PMID(sorted descending)
effects of fasciola gigantica experimental infection on some inorganic elements in the snail host lymnaea natalensis.flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration in the concentrations of metallic ion pb, zn, k, na, fe, cu and co in the soft parts of the lymnaea natalensis snails shedding fasciola gigantica cercariae and to determine the alteration in the concentration of ca in the soft parts and shells of the same snails. the co was found to be present at concentration level below the detection limits of the analytical method used. regarding detected elements, three elements z ...200818053991
human fascioliasis and the presence of hybrid/introgressed forms of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in vietnam.the two species common of liver fluke, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, cause human fascioliasis. hybrids between these species, and introgressed forms of fasciola, are known from temperate and subtropical regions of eastern asia. here, we report the presence of hybrid and/or introgressed liver flukes in vietnam where it has recently been recognised that human fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease. specimens examined came from domestic stock (cattle and buffalo) at slaughter and ...200818031748
first phenotypic description of fasciola hepatica/fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the nile delta, egypt.fasciola gigantica is the main fasciolid species in africa; however, f. hepatica and f. gigantica overlap in some countries. egypt deserves mentioning because of the emerging situation of human fascioliasis in the nile delta area. the morphometric characteristics of fasciolid adults infecting the main livestock species present in the nile delta human endemic area are analyzed through a computer image analysis system (cias) on the basis of standardized measurements known to be useful for the diff ...200818006385
the surface ultrastructure of the egyptian liver fluke fasciola gigantica.scanning electron microscopy (sem) of adult fasciola gigantica, a known liver fluke in egypt, shows the presence of tegumental spines and folds giving the appearance of a rough surface. the spines are small and closely-spaced anteriorly, increasing in size and number on the in the mid-lateral aspect of the ventral surface. towards the posterior end the spines progressively decrease in both size and number. tegumental transverse folds or invaginations are interspaced between the spines. there are ...200717985594
fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory products for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.excretory-secretory products (esp) products of ex vivo fasciola gigantica adult worms were used for immunodiagnosis of sheep experimental infection with f. gigantica and natural infection with fasciola spp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blotting. specific igg antibody binding to native or denatured esp was detected as early as 2 weeks after experimental sheep infection with 100 or 200 metacercariae. no specific igg antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 1 ...200717897786
paramphistomum cervi: antigenic profile of adults as recognized by infected cattle antigenic profile of adult paramphistomum cervi was revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. cervi, fasciola gigantica and strongylids. sds-page of whole worm extracts exhibited 26 distinct protein bands. immunoblotting analysis of these proteins showed five major antigenic bands which were recognized by serum of individual cattle naturally infected with p. cervi. these antigenic prot ...200817892871
comparative molecular analysis of two asparaginyl endopeptidases and encoding genes from fasciola this study we describe the first cysteine proteinases of the merops clan cd family c13 in fasciola gigantica. family c13 contains asparaginyl endopeptidases and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor transamidases and is also called the legumain family due to the discovery of the first asparaginyl endopeptidase in a legume. the cdnas encoding two asparaginyl endopeptidases, fglgmn-1 and fglgmn-2, were cloned and used for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein properties. the deduced amino acid ...200717714804
evaluation of immunoglobulin g4 subclass antibody in a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.summaryto improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by fasciola gigantica, we developed a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (peptide-based elisa) based on the detection of specific igg4 subclass antibody. two identified b-cell epitopes of f. gigantica cathepsin l1 were synthesized as single synthetic peptides, acetyl-dkidwresgyvtelkdqgnc-carboxamide (peptide l) and acetyl-dkidwresgyvtevkdqgnc-carboxamide (peptide v), and their diagnostic potential was evaluated. the sera o ...200717714604
distribution of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica on rice straw. 200617682596
abattoir study on fasciola gigantica in cambodian cattle. 200617682595
fasciola gigantica: enzymes of the ornithine-proline-glutamate pathway--characterization of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.ornithine aminotransferase (oat), proline oxidase (po), delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (p5cr), and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (p5cd) were assessed in fasciola gigantica. all enzymes are involved in the conversion of ornithine into glutamate and proline. high levels of p5cd suggest that the direction of the metabolic flow from ornithine is more toward glutamate than proline. f. gigantica p5cd1 and p5cd2 were separated from the majority of contaminating proteins in cr ...200817655846
characterization of fasciola samples from different host species and geographical localities in spain by sequences of internal transcribed spacers of the present study, 25 samples representing fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from nine host species and 19 geographical locations in spain were characterized genetically by sequences of the first (its-1) and second (its-2) internal transcribed spacers (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from individual liver flukes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the amplicons were sequenced directly. the lengths of the its-1 and its-2 sequences were 422 and ...200717610081
charge modification at conserved positively charged residues of fatty acid binding protein (fabp) from the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica: its effect on oligomerization and binding properties.fatty acid binding proteins (fabps) are capable of binding hydrophobic ligands with high affinity; thereby facilitating the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of fatty acids. in this study, functional characteristics of a cytoplasmic fabp from the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica (fgfabp) were determined. binding of a fluorescent fatty acid analogue 11-[[5-dimethy aminonaphtalene-1-sulphonyl] amino] undecanoic acid (dauda) to fgfabp resulted in changes in the emission spectrum. th ...200717594059
