PMID(sorted descending)
molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica from mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. from africa, f. gigantica has been previously characterized from burkina faso, senegal, kenya, zambia and mali, while f. hepatica has been reported from morocco and tunisia, and both species have been observed from ethiopia and egypt on the basis of morphometric dif ...201121763690
vaccination of buffaloes with fasciola gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein.fasciola gigantica, causative agent of tropical fasciolosis, inflicts substantial economic losses on the livestock industry, affecting severely buffalo productivity in the tropical countries. very few vaccination trials with different target antigens against f. gigantica infection have been conducted in this host. present study describes a vaccination trial in buffaloes with f. gigantica recombinant glutathione s-transferase and fatty acid binding protein. the two recombinant proteins were expre ...201121750874
microsatellite analysis of fasciola spp. in egypt.recently, the topic of diversity in fasciola population in egypt is controversial. the present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in egypt. control samples of fasciola hepatica from france as well as fasciola gigantica from cameroon were included in the study. collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four micro ...201121744021
resistance to liver fluke infection in the natural sheep host is correlated with a type-1 cytokine response.indonesian thin-tail (itt) sheep can resist infection with fasciola gigantica but not f.-áhepatica and presents an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms of liver fluke resistance in a natural host. this study examines the local and systemic immune responses of sheep during fasciola infection and demonstrates that different anatomical tissues display distinct cytokine profiles consistent with liver fluke migration. the study also reveals a significant difference in the cytokine and antibody p ...201121711360
biliary fasciola gigantica case report from turkey.we present a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis diagnosed and treated via endoscopy and trichlorobendazole treatment. this is the first case of fasciola gigantica treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ercp and drug treatment reported from turkey.201121706928
pcr-based molecular characterization and insilico analysis of food-borne trematode parasites paragonimus westermani, fasciolopsis buski and fasciola gigantica from northeast india using its2 fluke infections/trematodiases are emerging as a major public health problem worldwide with over 40 million people affected and over 10% of world population at risk of infection. the major concentration of these infections is in southeast asian and western pacific regions, where the epidemiological factors (including the prevalent socio-cultural food habits) are conducive for transmission of these infections. the preponderance of these infections is usually in food deficit poor commun ...201121544167
genetic diversity and relatedness of fasciola spp. isolates from different hosts and geographic regions revealed by analysis of mitochondrial dna sequences.the present study examined sequence variability in a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1) and nadh dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 (pnad4 and pnad5) among 39 isolates of fasciola spp., from different hosts from china, niger, france, the united states of america, and spain; and their phylogenetic relationships were re-constructed. intra-species sequence variations were 0.0-1.1% for pcox1, 0.0-2.7% for pnad4, and 0.0-3.3% for pnad5 for fasciola hepatica; 0.0-1.8% for ...201121524854
genetic analysis of fasciola isolates from cattle in korea based on second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) sequence of nuclear ribosomal dna.nuclear ribosomal dna sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) has been used efficiently to identify the liver fluke species collected from different hosts and various geographic regions. its-2 sequences of 19 fasciola samples collected from korean native cattle were determined and compared. sequence comparison including its-2 sequences of isolates from this study and reference sequences from fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and intermediate fasciola in genbank revealed ...201121494845
a case of biliary fascioliasis by fasciola gigantica in turkey.a case of fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in turkey. the patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. a total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp). a single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. she was living in a village of southeast of anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. she ...201121461271
molecular characterization of fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern iran based on nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolosis caused by fasciola spp. (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. in the endemic regions of the north of iran, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. samples from buffa ...201121440546
a portrait of the transcriptome of the neglected trematode, fasciola gigantica--biological and biotechnological implications.fasciola gigantica (digenea) is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. the present study repor ...201121408104
lack of protective efficacy in buffaloes vaccinated with fasciola gigantica leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin recombinant proteins.gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (lap), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, fasciola hepatica. the recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in escherichia coli. f. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in e. coli. a vaccination trial i ...201121376699
