comparison of adult somatic and cysteine proteinase antigens of fasciola gigantica in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.fasciolosis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in iran. considering that stool examination for fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, so the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (s) and cysteine proteinase (cp) antigens of f. gigantica in igg-elisa to diagnose human fasciolosis. serum samples obtained from 100 individuals collected during th ...200312943979
[histochemical study on trematodes: distribution of carbonic anhydrase activity]the purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the distribution of carbonic anhydrase pattern in the various termatodes (fasciola gigantica, paramphistoma orthocoelium, paragonimus westermani) by means of kurada staining method, and to correlate these findings with the histochemical data and harboring location. the results are summarized as follows: 1. in fasciloa gigantica, carbonic anhydrase activity was positive in the vitelline gland cells and eggs in the uterus. 2. in paramphistoma orth ...197212913508
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant glutathione s-transferase (gst) of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against a recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rgst) of f. gigantica was produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of this monoclonal antibody was assessed by elisa and immunoblotting. six stable clones, namely 3a3, 3b2, 3c6, 4a6, 4b1 and 4d6 were obtained, all these moab reacted with rgst and native gst at a molecular weight of 28 kda and found to be igg1, kappa-light chain isotypes. these moab cross-reacted with schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma japon ...200212744627
the effect of potassium permanganate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate on metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.batches of encysted metacercariae of f. gigantica, adhered to transparent polyethylene sheets, were treated with kmno4, while others were treated with nadcc at specific concentrations and exposure times. assessment of the effects was carried out by the detached percentage and viable metacercariae and by scanning electron microscope (sem) ultrastructure changes. in addition, their effects on leaves of green vegetables were reported. the results showed that all metacercariae were detached and were ...200312739819
electron miscroscopy and histochemical studies on four egyptian helminthes eggs of medical importance.by sem the fasciola gigantica egg is ovoid with a small knob like operculum, while the egg of heterophyes heterophytes is broad oval with the operculum more tapering. the egg shell of fertilized ascaris lumbricoides has interconnected ridges and peak-like projections, while the egg of enterobius vermicularis is flattened with a thicker margin at the curved side. by tem, fasciola egg shell consists of fine reticulum fibrils of three layers. the outer lipoprotein of perivitelline membrane beneath ...200312739814
detection of opisthorchis viverrini in experimentally infected bithynid snails and cyprinoid fishes by a pcr-based method.a pcr procedure for the detection of opisthorchis viverrini in experimentally infected bithynid snails and cyprinoid fishes was developed. this procedure was based on primers designed from a pov-a6 specific probe sequence giving a 330 base-pair product. the detection was accomplished in host tissue homogenates to which a single cercaria or metacercaria was introduced. pcr can detect as little as a single cercaria artificially inoculated in a snail or a single metacercaria artificially inoculated ...200312613764
fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of three different miracidial isolates in the snail lymnaea truncatula.bimiracidial infections of lymnaea truncatula with three isolates of fasciola gigantica, originating from china, egypt and madagascar, were carried out to determine the effect of geographic origin of the parasite on the larval productivity of redial generations. the prevalences of experimental infections in snails exposed to strains from madagascar, china and egypt were 20.8%, 60.0% and 80.0%, respectively. at day 49 post-exposure (p.e.), the total number of free rediae in snails infected with t ...200312590658
scanning electron microscopical studies on cercariae and metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.the surface topography of fasciola gigantica cercariae and metacercariae was studied by scanning electron microscopy. the head of f. gigantica cercaria is covered with several small knobs and its tail is provided with two lateral folds, fused ventrally, near the distal end of the tail. the oral sucker is smaller than the ventral one and possesses a characteristic surface structure. the outermost layer (layer i) of the outer cyst wall of the metacercaria is roughened with irregular furrows. the i ...199912561923