fasciola gigantica cathepsin l proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.sheep fasciolosis is a devastating burden for the livestock industry. we herein report on immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis, and significant protection of sheep against challenge infection with fasciola gigantica following immunization with a peptide based on the h-asp(110)-lys-ile-asp-trp-arg-glu-ser-gly-tyr-val-thr-glu-val(123)-oh (fas14p) sequence of f. gigantica cathepsin l-cysteine proteinase. this sequence was synthesized in three different forms: as n(alpha) acetylated (ac-asp(110)-lys-ile-a ...200817549696
host differences in response to trickle infection with fasciola gigantica in buffalo, ongole and bali weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (bubalis bubalis), 7 ongole (bos indicus) and four bali calves (bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 ongole calves and 3 bali calves maintained fluke- ...200617405628
seasonal differences in the incidence of infection with fasciola gigantica in cambodian cattle.farmer's cattle were treated with triclabendazole and used as tracer animals to detect new infections with fasciola gigantica in three villages located on the bank of the bassac river (a major tributary of the mekong river) and in a fourth village located on farmland away from the river, from april 1999 until january 2001. the month of infection was estimated by subtracting 4 months from the date when eggs of f. gigantica were detected in faeces. farmers were interviewed each month to record the ...200617405625
comparative fluke burden and pathology in condemned and non-condemned cattle livers from selected abattoirs in zambia.after dissecting 70 condemned and 32 non-condemned cattle livers collected from lusaka, chisamba, mongu and senanga abattoirs and turnpike slaughter slab, significantly higher numbers of liver flukes (fasciola gigantica) (p < 0.001) were found in the condemned livers (mean +/- sd = 100.6 +/- 16.7) than in the non-condemned livers (mean +/- sd = 0.7 +/- 0.5). liver flukes found in 9.4% of the non-condemned livers suggest that abattoir records of liver inspection may underestimate f. gigantica inf ...200617283728
vaccines against the zoonotic trematodes schistosoma japonicum, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.schistosoma japonicum, fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are digenetic trematodes and, therefore, possess similar life cycles. while schistosomiasis japonica has for a long time been recognised as a major disease of both humans and animals, infection with fasciolids has only been considered of relevance to animals. however, a number of recent reports indicate that fasciolosis is becoming a serious public health problem, especially in south america, egypt and iran (sporadic cases are also on the ...200617274848
the prevalence and economic significance of fasciola gigantica and stilesia hepatica in slaughtered animals in the semi-arid coastal kenya.fasciola gigantica and stilesia hepatica constrain ruminant productivity. the prevalence and economic losses caused by f. gigantica and s. hepatica in the ruminant production systems of taveta division of kenya were estimated in a retrospective appraisal of the slaughter records on the total number of animals slaughtered and livers condemned over the period 1989 to 2004. only liver condemnations based on infestation by f. gigantica and s. hepatica were considered for purposes of this study. live ...200617243475
experimental infection of rabbits with fasciola gigantica and treatment with triclabendazole (tcbz) or bt6: parasitological, haematological and immunological findings.the responses of rabbits experimentally infected orally with 25 fasciola gigantica metacercariae each, to treatment with triclabendazole (tcbz) in a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight or with the newly synthesized drug (bt6) in repeated oral doses of 500 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days, were monitored by faecal egg and fluke counts and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), both treatments at 4-, 8- and 12- weeks of infection. in all infected rabbits, eggs appeared in the faeces betwe ...200117216940
endoscopic removal of one live biliary fasciola gigantica.biliary fascioliasis was diagnosed in a woman from angthong province, who presented herself with anorexia, weight loss, and jaundice for one month. intraoperative retrograded cholangiopancreatography revealed a filling defect considered as a stone and bile sludge. by the sphincterotomy and balloon-extraction technique, one live fluke was removed and identified as fasciola gigantica. a single dose of praziquantel, 25 mg/kg of body weight/day, was given although the postoperative stool examination ...200617214071
peritoneal lavage cells of indonesian thin-tail sheep mediate antibody-dependent superoxide radical cytotoxicity in vitro against newly excysted juvenile fasciola gigantica but not juvenile fasciola hepatica.indonesian thin-tail (itt) sheep resist infection by fasciola gigantica by an immunological mechanism within 2 to 4 weeks of infection yet are susceptible to f. hepatica infection. studies of itt sheep show that little liver damage occurs following f. gigantica infection, suggesting that the invading parasites are killed within the peritoneum or shortly after reaching the liver. we investigated whether cells isolated from the peritoneums of itt sheep could kill newly excysted juvenile f. giganti ...200717210661
optimization of the procedure for counting the eggs of fasciola gigantica in bovine faeces.this paper describes a method for counting eggs of f. gigantica in bovine faeces that optimizes the proportion of eggs recovered and the repeatability of estimates. the method uses 3 g of faeces suspended in 0.05% tween 20. the suspension is passed through three 6 cm diameter sieves in tandem to remove fibrous debris, with respective apertures of 1 mm, 450 microm, and either 266 or 200 microm. the filtrate is allowed to sediment for 3 min in a conical flask; the sediment is recovered, then resus ...200617165609
variations in the survival of fasciola gigantica eggs in bovine dung stored in the sun as opposed to the shade.eggs of f. gigantica were placed in dung heaps that were located in the shade or exposed to sun light, and examined at intervals for up to 14 weeks. the rate and extent of decline in viability of eggs was greater in dung exposed to sun light than in shaded dung. this difference was attributed the higher temperature in dung in sun light, owing to the effect of direct sunlight and to a higher rate of fermentation in exposed than in shaded dung. it was concluded that strategies for storing dung tha ...200617165608
the effect of temperature and humidity on longevity of metacercariae of fasciola gigantica.studies were undertaken on the viability of the metacercariae of fasciola gigantica when stored in water at 13 degrees c for periods up to 23 weeks, exposed to the sunlight for up to 8 h or stored at a range of temperatures and humidities for up to 10 weeks. excysted metacercariae were catergorized microscopically as viable (motile and undamaged), dubious (not motile and undamaged) or dead (visible necrosis). the infectivity of viable and dubious metacercariae and unselected reference metacercar ...200617165607