innate and adaptive resistance of indonesian thin tail sheep to liver fluke: a comparative analysis of fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica the current study, three independent trials directly compared fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica infection of itt sheep. in all trials, f. hepatica infection resulted in higher worm burden recoveries and greater physiological damage to itt sheep. developmental differences of the two fasciola species were also observed during the first twelve weeks of a primary infection, where the migration and growth of f. hepatica was more rapid than f. gigantica. various immunological blood parameter ...201121320754
comparative assay of glutathione s-transferase (gsts) activity of excretory-secretory materials and somatic extract of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fascioliasis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. in the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. fasciola spp has detoxification system including gst enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of gst enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica helmi ...201021287474
tropical liver fluke-induced stress in experimentally infected and immunised buffaloes.disease-related stress associated with fasciola gigantica infection was investigated in 16 male, yearling murrah buffaloes. the animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups. animals in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4.8 mg of excretory-secretory antigen (group 1) or 1300 μg infection-specific antigen (group 2), in three doses. subsequently, all the animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 were infected orally with 800 viable f gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week 6 o ...201021257419
towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.fasciola hepatica, along with fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. the dominant components of these excretory-secretory (es) products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin l (cat l) protease family.201121245911
characterization and localization of saposin-like protein-2 (sap-2) in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein-2 (fgsap-2) belongs to a family of lipid-interacting proteins that are involved in the cytolysis of target cells. in this study, we have cloned and expressed fgsap-2 and produced the antibody against this recombinant protein. rabbit antiserum against rfgsap-2 reacted with a similar native protein in the whole body extracts of the 4-week-old juvenile and adult stage, as well as a protein in their excretion-secretion, but not in the tegument. in situ hybridi ...201021188603
analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a promising antigen for diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection: a preliminary study.buffalo fasciolosis induced by fasciola gigantica causes important economic losses in tropical areas of asia. detection of prepatent infection is essential to control this disease. classical tools such as coprology, necroscopy or elisa based on crude extracts from f. gigantica are poorly sensitive or specific. purified antigens could be used to increase these parameters. western blot analysis and mass spectrometry of a fraction of f. gigantica excretory-secretory products obtained by gel filtrat ...201021185945
investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) in the kafue basin.abstract:201021182793
a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp.the present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (f-pcr-sscp) assay for the identification of fasciola spp. based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of the nuclear ribosomal dna, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of fasciola its-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. these primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the pcr products were analyzed by ...201021170657
evaluation of dipstick-elisa using 28 kda fasciola gigantica cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis in naturally infected the present investigation 100 goats presented for slaughter were used to evaluate the 28kda cathepsin l cysteine proteinase (fgcl3) dipstick-elisa for the diagnosis of fasciolosis. presence of fasciola gigantica worms in liver at the time of slaughter was taken as a gold standard for the evaluation of the assay. faeces, blood and liver were taken from all slaughtered goats. biochemical parameters and coprological examinations using sedimentation technique were also taken into consideration. t ...201021145662
behavioural responses of the snail lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets.snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. in a recent study, the attractiveness to lymnaea acuminata (an intermediate host of the digenean trematode fasciola gigantica) of potential compo ...201021144185
sensitive and rapid detection of paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed and validated for the detection of paragonimus westermani adults, metacercariae, and eggs in human and animal samples. the lamp amplification can be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 60°c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and the results can be checked by naked-eye visualization. no amplification products were detected with deoxyribunucleic acid (dna) of related trem ...201021107864