infection of two lymnaeid snails with fasciola gigantica in giza, a field study.population density of lymnaea natalensis and l. columella and their natural infection with fasciola gigantica were followed in two water bodies in abu rawash area, giza governorate over two years. l. natalensis snails were more abundant during december-february, while l. columella snails had high density during autumn. according to the snail size, we found that the reproduction of the two vector snails occurred in summer and early autumn. fasciola was present in 0.6 and 2.0% of the examined l. n ...199912561910
cercarial shedding from galba truncatula infected with fasciola gigantica of distinct geographic origins.galba truncatula snails were experimentally infected with either of two different isolates of fasciola gigantica, originating from egypt or china, to determine the influence of these isolates on the characteristics of snail infections. the survival rates of g. truncatula on day 30 post-exposure were 90.0% and 60.2% in the egyptian and chinese groups, respectively. the frequency of cercaria-shedding snails within the egyptian group was 79.8%, whereas in the chinese group it was 22.4%. the parasit ...200312541059
bacterial-parasite interaction between salmonella and each of fasciola gigantica and trichinella spiralis.the possibility of bacterial-parasite interaction between salmonella typhimurium and the surface of each of fasciola gigantica metacercariae and trichinella spiralis larvae was investigated in vitro. two studies were carried out. in the first, s. typhimurium were incubated in vitro with the metacercariae of f. gigantica. in the second, s. typhimurium was incubated with larvae of t. spiralis. the interactions of s. typhimurium with each of f. gigantica metacercariae and t. spiralis larvae were st ...200212512807
recognition of antigenic components of fasciola gigantica and their use in immunodiagnosis.antigenicity of the tegumental extract, excretory-secretory products and the whole somatic extract of fasciola gigantica were evaluated to detect the most sensitive and specific antigen out of them that could be used as an immuno-diagnostic tool. scanning electron microscopic study was carried out to have a full picture about the tegumental structure. the immunohistochemical staining technique was done using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on f. gigantica sections before and after removal o ...200212512802
a pcr-rflp assay for the distinction between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis is of well-known veterinary importance and an increasing human health problem, with reported cases in the five continents. the causative agents, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, present geographical distributions, which overlap in many regions of africa and asia, and in which the differentiation of both species is usually difficult because of the many variations in their morphological characteristics. moreover, in humans, liver fluke classification cannot be achieved by cli ...200212477436
28 kda fasciola gigantica cysteine proteinase in the diagnosis of prepatent ovine fasciolosis.coprological confirmation of ovine fasciolosis in the field, prior to out breaks of the disease and/or strategic antifluke medication, seem to be of little consequence. efforts are, therefore, being made to evolve a putative antigen specific to serodiagnostic test for early diagnosis during prepatency. in the present investigation, 28 kda cysteine proteinase was used in eli sa and western blot to detect fasciola gigantica antibodies and further dipstick-elisa was developed for field application, ...200212423935
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against 28.5 kda tegument antigen of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against the 28.5 kda tegumental antigen of fasciola gigantica was produced by the hybridoma technique using spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the tegumental extract from adult f. gigantica. this moab was found to be of the isotype igg(1), kappa-light chain, and shown by immunoblotting to specifically react with the 28.5 kda antigen present in the tegument, excretion-secretion material of the adult, whole-body extracts of newly excysted juveniles, 5-week-ol ...200212387905
morphological and ecological studies on lymnaea natalensis the snail vector of fasciola gigantica in egypt.lymnaea natalensis were collected from several localities in giza governorate (el-mansouria, kafr hakim and the nile). the collected snails were examined for cercarial shedding and measurement of shell was carried out using a virner caliper. a total of 217 lymnaea was collected from all habitats and 24 snails were found to shed fasciola gigantica cercariae with infection rate 11.1%. the ratio of shell height to shell width (h/w) ranged 1.7-2.1. the ratio between length of aperture to shell heigh ...200212214922
characterisation and expression of the fasciola gigantica cathepsin l gene.the gene structure of a cathepsin l from fasciola gigantica was characterised. the gene spans approximately 2.0 kb and comprises four exons and three introns and is a compact gene as in the cases of crustaceous and platyhelminth cathepsins l. southern blot analysis suggested that a few copies of the genes are sparsely organised in the genome. of the three intron insertion positions, two of which are in the same position as in the mammalian cathepsin l gene. phylogenetic analysis revealed that f. ...200212076632