effect of non target snails on some biological of lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to fasciola gigantica.the influence of non-target freshwater snails (melanoides tuberculata and planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of fasciola egg production f. gigantica miracidia to infect lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against l. natalensis. the mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. the egg production and growth rate were negatively affected ...200617153707
molecular confirmation that fasciola gigantica can undertake aberrant migrations in human hosts.two cases of aberrant migration by the liver fluke fasciola gigantica in humans are reported. in both cases, subadult worms emerged through the skin. the identity of the worms was confirmed from their dna sequences. this uncommon human pathogen might be more likely than f. hepatica to undertake aberrant migrations in humans.200717135435
an in vitro effect of propolis on adult worms of fasciola gigantica.the effect of siwa propolis on adult flukes was evaluated using scanning electron microcopy. it gave an overview of the surface architecture of the tegument of fasciola gigantica apical cone. the base of the spines appeared to be "flaking off" and showed severe blebbing after 24h incubation with 10 micro/ml propolis. this swelling became so sever and the spines were barely visible, on increasing the concentration to 20 micro/ml. besides, there were many large blebs on the apical cone, a number o ...200717113712
a case of human fasciolosis: discrepancy between egg size and genotype of fasciola human fasciolosis, differential diagnosis of the causative flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, is problematic. we report a rare case of human fasciolosis in which an adult worm was recovered from the bile duct of a japanese man. morphometric data of the worm were consistent with those of f. hepatica, whereas the size of eggs in the stool indicated infection with f. gigantica. nucleotide sequences of its-1 and -2 and co1 genes of the dna extracted from the eggs revealed that the ...200717102984
distribution of 28.5 kda antigen in the tegument of adult fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibody (moab) specific to 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (ta) was used to localize this antigen in various tissues of adult fasciola gigantica by means of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques. the indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase detections revealed that this antigen was concentrated in the tegument particularly in its outer rim, tegumental cells and their processes, epithelial linings of the oral sucker and the proximal part of digest ...200617078917
host responses during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica or fasciola hepatica in merino sheep i. comparative immunological and plasma biochemical changes during early infection.this study reports the early biochemical changes in plasma, comparative host-immune responses and parasite recovery data in merino sheep during the first 10 weeks of infection with fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica. one group of sheep were uninfected, four groups of sheep received incremental challenge doses of f. gigantica metacercariae (50, 125, 225 and 400, respectively) and the sixth group was challenged with 250 f. hepatica metacercariae. at 10 weeks post infection (wpi), sheep chall ...200717069976
validation of a geographic information system model for mapping the risk of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes in cambodia.maps showing gradations of risk of fasciolosis due to fasciola gigantica in cambodia were produced using geographic information systems (gis) technology in conjunction with determinants of fasciolosis. a comparison between levels of risk predicted by the maps and field measurements of prevalence in 11 provinces (n=1406) showed general agreement, which suggested the epidemiological determinants and weightings used to produce the maps were appropriate. however, due to logistical constraints, preva ...200717045401
the serum glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in sheep with experimental fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica infection.the influence of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica infection on serum glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-hob) in sheep was evaluated. this was done by setting up two groups of sheep. the first group (n=13) was split in two sub-groups, one experimentally infected with f. hepatica (n=9) and the other (n=4) as uninfected control. a second group consisting of a sub-group experimentally infected with f. gigantica (n=9) the other sub-group (n=6) left as uninfected control was also set up. t ...200717011709
prepatent detection of fasciola gigantica infection in bovine calves using metacercarial antigen.metacercarial antigen of fasciola gigantica was evaluated for early immunodiagnosis of experimental bovine fasciolosis using elisa and western blot. in elisa, the experimental f. gigantica infection was detected as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi). the gradual increasing trend of antibody level was observed from 2 to 7 wpi, followed by a plateau, which was maintained up to 14 wpi. in western blot, sera from experimentally infected calves recognized one distinct polypeptide of 21 kda in frac ...200616999031
classification of the parenchymal cells in fasciola gigantica based on ultrastructure and their expression of fatty acid binding proteins (fabps).parenchymal cells in adult fasciola gigantica can be classified into three types based on their ultrastructural features and different quantities of fatty acid binding protein (fabp) being stored. parenchymal cell type 1 (pc1) has pale cytoplasm consisting largely of a loose network of fine fibers, and it contains few mitochondria but numerous glycogen particles. this cell type may be specialized in the storage and metabolism of glycogen and glucose. parenchymal cell type 2 (pc2) has similar cyt ...200616973288
molecular and immunological characterization of encoding gene and 14-3-3 protein 1 in fasciola gigantica.a cdna encoding fg14-3-3 protein 1 was cloned by immunoscreening of an adult-stage fasciola gigantica cdna library using a rabbit antiserum against tegumental antigens of the parasite. the protein has a deduced amino acid sequence of 252 residues and a calculated molecular weight of 28.7 kda. it shows sequence identity values between 57.6 and 58.1% to the human 14-3-3 beta, zeta, theta, and eta proteins and is in a phylogenetic cluster with the 14-3-3 protein 1 of schistosoma spp. nucleic acid a ...200616938151