functional analysis of novel aquaporins from fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis, caused by liver flukes of the genus fasciola, is an important disease of ruminants. in order to identify a potential new drug target we have studied aquaporin (aqp) in fasciola gigantica. aqps facilitate the transport of water, glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. the structure, function, and pathology of aqps have been extensively studied in mammals but data for aqps from trematodes is still limited. in the present study, we have functionally characterized ...201021073907
rapid identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay.the present study developed and validated a species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid detection and discrimination of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the lamp assay is inexpensive, easy to perform and shows rapid reaction, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 45 min under isothermal conditions of 61 °c or 62 °c by employing a set of four species-specific primer mixtures and results can be checked through naked-eye visualization. the opti ...201020933335
bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic binh dinh province in central vietnam.a cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the binh dinh province of central vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. in vietnam, both pure fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica infect humans and animals. in this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were ...201020920452
fasciola gigantica: production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin b3.a number of monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin b3 (rcatb3) of fasciola gigantica were produced in balb/c mice. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were assessed by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. six stable clones, namely 1c4, 1e9, 2e5, 2f9, 5b4, 5d7 were obtained. all moabs reacted with rcatb3 at molecular weight (mw) 37 kda as well as the glycosylated peptide at 55-75 kda and with the native catb3 at mw 37 kda in wb extracts of metacercariae (met) ...201120736007
rapid identification of lymnaeid snails and their infection with fasciola gigantica in thailand.freshwater snails of the family lymnaeidae are the intermediate hosts of the liver fluke fasciola worldwide. while distinct species have been identified at the molecular level in other parts of the world such data have not been published for thailand. in this study we collected lymnaeidae from different localities across thailand and analyzed their 16s rdna sequences as a molecular signature for classification. in addition to the ubiquitous radix rubiginosa, we have confirmed the presence of aus ...201020685274
toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant croton tiglium.the compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant croton tiglium linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail lymnaea (radix) acuminata lamarck in order to test its toxicity. l. acuminata is the intermediate host of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. it was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against l. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. there was a ...201020653234
comparative analysis of two fatty acid binding proteins from fasciola gigantica.fatty acid binding proteins are considered to be promising vaccine candidates against trematodiasis. in order to provide additional information about their function in fasciola gigantica we performed a comparative analysis of fgfabp1 and fgfabp3, two isoforms with quite different isoelectric points of 4.9 and 9.9 and 67% sequence identity. both are expressed in the juvenile and adult parasite but differ in their tissue-specific distribution. in addition, the sequence of fabp3 is identical in f. ...201020550752
bioimmunological responses to schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica worm homogenates either with or without this study, we evaluated the biochemical, immunological, histopathological and antischistosomal activities of schistosoma mansoni or fasciola gigantica worm homogenates mixed either with or without saponin that was extracted from atriplex nummularia.201020539066
evaluation of the diagnostic potential of different immunological techniques using polyclonal antibodies against fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in sheep.the early detection of fasciola antigens (ags) in serum or stool could be more valuable in diagnosis as early treatment would be applied before irreparable damage occurs. in this study, fresh adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) worms were cultivated for 16 hrs. excretory/secretory (e/s) ags were extracted from the culturemedium and used to raise rabbit antibodies (abs) to fasciola. the purified abs were then used in sandwich elisa (s-elisa) to detect fasciola ags in serum and stool samples f ...200820306670
fasciola gigantica: histology of the digestive tract and the expression of cathepsin l.the digestive tract of fasciola gigantica is composed of the oral sucker, buccal tube, pharynx, esophagus, and caecum. the tegumental-type epithelium lines the first four parts of the digestive tract while the caecal-type epithelium lines the remaining parts from the caecal bifurcation. the caecal-epithelial cells are classified into 3 types according to their staining properties and ultrastructural characteristics, as related to the amount of food contents in the caecal lumen. all caecal-type e ...201020214898