identification and characterization of a 26- to 28-kda circulating antigen of fasciola gigantica.as a disease of domestic ruminants, fascioliasis is of considerable economic importance. although serological tests are available for the diagnosis of the disease, they are of generally low specificity because of cross-reactivity with antigens from other parasites. there is a need to identify other fasciola antigens on which more specific tests could be based. in the present study, a specific rabbit anti-serum and western-blot analyses were used to demonstrate the presence of a highly reactive a ...200212061974
fascioliasis in vietnam.a confirmed diagnosis of human fascioliasis was rare in vietnam until 1978 when two cases were reported in humans. since 1997, we have confirmed 500 cases of human fascioliasis. the majority of cases come from the central provinces of vietnam: da nang, quang ngai, binh dinh, phu yen and khanh hoa. patients were treated in hospitals in ho chi minh city. all had high peripheral blood eosinophilic counts (16-70%) and positive serology with fasciola gigantica antigen with positive titers of 1/1,600 ...200112041604
nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial co i and ribosomal its ii genes of opisthorchis viverrini in northeast thailand.the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (co i) gene and the second internal transcribed spacer region (its ii) gene of opisthorchis viverrini were compared among o. viverrini from various areas in northeast thailand. the nucleotide sequences of partial co i gene (417 bp) of o. viverrini differed among o. viverrini originated from ubon ratana, leongpleuy, ban phai, maha sarakham, and chatturat. these intraspecific variations were classified into 5 patterns but no area-specific pattem was ...200112041584
fasciola gigantica: the growth and larval productivity of redial generations in the snail lymnaea truncatula.bimiracidial infections of french lymnaea truncatula with a madagascan isolate of fasciola gigantica were carried out under laboratory conditions to study the growth of rediae and their larval productivity in relation to the different redial generations. the total numbers of rediae and their mean lengths significantly increased with the duration of infection until day 49 post-exposure (p.e.). significant differences in the lengths between the different redial generations were noted. at day 49 p. ...200211999026
fasciola gigantica: tegumental surface alterations following treatment in vitro with the sulphoxide metabolite of triclabendazole.the effect of the active sulphoxide metabolite of the fasciolicide triclabendazole on the surface morphology of the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica, was determined in vitro by scanning electron microscopy. at a concentration of 10 microg/ml, swelling and blebbing of the tegument was evident after only 6 h incubation. the blebbing was focussed on the spines. with progressively longer incubation periods, blebbing on the spines became more severe, leading to tegumental sloughing and spine ...200211999018
immunization of sheep against fasciola gigantica with glutathione s-transferase.glutathione s-transferase in fasciola gigantica (fggst) was isolated by affinity chromatography, by which highly purified enzyme was obtained. fggst on the sds-page showed three protein bands ranging 24.5-26.5kda. glutathione s-transferase (gst) activity was determined by habig method. fggst was evaluated as vaccine alone or in combination with either aluminum hydroxide or saponin in sheep against f. gigantica infection. elisa was used for detection of anti-fggst igg. after vaccination, all shee ...200211900929
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant fatty acid binding protein of fasciola gigantica.in fasciola parasites fatty acid binding proteins (fabps) are the carrier proteins that help in the uptake of fatty acids from the hosts' fluids. attempts have been made to utilize both native and recombinant fabp (rfabp) for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development for fasciolosis. in this study, we have produced a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against rfabp of fasciola gigantica. these moabs were initially screened against rfabp by elisa and then tested for their specificities by immu ...200211900926
the influence of different food sources on cercarial production in lymnaea truncatula experimentally infected with digenea.experimental infections of lymnaea truncatula with a digenean species (fasciola gigantica, f. hepatica, or paramphistomum daubneyi) were performed under laboratory conditions to study the effect of four sources of food (microalgae, romaine lettuce, wheat germs, or modified boray diet) on cercarial production. the mean number of f. hepatica, f. gigantica, or p. daubneyi cercariae was significantly greater when snail food was microalgae or boray diet. the lowest cost prices for 100 metacercariae o ...200211873822