impact of various salts on biology, physiology and tissue soluble proteins (sds-page) of lymnaea natalensis and their infection with fasciola gigantica miracidia.the effect of sublethal concentrations of magnesium sulphate (mgso4), sodium chloride (nacl), potassium chloride (kcl), calcium sulphate (caso4) and sodium carbonate (na2co3) on survival, fecundity, lymnaea natalensis infection with fasciola gigantica miracidia and the activities of certain enzymes in tissue homogenate of these snails were evaluated. tissue soluble proteins of the snails were analyzed by sds-page. the results indicated that na2co3 was more toxic to l. natalensis than the other s ...200616927867
molluscicidal activities of aqueous extract of the sea anemone parasicyonis actinostoloides against vector snails bulinus truncatus and lymnaea natalensis.the aqueous extract of the sea anemone parasicyonis actinostoloides showed molluscicidal effect against vector snails of schistosoma hacematobium and fasciola gigantica after 24 hours of exposure. lc50) and lc90 values for p. actinostoloides were 40 & 78.6 ppm for b. runcatus and 46.6 & 86.5 ppm for l. natalensis respectively. the effect of continuously exposure of b. truncatits and l. naltlensis to sublethal aqueous extract concentrations (lc0, lc10 & lc25) on survival rate, egg production and ...200616927866
the relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with fasciola gigantica.the association between visual hepatic damage, burden of fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (ggt) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gldh) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the philippines. in another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of f. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. the degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of f. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of ggt and gldh. red blood ...200616923272
phenotypic analysis of adults of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and intermediate forms from the endemic region of gilan, iran.fascioliasis is an important human and animal disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. in iran, the distribution of these two species overlaps in most areas, including the northern human endemic province of gilan where both fasciolids are simultaneously found in individual cattle and buffaloes. a phenotypic study of fasciolid adult flukes from naturally infected bovines from gilan was carried out by means of an exhaustive morphometric analysis using traditional microscopic mea ...200616901748
opisthorchis viverrini: identification of a glycine-tyrosine rich eggshell protein and its potential as a diagnostic tool for human opisthorchiasis.a cdna encoding a novel eggshell protein (ovesp) with high-glycine (49.2%) and -tyrosine (27.8%) content was cloned from the human liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini. in the adult parasite, the rna products of the ovesp gene are limited to the vitelline follicles. they have a size of 800 nucleotides and are already present in 2-week-old juveniles. immune sera of hamsters, experimentally infected, and humans, naturally infected with o. viverrini, detect bacterially expressed recombinant ovesp (ro ...200616876169
biological control of fasciola gigantica with echinostoma revolutum.a field trial was carried out in west java to investigate the potential for control of fasciolosis of antagonism between larvae of fasciola gigantica and echinostoma revolutum in lymnaea rubiginosa. the trial was undertaken in 26 farmers' irrigated rice fields, each chosen because it was adjacent to a cattle pen the effluent from which flowed into or was used as fertiliser in the rice field. fourteen of the fields chosen at random were retained as controls and received no treatment while in 12, ...200616854529
serum antibody isotype responses of fasciola-infected sheep and cattle to excretory and secretory products of fasciola species.this study investigated the immunoglobulin isotype responses of sheep and cattle chronically infected with fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica to adult f. hepatica excretory/secretory products (fh-es) or f. gigantica excretory/secretory products (fg-es), respectively. an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ab-elisa) was used to determine serum antibody (total ig, igg(1), igm, igg(2) and iga) responses. at necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was lower in cattle than in shee ...200616797844
effect of fasciola gigantica infection on adrenal and thyroid glands of riverine buffaloes.effect of fasciola gigantica infection on adrenal and thyroid glands was investigated using eight male, yearling murrah buffaloes. the animals were randomly assigned to two groups of four buffaloes each (group-a, infected; group-b, non-infected control). animals of group-a were orally infected with 1000 f. gigantica viable metacercariae, keeping other four animals of group-b as uninfected control. in the infected buffaloes, the clinical signs began appearing from 7th week postinfection (p.i.) an ...200716797621
epidemiological studies of fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of zimbabwe.during the period between january 1999 and december 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the clim ...200616715877
common conditions leading to cattle carcass and offal condemnations at 3 abattoirs in the western province of zambia and their zoonotic implications to consumers.from a total of 32 717 cattle slaughtered, 183 whole carcass condemnations were attributable to 9 diseases and conditions, namely, tuberculosis (tb), cysticercosis, emaciation, generalised lymphadenitis, jaundice, abscesses, moribund, sarcosporidiosis and odour. bovine tb was the most important cause of condemnations (152/183, 83.1%). bovine cysticercosis and sarcosporidiosis accounted for 5/183 (2.7%) and 8/183 (4.4%), respectively, while each of the remaining conditions contributed less. among ...200616700473
immuno-diagnosis of bubaline fasciolosis with fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l and recombinant cathepsin l 1-d proteases.fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase and recombinant cathepsin l 1-d were assessed for their potential in the immuno-diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in buffaloes. a diagnostic elisa, based on these two antigens, was developed to detect antibodies against f. gigantica in water buffaloes. sensitivity of the elisa was assessed using sera from buffaloes experimentally or naturally infected with f. gigantica from f. gigantica endemic areas and its specificity by probing the sera of ...200616647680
effect of fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen on rat hematological indices.the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fasciola gigantica excretory secretory antigen (fg-esa) on rat hematological indices. fg-esa was prepared by keeping thoroughly washed 40 f. gigantica flukes in 100 ml phosphate buffer saline (pbs) for 2 h at 37 degrees c, and centrifuging the supernatant at 12,000 g at 4 degrees c for 30 min. the protein content of fg-esa was adjusted to 1.8 mg/ml. the rats were randomly divided into two groups of six rats each. rats in group a recei ...200616645335