assessment of a 27-kda antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in vietnamese patients.fasciolosis has emerged as an important zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. in recent years, an increasing number of human cases were reported in vietnam. in this study, the 27-kda component protein from the excretory/secretory production of adult fasciola gigantica, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, was assessed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies against fasciola spp. for diagnosis of human fasciolosis. the elisa showed a high sensiti ...201020149166
epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia.a cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of ada, akaki, bereh and boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in ethiopia. faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. there was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. the overall prevalence of the i ...201020138432
serum enzyme and hematological profile of fasciola gigantica immunized and experimentally infected riverine buffaloes.sixteen male, yearling murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups of four buffaloes each. each animal in gr-i and ii were immunized, respectively, with 4.8 mg of excretory secretory antigen and 1,300 microg infection specific antigen, in three divided doses. subsequently, each animal in gr-i, ii, and iii was per os infected with 800 viable fasciola gigantica metacercariae (bubaline origin) on week-6 after the start of the experiment, while animals in gr-iv served as healthy controls. ...201020135148
fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of sheep-derived miracidia in radix natalensis and galba truncatula.experimental infections of egyptian radix natalensis and french galba truncatula with miracidia of fasciola gigantica of sheep were carried out to determine the larval productivity of this parasite. rediae and cercariae were thus counted in snails dissected at regular intervals from day 21 to day 49 postexposure (p.e.) at 24 degrees c, while cercarial shedding was studied in other two groups of snails after day 30 p.e. at day 49, the total number of free rediae and that of cercariae-containing r ...200920120750
elisa-based coproantigen in human strongyloidiaisis: a diagnostic method correlating with worm order to overcome the false negative diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in the absence of rhabditiform larvae in stools, an elisa-based strongyloides stercoralis-specific coproantigen detection assay in stools of infected patients was evaluated. in a sandwich elisa, a rabbit hyperimmune serum against s. stercoralis es (excretory/secretory) adult antigen succeeded in capturing s. stercoralis coproantigen from infected patients and did not react with coproantigens prepared from the stool samples of ...200920120743
discrimination of the its1 types of fasciola spp. based on a pcr-rflp method.molecular characterization is important for discriminating fasciola specimens having the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) sequences of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and both fasciola species, since three fasciola forms coexist in asian countries. we have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified dna (pcr-rflp) of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region in fasciola species. the band patterns of the fragments digested with a restriction enzyme, ...201020107839
molecular cloning and characterization of two genes encoding 2-cys peroxiredoxins from fasciola fasciola species, peroxiredoxin (prx) serves as the major antioxidant enzyme to remove hydrogen peroxide that is generated from various metabolic reactions, because the parasites lack catalase, and only express glutathione peroxidases at minimal levels. we have cloned and characterized two genes, fgprx-1 and fgprx-2, belonging to the 2-cys prx family, by immunoscreening of an expressed adult stage fasciola gigantica cdna library using a rabbit anti-serum against its tegumental antigens. predi ...201020093115
molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern uttar pradesh, india.many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. the who has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. with a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origi ...201019943357
fasciola gigantica: parasitological and scanning electron microscopy study of the in vitro effects of ivermectin and/or evaluate the in vitro effects of different concentrations of ivermectin and/or artemether on fasciolagigantica worms and to study the parasitological changes and tegumental alterations using scanning electron microscopy (sem).201019861124
phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of balanites aegyptiaca fruits (balantiaceae).balanites aegyptiaca (balantiaceae), mainly the fruit, is used by traditional healers and herbalists for treating many diseases in africa and asia.201019833185
identification of egyptian fasciola species by pcr and restriction endonucleases digestion of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna gene.fascioliasis is one of the familiar zoonotic health problems of worldwide distribution including egypt. in this study, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphisms (pcr/rflps) assay, using the common restriction endonucleases aval, ecori, eael, sac11 and avail was applied to differentiate between both fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica. the five restriction endonucleases were used to differentiate between the two species of fasciola based on -1950 bp lon ...200919795750