identification of the egyptian species of fasciola.reports on the species of fasciola present in the nile delta, egypt, appear controversial. some authors reported the presence of both fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica, others reported f. gigantica only and mentioned that f. hepatica was found only in imported animals. this study was an attempt to identify the species of fasciola flukes collected from locally bred animals. morphologic, morphoanatomic, morphometric, and chemotaxonomic criteria of the fluke isolates were studied. speciation ...200211777611
molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin l encoding genes from fasciola gigantica.in this study cdnas encoding cathepsin l-like proteins of fasciola gigantica were cloned by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method (rt-pcr) from total rna of adult specimens. dna sequence analyses revealed that six different cathepsin l cdna fragments were isolated, which have dna sequence identities of 87-99% towards the homologous genes from f. hepatica. gene expression was studied at the rna level by northern and rna in situ hybridizations. northern analysis showed the cat ...200111438432
evaluation of cercarial antigen for the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in experimentally and naturally infected sheep.the value of cercarial antigen for diagnosis of experimental and natural sheep fasciolosis was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (eitb). in elisa, the antibody levels of experimentally infected sheep with fasciola gigantica appeared at 2 weeks post infection (pi), gradually increased till 7 weeks pi and nearly remained at the same level from 7 to 13 weeks pi (the end of experiment). also, the sensitivity and specificity of cercarial antige ...200111337126
early immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants using recombinant fasciola hepatica cathepsin l-like protease.a diagnostic elisa with recombinant fasciola hepatica cathepsin l-like protease as antigen was developed to detect antibodies against f. hepatica in sheep and cattle. the recombinant cathepsin l-like protease was generated by functional expression of the cdna from adult stage f. hepatica flukes in saccharomyces cerevisiae. specificity and sensitivity of the cathepsin l enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was assessed using sera from sheep and calves experimentally or naturally mono-infecte ...200111336755
fasciola gigantica: surface topography of the adult tegument.adult fasciola gigantica are leaf-shaped with tapered anterior and posterior ends and measure about 35 mm in length and 15 mm in width across the mid section. under the scanning electron microscope its surface appears rough due to the presence of numerous spines and surface foldings. both oral and ventral suckers have thick rims covered with transverse folds and appear spineless. on the anterior part of the ventral surface of the body, the spines are small and closely-spaced. each spine has a se ...200111316471
the liver flukes fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica express the leucocyte cluster of differentiation marker cd77 (globotriaosylceramide) in their tegument.glycosphingolipids from the parasitic liver flukes fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica were isolated and their carbohydrate moieties were structurally analysed by methylation analysis, exoglycosidase treatment, on-target exoglycosidase cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. for both liver fluke species, the ceramide monohexosides gal1-ceramide and glc1-ceramide were found in relative amounts of 1.0 to 0.1, respectively. from f. gigantica, ...200111308018
identification of mouth part antigens of fasciola gigantica and toxocara vitulorum and its molecular targets recognized by homologous and heterologous adult anti-sera against adult.sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) fractionation of whole-worm and mouth part antigens of f. gigantica and t. vitulorum showed obvious qualitative and quantitative differences. three different anti-sera, raised in rabbits against adult extracts of f. gigantica, t. vitulorum and monieza expansa, were utilized in immunoblotting for identification of mouth part antigens that cross-react with adult worm of the same species or of different species. 7 and 8 poly pep ...200011198384
comparative morphometry, morphology of egg and adult surface topography under light and scanning electron microscopies, and metaphase karyotype among three size-races of fasciola gigantica in thailand.comparative morphometry of eggs and adults under light microscope, and morphology of adults under scanning electron microscope (sem) were undertaken in the three size-races (< 25 mm, 25-35 mm, > 35 mm) of fasciola gigantica (thailand strain). morphometric examination revealed intraspecific variation with respects to the dimensions of eggs and adults, whereas surface topography of the three size-race adults under sem was morphologically similar. the observations on mitotic metaphase chromosomes o ...200011127341