the saposin-like proteins 1, 2, and 3 of fasciola gigantica.the sap genes of fasciola encode proteins belonging to the saposin-like protein family. the saposin signature, a compact domain of mainly alpha-helical character, contains six conserved cysteine residues and has been implicated in membrane-binding, pore formation, and subsequent cell lysis in several family members. recombinant sap-2 of f. hepatica has been shown to induce lysis of human erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this suggests that the saps are involved in the nutritio ...200616626816
differences in susceptibility between cattle and swamp buffaloes to infection with fasciola gigantica. 200516619877
influence of photon beam irradiation on lymnaea natalensis snails infected with fasciola gigantica.lymnaea natalensis is the intermediate host of fasciola gigantica in egypt. the effect of photon beam irradiation on the ability of the laboratory reared l. natalensis to support the larval development of f. gigantica has been studied. 120 snails were divided into two groups: the control infected non irradiated group (gi) and the experimental infected irradiated group (gii). the later group was subdivided into two subgroups: giia: snails irradiated before infection and giib: snails irradiated af ...200616605121
phenotypic comparison of allopatric populations of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica from european and african bovines using a computer image analysis system (cias).the quantification of the different sizes and shapes of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica from bovines has been achieved for the first time in natural allopatric populations. linear measurements, areas and ratios of gravid adults and eggs of f. hepatica (from france and spain) and f. gigantica (from burkina faso) were analysed using a computer image analysis system and an allometric model: (y2m - y2)/y2 = c[(y1m - y1)/y1](b), where y1 = body area or body length, y2 = one of the measuremen ...200616568331
detection of coproantigens by sandwich elisa in sheep experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica.two monoclonal antibodies to fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory (es) antigens were used in a sandwich elisa for the detection of fasciola antigens in faeces of 9 sheep experimentally infected with 300 metacercariae of f. gigantica. the detection of coproantigens was found in four of the seven sheep within 5 weeks of infection, and within 7 weeks of infection coproantigens were detected in all seven of the sheep. this technique was compared to an indirect elisa for the detection of anti-fasci ...200416493398
prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with fasciola gigantica infections in zambian cattle from communal grazing estimate prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with bovine fasciola gigantica infections in zambia, 709 faeces of cattle presented for slaughter from three major cattle rearing areas of central, southern and western provinces were analysed. the prevalence rate of amphistomes was 51.6%. egg counts per gram (epg) of faeces ranged from 0 to 385 with a mean (+/- sem) of 11.96 +/- 1.07. the origin of the cattle had a significant influence (p < 0.001) on the prevalence rate. fasciola gig ...200616469175
cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in iringa district, tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and flukes (fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of gi nematodes and flukes. the preval ...200616362610
immunolocalization of cytoskeletal components in the tegument of the 3-week-old juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica.components of three cytoskeletal elements, namely, microtubule, intermediate and actin filaments have been localised in the tegument of the 3-week-old juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica by means of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques, using mouse monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin, anti-cytokeratin antibodies and biotinylated-phalloidin, respectively. the immunostaining with the above probes were also performed in adult schistosoma mansoni for comparison. the presence of tubulin, in ...200616310956
cathepsin l cysteine proteinase in the diagnosis of bovine fasciola gigantica infection.cathepsin l cysteine proteinase from fasciola gigantica was evaluated for its potential in the early prepatent detection of this helminth infection in bovine calves. five cross-bred bovine calves were experimentally infected with 400 metacercariae/calf and evaluated for anti-cathepsin l antibody response. f. gigantica infection in these calves could be detected 4 weeks post-infection using an elisa, dipstick elisa and western blotting with 100% sensitivity. the antigen was also used to detect f. ...200616300897
host reactions in rabbits experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. 197616300137
an analysis of the calcium-binding protein 1 of fasciola gigantica with a comparison to its homologs in the phylum platyhelminthes.a full-length cdna encoding the fasciola gigantica calcium-binding protein 1 (fgcabp1) was cloned from an adult stage cdna expression library in an immunoscreen using rabbit immune serum against the parasite's excretion/secretion antigens. the deduced amino acid sequence showed 96.3% identity to fh22cbp of fasciola hepatica. during development in the mammalian host fgcabp1 rna was detected in metacercariae, juveniles and adults and was exclusively localized to the tegumental cell bodies. immune ...200616297461
prevalence of fasciolosis in zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and some factors influencing occurrence of fasciolosis in cattle, carried out at selected major abattoirs in zambia. of 841 cattle livers inspected and 677 faecal samples analysed, prevalence rates of 53.9% and 48.9%, respectively, were found. cumulative prevalence of 60.9% (n = 677) was recorded. according to age, no significant difference of infection was found. female cattle on liver inspection (59.3%) and coprological examination (65.2%) ...200516283922
population dynamics of fasciola gigantica in cattle slaughtered in uyo, nigeria. 200516274007
clinicopathological indications of resilience of swamp buffaloes to infection with fasciola gigantica. 200516248216
fasciola gigantica cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase in the detection of early experimental fasciolosis in ruminants.cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase was purified from fasciola gigantica regurgitant by two-step alcoholic fractionation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography. the purification strategy was evolved to eliminate other contaminating proteins co-precipitating with the purified proteinase during alcoholic fractionation. the enzyme was stable on long-term storage at -20 degrees c rendering it more suitable for field diagnostic use. the purified cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase was assayed for detection ...200516222528