identification and differentiation of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica using a simple pcr-restriction enzyme method.accurate morphological differentiation between the liver fluke species fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica is difficult. we evaluated pcr-restriction enzyme profiles of internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) that could aid in their identification. fifty f. hepatica and 30 f. gigantica specimens were collected from different hosts in three provinces of iran. for dna extraction, we crushed fragments of the worms between two glass slides as a new method to break down the cells. dna from the crus ...201019769969
fasciola gigantica: immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis by detection of circulating 28.5 kda tegumental antigen.a monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich elisa was developed for the detection of circulating 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (28.5 kda ta) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica. the moab was immobilized on a microtiter plate, and the antigen in the serum was captured and detected with biotinylated polyclonal rabbit anti ta antibody. the test could detect 28.5 kda in the extracts of tegument (ta), whole body (wb) and excretory-secretory (es) fractions at the concen ...200919723524
immune responses to polyethylenimine-mannose-delivered plasmid dna encoding a fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein in mice.fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was evaluated for evoking an immune response in mice, by delivering the gene coding for this protein with mannosylated-polyethylenimine (pei) to peritoneal cells. mice were immunized with 50 microg recombinant plasmid dna (group i) or dna-pei-mannose (a 22 kda linear cationic polymer with mannose ligand) (group ii) via the intraperitoneal route. antibody studies showed no significant humoral immune response evoked to this dna immunization with ...201019723356
bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at soddo municipal abattoir, southern ethiopia.a study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were positive for fasciolosis. the most common liver fluke species affecting the cattle was fasciola gigantica, 9.1% of cattle were infect ...201019680772
inhibitory effect of essential oils of allium sativum and piper longum on spontaneous muscular activity of liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.effects of essential oil of allium sativum (garlic) and piper longum (indian long pepper) were evaluated on muscular activity of whole fasciola gigantica and its strip preparation. the whole flukes and longitudinal strip preparations of the flukes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity (sma) and to evaluate effects of cumulative doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg/ml) of the plant essential oils. whole flukes and the strip preparations exhibited continuous sma without ...200919679128
estrogen-related fecundity reduction of lymnaea ollula following fasciola gigantica infection.infection by trematode parasites generally affects life history traits of their intermediate hosts. reduction in life expectancy and reproductive capacity have previously been documented in fasciola gigantica-infected lymnaea ollula, but the influence of the endocrine system on this specific host–parasite interaction has not been previously examined. in the present study, we observed survival, growth pattern, and reproductive output of l. ollula following exposure to f. gigantica. both the survi ...200919642809
kinetics of serum immunoglobulin isotype response in experimental bovine tropical fasciolosis.the present communication reports on the kinetics of immunoglobulin isotype response in fasciola gigantica infected bovine calves. fifteen holstein-friesian cross-bred male calves were assigned to 3 groups (gr) of 5 calves each and infected with 4-month (gr-a) and 16-month-old (gr-b) f. gigantica metacercariae (n=400), respectively, while gr-c calves served as uninfected control. infection was terminated by treating the animals with triclabendazole on 28 weeks post-infection (wpi). sera were col ...200919635646
identification, expression and immunolocalization of cathepsin b3, a stage-specific antigen expressed by juvenile fasciola identify antigens that could potentially be developed as vaccines against fasciola gigantica, somatic antigens were analyzed by immunoprecipitation using pooled sera from rats infected with f. gigantica metacercariae. a prominent antigen of the newly excysted juveniles (nej), cathepsin b3 protease (fgcatb3), was identified by n-terminal sequencing and pcr screening of a cdna library. recombinant fgcatb3 (rfgcatb3) was expressed in pichia pastoris, and shown to catalyse the digestion of gelati ...200919632187
molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase in the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.glutathione s-transferase from an indian isolate of fasciola gigantica of buffalo origin was isolated and characterized. total rna was transcribed to cdna by reverse transcription and an amplicon of 657 bp glutathione s-transferase gene was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the f. gigantica gst gene of cattle origin, with six nucleotide changes causing an overall change of four amino acids. glutathione s ...201019619366
food-borne estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (clonorchis sinensis, fasciola gigantica, fasciola hepatica, opisthorchis felineus, and opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., echinostoma spp., fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. in this review, we summarize th ...200919597009
gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of ethiopia.the general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. for the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. the study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.coprol ...201019548106