structural characterization and immunolocalization of egg antigens cross-react with toxocara vitulorum, fasciola gigantica and moniezia expansa mature flukes.a structural homology between eggs of toxocara vitulorum, fasciola gigantica and moniezia expansa was proved by the use of sds-page. in immunoblot, 9, 11 and 7 polypeptides were recognized in f. gigantica, m. expansa and t. vitulorum eggs respectively by their respective rabbit anti-adult antisera. moreover, components of 240 kd and 206 kd were recognized in the three eggs by different anti-adult antisera. the anatomic localization of the crossreactive epitopes in eggs was determined by indirect ...200010946518
molecular identity of major cross-reactive adult antigens in fasciola gigantica, toxocara vitulorum and moniezia expansa.cross reactivity between fasciola gigantica, toxocara vitulorum and moniezia expansa whole worm extracts was proved by elisa. intense cross-reaction was observed between f. gigantica and m. expansa rather than between each of them and t. vitulorum. as judged by immunoblot, the cross-reactive antigens in f. gigantica which recognized by t. vitulorum antisera was 109 kd while this component in addition to another one of 52 kd were detected by m. expansa sera in the same extract. furthermore, t. vi ...200010946516
camel: a new egyptian host for fasciola gigantica.f. gigantica is a known liver fluke in egypt. infection has been reported in sheep, goats, buffaloes, cows and donkeys. human cases have been reported from several governorates. this paper records camels as an additional host for f. gigantica in egypt. in such materials worms attained a length of 6.0-6.3 cm.200010946507
soluble adhesion molecules as a marker of disease severity in human fascioliasis.fasciola gigantica is one of the parasites which affect the liver by producing biliary tract lumen syndrome. soluble adhesion molecules namely soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sicam-1) and soluble e-selection (selam-1) were assayed in human fascioliasis cases with or without complications. it was found that sicam-1 and selam-1 were significantly increases in complicated cases more than the control group, while only sicam-1 was significantly increased in complicated cases more than non ...200010946501
fasciolicidal efficacy of albizia anthelmintica and balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole.an attempt was made to evaluate the oral doses of 9 g/kg-body weight of albizzia anthelmintica brong. mimoaseae stem bark water extract and 9 g/kg body weight of b. aegyptiaca (l) del. (balanitaceae) fruit mesocarp water extract (traditionally used as an anthelmintic in the sudan) compared with 20 mg/kg body weight (recommended dose) of albendazole against fasciola gigantica adult worm (12 weeks old) in five groups each of three goats (6 month old). group (i) uninfected control, group (ii) infec ...200010904170
microhabitat preferences of biomphalaria pfeifferi and lymnaea natalensis in a natural and a man-made habitat in southeastern tanzania.schistosoma mansoni is an important human parasitic disease which is widespread throughout africa. as biomphalaria pfeifferi snails act as intermediate host, knowledge of their population ecology is an essential prerequisite towards understanding disease transmission. we conducted a field study and assessed the density and microhabitat preferences of b.pfeifferi in a natural habitat which was a residual pool of a river. repeated removal collecting revealed a density of 26.6 [95% confidence inter ...200010800185
the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections in dairy cattle in central kenya.a survey of gastrointestinal parasite infections of young (< 6 months old), immature (6-12 months old) and adult (> 12 months old) dairy cattle on 16 farms in kiambu district, kenya was conducted during a dry season (september 1991 to january 1992) and during a wet season (march to july 1992). the survey was based on monthly coproparasitological examination of cohorts and worm counts in tracer calves. the effects of age, sex, farm and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccid ...200010703753
effects of fasciola gigantica infection on growth and nutrient utilisation of buffalo calves.the effects of fasciola gigantica infection on bodyweight gain, dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and feed conversion efficiency in buffalo calves were investigated. nine male buffalo calves of the murrah breed, aged 12 to 15 months with a mean (se) bodyweight of 166 (12.5) kg, were randomly assigned to groups of five (group 1) and four (group 2). the animals in group 1 were given 1000 viable, mature metacercariae of f gigantica orally, while the animals in group 2 served as uninfect ...199910638797
relationship between system of raising egyptian buffaloes and the effect of climate conditions on the helminthic infection rate, middle delta, egypt.no doubt climate conditions are of sound influence in both prevalence of helminthic infection and the physiology of the host. fewer studies have been done on this relationship on farm animals. to complete the view, one thousand, two hundred and seventy eight buffaloes owned by farmers from 160 herds belong to 32 villages in the middle delta of egypt were randomly chosen to study factors which influence the infection with gastrointestinal parasites. relationship between number of parasites, herd ...199910605501