evaluation of immunoglobulin g subclass antibodies against recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 antigen was developed to detect specific immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass antibodies (igg1, igg2, igg3, and igg4) and was evaluated for its diagnostic potential for human fasciolosis. in an analysis of the sera of 13 patients infected with f. gigantica, 209 patients with other parasitic infections, 32 cholangiocarcinoma patients, and 42 healthy controls, the igg4-elisa gave the highest d ...200516210476
potent epitopes derived from fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 in peptide-based immunoassay for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and evaluated for its diagnostic ability to detect human igg antibodies against fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1. two previously identified b-cell epitopes of cathepsin l1 were synthesized as single synthetic peptides (acetyl-dkidwresgyvtevkdqgnc-carboxamide and acetyl-dkidwresgyvtelkdqgnc-carboxamide) and their diagnostic potential was evaluated. the peptide-based elisa was compared with an indirect elisa with crude excretor ...200516168617
fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses.fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and fasciolopsis buski (fasciolidae), gastrodiscoides hominis (gastrodiscidae), watsonius watsoni and fischoederius elongatus (paramphistomidae). whereas f. hepatica and f. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. the fas ...200516150452
humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes.humoral and cellular immune responses to fasciola gigantica experimental infection in buffaloes were studied. the results showed that 33.4+/-9.1% of the infection dose was recovered as adult flukes from infected animals at necropsy. significant differences of weight gain between infected and non-infected buffaloes was observed at 4 mpi (months post-infection). anti f. gigantica excretory-secretory products (fgesp)-igg levels increased significantly from 3 wpi (weeks post-infection) and displayed ...200616143354
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: comparison of cellular response to experimental infection in sheep.cellular responses to fasciola gigantica and to fasciola hepatica infection in sheep were compared. eosinophil numbers increased more quickly and strongly in f. gigantica-infected sheep than in f. hepatica-infected sheep. in both groups, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc) proliferation in response to the parasitic excretory-secretory products (esp) showed similar kinetics. interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) production by esp-stimulated pbmc was early and showed similar kinetics in both groups. i ...200516126202
urea cycle of fasciola gigantica: purification and characterization of arginase.the ornithine-urea cycle has been investigated in fasciola gigantica. agrinase had very high activity compared to the other enzymes. carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase had very low activity. a moderate enzymatic activity was recorded for argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. the low levels of f. gigantica urea cycle enzymes except to the arginase suggest the urea cycle is operative but its role is of a minor important. the high level of arginase ...200516125991
proteases in egg, miracidium and adult of fasciola gigantica. characterization of serine and cysteine proteases from adult.proteolytic activity of 0-12 day old eggs, miracidium and adult worm of fasciola gigantica was assessed and proteases were partially purified by deae-sepharose and cm-cellulose columns. four forms of protease were separated, pia, pib, pic and pii. purifications were completed for pic and pii using sephacryl s-200 chromatography. a number of natural and synthetic proteins were tested as substrates for f. gigantica pic and pii. the two proteases had moderate activity levels toward azoalbumin and c ...200516102991
seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the kafue and zambezi catchment areas of order to establish seasonality of bovine fasciolosis in the southern province of zambia, 288 cattle were examined at slaughter at turnpike slaughter slab for 1 year. the examination involved liver inspection and coprological examination. liver condemnation rates were relatively high at the beginning of both the cold dry season and the rainy season (may/june and december, respectively). all cattle, regardless of age, had higher fluke abundances in the post-rainy season (39.1% young and 42.1% a ...200516043299
comparative diagnostic potentiality of elisa and dot-elisa in prepatent diagnosis of experimental fasciola gigantica infection in cattle.a glycoprotein (27 kda) was isolated from crude somatic antigen of fasciola gigantica by two steps affinity chromatography and was used in early detection of experimental fasciolosis in cattle by indirect elisa and in dot-elisa formats. although, anti-27 kda antibodies could be detected after 3 weeks post infection (wpi) by dot - elisa which was one week later than indirect elisa. the test, dot-elisa, was more convenient in field application. by the test (dot-elisa) the infection could be equall ...200515991579
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant fatty acid binding protein.recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rfabp) of fasciola gigantica was expressed in escherichia coli and used as vaccine in freund's adjuvant to evaluate the level of protection induced in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves. fifteen buffalo calves were distributed to three groups of five calves each. an antigen dose of 400 mug for each of the three immunizations at 3-week intervals, and a challenge dose of 600 metacercariae was administered per calf. levels of anti-fabp antibodies increased rapi ...200515986249
serological changes in goats experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica in buea sub-division of s.w.p. cameroon.based on the recent increase in the rearing of west african dwarf (wad) goats in this environment, a study of biochemical parameters was carried out in healthy and infected goats to obtain baseline data for monitoring the health and productive indices in breeding programmes for the goats. the results revealed variations in some of the parameters studied. the serum minerals potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate did not show any significant differences (p>0.05) between the infected and control group ...200515978727
characterization of specific and cross-reacting antigens of fasciola gigantica by immunoblotting.somatic antigens of f. gigantica, g. explanatum, s. spindale and hydatid cyst ingredients were analysed to identify the cross-reactive antigens among them using western blot technique. when probed with f. gigantica infected cattle sera, the immunodominant 156 kda and 28 kda proteins of f. gigantica was found common amongst the antigens prepared from hydatid cysts ingredients like germinal layer, fertile and sterile, hydatid fluid, fertile and sterile, while another protein of 34 kda was shared b ...200515952043
cellular and humoral responses in liver of cattle and buffaloes infected with a single dose of fasciola gigantica.the cellular components of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in cattle and buffaloes infected with a single dose of 1000 fasciola gigantica were analysed by immunohistochemistry and histology. t and b lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and mast cells were present in the hepatic lesions. it is proposed that both cellular and humoral immune responses were induced in the liver of cattle and buffaloes during infection with f. gigantica probably by antigens released by the developing flukes and ...200515936148
epidemiology of fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of tanzania.a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in iringa district, southern highlands of tanzania. coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both fasciola and amphistomes. the prevalence of flukes ...200515934638
control of fasciolosis in stall-fed buffaloes by managing the feeding of rice straw.fasciolosis, caused by fasciola gigantica, presents major disease and production problems, particularly in the rice producing areas of south and south-east asia. in nepal, buffaloes are commonly stall-fed and the most usual fodder is rice straw, which is produced in large quantities in the area. here we describe a relatively simple way of controlling fasciolosis in these animals. we demonstrate that infectious metacercariae of f. gigantica are concentrated in the bottom part of the rice straw an ...200515934636
serum interferon-gamma and interleukins-6 and -8 during infection with fasciola gigantica in cattle and buffaloes.this study investigated the presence of cytokines interferon (ifn)-gamma, interleukins (il) -6 and -8 in serum of cattle and buffaloes infected with fasciola gigantica from one to 16 weeks post-infection to determine their t cell response during infection. the concentration of these cytokines was determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). no ifn-gamma was detected in these animals while il-6 was elevated from one to 16 weeks postinfection. levels of il-8 were also elevated ...200515933433
evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in cattle, sheep and buffaloes in australia.a commercially available elisa for detecting antibodies to liver fluke was evaluated for use in australia. milk and serum samples from cattle and sheep in which infection with fasciola hepatica was confirmed by detection of eggs in faeces were used to estimate sensitivity. similar samples collected from cattle and sheep outside the f. hepatica-endemic area were used to estimate specificity. the elisa was also evaluated for detecting antibodies to f. hepatica in milk from sheep and antibodies to ...200515925723
epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in zimbabwe: a this paper the main epidemiological aspects of the major domestic ruminant trematode infections in zimbabwe are reviewed and discussed with regard to the available options for control. seasonal occurrence of amphistomes, fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mattheei are considered both in the definitive and intermediate hosts. the regional distribution of the trematodes is reviewed in relation to the distribution patterns of their snail intermediate hosts. based on the epidemiological features ...200515900894
cross-protection induced by cross-reactive antigen against fasciola gigantica and trichinella spiralis infections.trichinella spiralis /fasciola gigantica cross-reactive fraction was purified from t. spiralis larval extract by affinity column chromatography in which cnbr-sepharose 4b was coupled with f. gigantica antibodies. the fraction consisted of six polypeptides of 191kda, 178kda, 149kda, 106kda, 101kda and 32 kda as revealed by sds-page. analysis of the free amino acids of the fraction revealed 17 amino acids with high proportions of tyrosine and glutamic. immunization of rabbits subcutaneously with t ...200515881013
detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure for the detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with stoll's egg count method. the primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pph-13-specific dna probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. this pcr method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of p. heterotremus genomic dna. the a ...200515856902
molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase encoding gene from opisthorchis adult stage opisthorchis viverrini cdna library was constructed and screened for abundant transcripts. one of the isolated cdnas was found by sequence comparison to encode a glutathione s-transferase (gst) and was further analyzed for rna expression, encoded protein function, tissue distribution and cross-reactivity of the encoded protein with other trematode protein counterparts. the cdna has a size of 893 bp and encodes a gst of 213 amino acids length (ov28gst). the most closely-related gst ...200415783135
prevalence of infection with fasciola gigantica and its relationship to carcase and liver weights, and fluke and egg counts in slaughter cattle and buffaloes in southern mindanao, philippines. 200515747858
27 kda fasciola gigantica glycoprotein for the diagnosis of prepatent fasciolosis in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using 27 kda glycoprotein of fasciola gigantica has been evaluated for its potential use in the diagnosis of bovine fasciolosis. following experimental infection of rabbits, f. gigantica infection-induced antibodies were isolated and later used as ligands in affinity chromatography for isolation of infection-induced antibody-specific proteins. among the five infection-specific proteins isolated, a glycoprotein of 27 kda was later isolated by ...200515730136
serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis by a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l antigen.cathepsin l1, a cysteine protease secreted by the gastrodermis of juvenile and adult fasciola gigantica, was expressed in escherichia coli as a calmodulin binding peptide fusion protein with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kd. the recombinant cathepsin l1 (rctl1) was tested for its antigenic potential in a cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to diagnose human fascioliasis. the elisa plates were sensitized with chicken egg cystatin and incubated with bacterial lysates ...200515728871
comparison of modulation of sheep, mouse and buffalo lymphocyte responses by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory order to explain the difference in susceptibility to fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica between animal species, the activity of their excretory-secretory products (fhesp and fgesp, respectively) on concanavalin a (cona)-induced proliferation of different animal species (sheep, mouse and buffalo) lymphocytes was compared. at high doses, fhesp inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes of all the animal species tested, and at low doses they inhibited the proliferation of sheep lymphocytes and incre ...200515711847