comparative parasitological and haematological changes in two breeds of sheep infected with fasciola gigantica.twelve each of red masai and dorper sheep, aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fasciola-free area of eastern kenya. each breed was divided into two groups of 6. the sheep in one group of each breed were experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of fasciola gigantica. the other group of 6 sheep of each breed remained as uninfected controls. the animals were monitored regularly for any evidence of disease. blood samples taken weekly revealed a general reduction in red cel ...199910599131
circulating antibodies and antigens correlate with egg counts in human fascioliasis.we explored the relationships between specific igg antibody levels and circulating e/s antigen to intensity of fasciola infection in the human host. twenty patients with patent infection and six healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. intensity of infection was determined by repeated egg counts in stools, while igg antibodies against adult fasciola gigantica somatic fi, fii and against e/s antigens were measured as elisa o.d. readings. the level of circulating e/s antigens was determined ...199910583903
fasciola gigantica-specific antigens: purification by a continuous-elution method and its evaluation for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis.immunodominant antigens of an approximate molecular mass of 27 kd were obtained from an excretory-secretory product of adult fasciola gigantica by a continuous-elution method. an indirect elisa using the antigens obtained by this relatively simple procedure was developed for detecting specific antibodies from patients infected with f. gigantica. sera from patients with other parasitic infections, healthy volunteers, and cholangiocarcinoma were also analyzed. the sensitivity, specificity, and pos ...199910548303
immune responses in indonesian thin tail and merino sheep during a primary infection with fasciola gigantica: lack of a specific igg2 antibody response is associated with increased resistance to infection in indonesian sheep.after a primary infection with fasciola gigantica, the immune responses in a resistant (indonesian thin tail) and a susceptible (merino) breed of sheep were analysed. the number of adult flukes recovered from the livers of the indonesian thin tail sheep were significantly lower than those found in the merino animals. on days 8, 14 and 25 p.i., indonesian thin tail sheep exhibited a significantly higher eosinophilia than merino sheep, whereas neutrophilia was significantly elevated in the indones ...199910501613
excretory-secretory antigenic components of adult fasciola gigantica recognized by infected human sera.the immunogenic components of fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (es) products were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting technic using sera from patients with f. gigantica infection, from patients with clinical suspected fascioliasis, from patients with other illness and from healthy adults. by sds-page, it was found that the es products comprised more than 6 polypeptides. immunoblotting analysis revealed 12 components which wer ...199810437961
effect of fasciola gigantica somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products on superoxide production by activated neutrophils.somatic extracts and excretory/secretory (es) products from fasciola gigantica suppress the release of toxic oxygen intermediates by activated sheep neutrophils. at the concentrations used both the somatic extracts and es products had no effect on neutrophil viability and in both cases the inhibitory effect was reversible. in the somatic extracts, heating or treatment with trypsin destroyed the inhibitory effect. however, the es products contained at least two immunomodulatory factors. one was l ...199910435794
studies on the viability of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.the viability of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica was tested by in vitro and in vivo methods. in vitro testing was based upon the motility of juvenile flukes within the inner cyst as examined under the light microscope. in vivo testing was undertaken through experimental infections of rabbits (two groups) and natural definitive hosts, lambs (one group). in the first group, out of six rabbits each given 25 metacercariae, worm establishment only took place in one rabbit with a single fluke reco ...199910431377
identification of circulating antibodies in fasciolosis and localization of 66 kda antigenic target using monoclonal antibodies.we identified three specific circulating antibodies in serum of cattle naturally infected with fasciola gigantica. two of the antibodies were found to react specifically to 97 and 66 kda antigenic molecules of adult worm tegumental membrane extract. the third antibody was identified by the reaction with 26-28 kda molecule of the excretory/secretory antigens. monoclonal antibody against 66 kda protein was developed and used for localization of its antigenic target in adult worm frozen sections. t ...199910403009