ingestion of fasciola gigantica metacercariae by the intermediate host snail, lymnaea ollula, and infectivity of discharged metacercariae.the rate of ingestion of fasciola normal metacercariae (nmc) encysted on plants by lymnaea ollula was examined, and the infectivity of the ingested metacercariae (imc) in the feces of the host snail to mice was studied. as a result of ingestion by snails, the metacercarial outer cyst disappeared in about 50% of imc in feces. there was no significant difference in the liver juvenile recovery at autopsy between mice inoculated with nmc and imc kinds of metacercariae. compared with nmc, the number ...200415689062
induction of protective antibody response in rabbits against fascioliasis with toxocara/fasciola cross- reactive defined antigen.a method of affinity chromatography purification of toxocara vitulorum antigen cross- reacts with fasciola gigantica antiserum is described. characterization of the isolated cross- reactive fraction by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis resulted in a fraction consists of five polypeptides of 137.7kda, 81kda, 75kda, 48kda and 21.6kda with isoelectric points of 8, 7.5, 7.2, 6.7 and 6.6. seventeen amino acids were identified in the fraction with hig ...200415658065
toxicological effect and biochemical alterations induced by different fractions of euphorbia royleana latex in freshwater harmful vector snail lymnaea acuminata.laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of different fractions of euphorbia royleana (family- euphorbiaceae) latex obtained through sephadex gel column against freshwater snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarack. this snail is the vector of liver fluke, fasciola hepatica linnaeus and fasciola gigantica cobbold, which causes endemic fascioliasis in cattle and livestock. the toxic effect of the different fractions was time dependent and fifth fraction obtained through b ...200415623235
a retrospective study of the prevalence and seasonal variation of fasciola gigantica in cattle slaughtered in the major abattoirs of zimbabwe between 1990 and 1999.a retrospective study covering a period of 10 years (1990--1999) was conducted using post mortem meat inspection records of the veterinary department information management unit at harare to determine the prevalence and seasonal variation of bovine fasciolosis in zimbabwe. records of monthly and annual returns from five major abattoirs were examined in regard to total cattle slaughtered and the corresponding number of livers condemned due to fasciola gigantica infection. prevalence of fasciolosi ...200415580766
larval productivity of fasciola gigantica in two lymnaeid snails.two groups of galba truncatula and two groups of lymnaea natalensis were experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica to determine if snail species had an influence on the redial burden and cercarial shedding of this trematode when snails of both species were infected with the same isolate of miracidia. in the two groups used for the study of redial burden, the total number of free rediae was significantly higher at day 49 post-exposure in l. natalensis than in g. truncatula. in the groups us ...200415469623
role of excretory-secretory metabolites of fasciola gigantica in modulating delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats.the role of excretory-secretory metabolites of fasciola gigantica in modulating the delayed type of hypersensitivity in the host (rats) was investigated. eighteen rats of either sex, aged 3-4 months, were assigned to three groups of 6 animals each. rats in group 1 served as non-inoculated controls and each rat in this group was administered only freund's complete adjuvant on day 7. animals in groups 2 and 3 were administered inoculation dose(s) of somatic f gigantica antigen (sfga) and excretory ...200415379433
humoral immune response against fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein.recombinant fatty acid binding protein of fasciola gigantica was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by nickel chelating affinity chromatography. the recombinant protein along with native fatty acid binding protein (fabp) isolated from the parasite were evaluated for their potential in the diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in sheep, cattle and buffaloes, both by elisa and western blotting. results of this study indicate that there is no humoral immune response generated against this pro ...200415350662
partially purified fraction (ppf) antigen from adult fasciola gigantica for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using dot-elisa technique.human fascioliasis has been reported in many countries, including iran. various techniques have been evaluated for diagnosis of human fascioliasis using different antigens. we evaluated fasciola gigantica partially purified fraction antigen (ppf) isolated from sheep's liver fluke for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis.200415310008
behavioural responses of the snail lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets.snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. in order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. this study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. these were tested on lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the ...200415309310
detection of genetic variabiltiy in nonhuman isolates of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica by the rapd-pcr technique.the present study shows the molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica isolates collected from cows and sheep, using the random amplified polymorphic dna fragments-polymerase chain reaction (rapds-pcr) technique. optimal standardization of amplification conditions and thermocyclation were made, using genetic markers. the methodology used compared the genetic pattern between the two species (inter-species) and inside each species (intra-species) between cow and sheep and the ...200415287188
fasciola gigantica: immunization of rabbits with proteins isolated from coproantigen.two fractions were isolated from coproantigen by ion-exchange chromatography in which deae cellulose was utilized. both fractions and crude antigen were characterized by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which revealed 13 bands of molecular weight ranged from 205-31 in crude coproantigen. while fraction i resolved into six bands of molecular weight 198, 178, 148, 111, 101 & 45. fraction ii showed seven bands of 191 kda, 178kda, 166kda, 118kda, 98.5kda, 72kda & 32kda. fraction 1i was higher ...200415287185
comparison of humoral response in sheep to fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica experimental infection.humoral response of sheep to f. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to f. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. in this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to f. gigantica than to f. hepatica infection was confirmed. humoral response to f. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. igg level of f. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2wpi) and display ...200415224576
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