a comparison of serum biochemical changes in two breeds of sheep (red masai and dorper) experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica.twelve red masai and 12 dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of fasciola gigantica. the other groups acted as uninfected controls. blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. following the establishment of in ...199910396762
primary experimental infection of riverine buffaloes with fasciola gigantica.the clinical course of the primary experimental fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in riverine buffalo calves of the murrah breed. nine male calves aged 12-15 months were randomly assigned to two groups of five (group i) and four (group ii) animals. each animal in group i, was orally infected with 1000 metacercariae (mc) of f. gigantica, whereas group ii animals did not receive any infection dose and served as uninfected controls. no clinical signs of fasciolosis were observed until t ...199910384904
sequence heterogeneity in a repetitive dna element of fasciola.a repetitive dna sequence used as a specific probe for fasciola hepatica infections in snails was examined in f. hepatica and fasciola gigantica (36 individuals) specimens from five continents. the degree of intraspecific identity ranged from 79 to 99% in f. hepatica and from 93 to 99% in f. gigantica. the interspecific identity ranged from 81 to 100%, confirming the suggestion that the dna probe sequence could be used worldwide as an epidemiological tool for the examination of the intermediate ...19989925273
fasciola gigantica: studies of the tegument as a basis for the developments of immunodiagnosis and vaccine.the tegument of bile-dwelling fasciola gigantica is the interfacing layer that helps the parasite to maintain its homeostasis, and evade the hostile environment, including the host's immune attacks. the tegument is a syncytial layer about 10 mm thick, that is formed by the fusion of cytoplasmic processes of tegument cells, whose soma lie underneath the two muscle layers. the surface of the tegument is highly folded and invaginated into numerous ridges, pits and spines, which help to increase the ...19989886134
an erratic parasitism found in the lungs of sheep during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica (japanese strain).an erratic parasitism was observed in the lungs of sheep experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica at autopsy 14 weeks after inoculation. macroscopically, several hyperaemia of 7.5-12.5 mm in diameter were found on the surface of the lungs. juvenile flukes detected in the lungs were much smaller than those in the liver of the same sheep. a slight inflammatory reaction was observed in the lungs and it is likely that the flukes had migrated in the pleural cavity for some time. occasionally, ...19989765374
a geographic information system forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in ethiopia.a geographic information system (gis) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, fasciola gigantica, in ethiopia. agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the food and agriculture organization (fao) crop production system zones (cpsz) database on ea ...19989735916
comparison of production losses caused by chronic fasciola gigantica infection in yearling friesian and boran cattle.yearling friesian and boran cattle were given a standard dose of fasciola gigantica metacercariae designed to produce chronic infection. their liveweights were then monitored for 23 weeks post-infection. following standard meat inspection procedures, all the livers from the infected cattle were condemned. at 22 kg per animal, the mean reduction in liveweight gain in infected borans was significantly greater than in infected friesians. compared to the control cattle and based on current sale pric ...19989719825
natural infection of trematodes in lymnaea (radix) auricularia rubiginosa in water reservoirs in amphoe muang, khon kaen province.lymnaea (radix) auricularia rubiginosa (michelin, 1831) was surveyed in 54 reservoirs of 18 districts in amphoe muang, khon kaen province during february to may 1994. lymnaeid snails were found in the water of 20 reservoirs, of which 16 reservoirs contained clear water and 4 turbid water. two of the four turbid water reservoirs received drainage water from khon kaen town. two thousand four hundred and eight l. auricularia rubiginosa were collected and examined by shedding and crushing. trematode ...19979656379
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory (es) antigens were developed from balb/c mice. four were selected for further study, from the panel of hybridomas. the antigen specificities of these mabs were characterized and localized by enzyme-linked immunoeletrotransfer blot (eitb) and immunoperoxidase technique. the target epitopes of these mabs are 66 kda protein (mab 2d10), 66 and 27-26 kda proteins (mabs 5d10 and 4f5) and 27-26 kda protein (mab 2d9). m ...19979656363
pharmacokinetics and efficacy of long-term low-level administration of triclabendazole in urea molasses blocks against induced bovine and bubaline fasciolosis.the pharmacokinetics and flukicidal efficacy of triclabendazole delivered in low doses on a daily basis through urea molasses blocks were studied in cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. the observations were compared with single therapeutic doses at 12.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight in cattle and buffaloes, respectively, prior to becoming experimentally infected. after receipt of triclabendazole by cattle and buffaloes at 0.83 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight, respectivel ...19989653990
triploid form of fasciola in japan: genetic relationships between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica determined by its-2 sequence of nuclear rdna.the its-2 sequences from seven worms of the japanese triploid form of fasciola, two of fasciola hepatica from uruguay and four of fasciola gigantica from zambia and indonesia were determined. the its-2 sequences of the japanese triploid worms were divided into two distinct types, one of which was almost identical to that of f. hepatica and the other to f. gigantica from indonesia.19989650058
antigenic components of somatic extract from adult fasciola gigantica recognized by infected human sera.the antigenic components of fasciola gigantica somatic extract were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting technique using sera from patients with f. gigantica infection, patients with clinically diagnosed fascioliasis, patients with other infections/illness and healthy adults. by sds-page, it was found that the somatic product comprised more than 22 polypeptides. immunoblotting analysis revealed at least 13 components which were stro ...19979579615
laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of the egyptian weed, solanum nigrum l.the molluscicidal properties of solanum nigrum l. were tested against three egyptian snail species (biomphalaria alexandrina, bulinus truncatus and lymnaea natalensis), each an intermediate host of parasites causing human schistosomiasis or fascioliasis. the plant was collected in two regions within egypt: fayium and giza. snails were exposed for 24 and 48 h, to the dry powdered fruits and leaves or to crude water extracts of the powders, and mortality was recorded. the water extract of the leav ...19979579213
taxonomic status of the japanese triploid forms of fasciola: comparison of mitochondrial nd1 and coi sequences with f. hepatica and f. gigantica.because it is difficult to identify morphologically the japanese forms of fasciola, additional taxonomic criteria are required. in order to clarify the genetic relationships between fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and the japanese triploid forms of fasciola, we compared nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nd1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) genes. intraspecific variation in the nd1 and coi sequences was low, except for 1 specimen of f. gigantica i ...19989576524
acquisition of resistance against fasciola gigantica by indonesian thin tail sheep.the plasma levels of gldh and the dynamics of development of the numbers of surface lesions on livers, and numbers of parasites, within two to three weeks of a challenge infection, indicated that the major component of the high resistance of indonesian thin tail (itt) sheep against fasciola gigantica was acquired, and acted against juvenile parasites. few parasites reached the livers of itt (exposed) sheep, but many had been inhibited, probably in the wall of the jejunum. itt (naive) sheep showe ...19979477508
diagnosis of cattle fasciolosis by the detection of a circulating antigen using a monoclonal antibody.a monoclonal antibody (moab) 1c12 that reacts with a 66 kda surface tegumental (st) antigen of adult worms of fasciola gigantica was used to detect circulating antigen in sera of experimentally and naturally infected cattle. a combination of rabbit anti st-antigens and moab 1c12 were used to capture and detect the circulating antigen in sandwich elisa. the dilutions of 1:1,000 of rabbit anti st-antigens and 1:100 for moab 1c12 were used to reduce cross-reactivity with other trematodes' antigens. ...19979438548
evaluation of antigens of fasciola gigantica as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis in cattle.vaccine trials were conducted in brahman cross cattle evaluating the efficacy of 4 native antigens purified from adult fasciola gigantica flukes, and 1 recombinant f. gigantica antigen, as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis. the antigens tested were native glutathione s-transferase, cathepsin l, paramyosin, fatty acid binding protein (fabp), and a recombinant fabp expressed in e. coli, and were formulated in 1 or more of several adjuvants (quil a, squalene montanide 80, mf59-100, auspharm, na ...19979421734
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