botanical study of meryta denhamii seem. and its antihelminthic activity against fasciola gigantica.the anthelmintic activity of the ethanolic extracts of stems and leaves of meryta denhamii seem. against adult liver flukes "fasciola gigantica" was studied in vitro. although leaves extract was inactive, stems extract exhibited anthelmintic activity and recorded lc50 and lc90 values, 16 and 26 gm/l respectively. the mode of action of the ethanolic extract of the stems on the adult flukes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (sem). tegumental sloughing, loss of spines and deformity of s ...200919530627
detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes of fasciola gigantica worms under triclabendazole sulphoxide (tcbz-sx): an in vitro study.triclabendazole (tcbz) is an efficient fasciolicide that affects both juvenile and adult worms. after oral administration it is rapidly metabolized to tcbz sulphoxide and sulphone that were found responsible for its fasciolicidal activity. parasite defense mechanisms include detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes that would suppress its oxidative killing. the present work aimed at evaluating these enzymes under tcbz-sx. thirty juvenile and 30 adult f. gigantica worms collected from the liver paren ...200919530611
cross-reactivity of schistosoma mansoni-fasciola gigantica influenced by saponins.the aim of the present work was to investigate the schistosoma mansoni and fasciola gigantica cross-reactivity between adult worms and egg homogenates of the parasites. immunoprophylactic effects of crude schistosoma mansoni worms and egg antigens mixed with or without saponins extracted from atriplex nummularia were studied followed by challenge with 80 cercariae of schistosoma mansoni. our results showed that post 1st immunization with schistosome egg antigens (sea) there was a significant cha ...200919526726
molecular characterization of fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and aspermic fasciola sp. in china based on nuclear and mitochondrial dna.parthenogenic fasciola forms as well as bisexual fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in mainland china have been identified on the basis of their spermatogenesis and genotypes in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase i (ndi). the chinese aspermic fasciola would include forms originating in interspecific hybrids between f. hepatica and f. gigantica, since they showed the genotype of its1-fh/fg that had mixed sequences of the two fasciola ...200919424719
type i cystatin (stefin) is a major component of fasciola gigantica excretion/secretion the present study we describe type 1 cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, as a major released antigen of the tropical liver fluke fasciola gigantica (fgstefin-1). immunohistochemical analysis showed that fgstefin-1 is abundant in (a) tissue of tegumental type, including oral and ventral sucker, pharynx, genital atrium, metraterm, cirrus and (b) the intestinal epithelium. faint staining was observed in the epithelia of ovary and proximal uterus. immunoblots showed the presence of fgstefin- ...200919416741
fasciola gigantica: anthelmintic effect of the aqueous extract of artocarpus lakoocha.the effect of the crude extract of artocarpus lakoocha (70% composition is 2,4,3',5'- tetrahydroxystilbene -ths) on adult fasciola gigantica was evaluated after incubating the parasites in m-199 medium containing 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microg/ml of the crude extract, or triclabendazole (tcz) at the concentrations of 80 and 175 microg/ml as the positive control, for 3, 6, 12 and 24h, using relative motility (rm) assay and observation by scanning electron microscope (sem). decreased contraction an ...200919393239
[emergence in humans of fascioliasis (from fasciola gigantica) and intestinal distomatosis (from fasciolopsis buski) in laos].distomatoses due to fasciola spp. and fasciolopsis buski are very common in the developing countries of southeast asia. the flukes in laos have not yet been completely studied and described, however. in 2004, we began screening for these two distomatoses in the province of savannakhet, in southern laos. our initial results showed that the causal agent of fascioliasis in humans and animals is fasciola gigantica. the infestation rate of fascioliasis in cattle in slaughterhouses ranged from 17 to 5 ...200819359231
cloning, characterization, and expression of vitelline protein bi and its encoding gene in the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica.a cdna containing a 813 bp open reading frame encoding vitelline protein bi (fgvpbi) of fasciola gigantica was cloned. fgvpbi has 96% sequence identity with vpbi of fasciola hepatica and 84% identity with vpbii f. hepatica. it is far less similar to eggshell precursor proteins of other trematode species, for example, 29% identity with c. sinensis. northern blot hybridization of total rna from adult parasites demonstrated a fgvpbi transcript with a size of 1,000 nucleotides. fgvpbi mrna is locali ...200919323003
fasciola gigantica: immunolocalization of 28.5 kda antigen in the tegument of metacercaria and juvenile fluke.specific monoclonal antibody (moab) to 28.5 kda tegumental antigen (ta) was used to localize this antigen in the tissues of metacercariae, newly excysted juvenile (nej), 1, 3, 5, and 7-week-old juveniles of fasciola gigantica by using indirect immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques. both indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase detections showed that this antigen was concentrated in the tegument particularly in its outer rim, tegumental cells and their processes a ...200919303872
use of sequence motifs as barcodes and secondary structures of internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2, rdna) for identification of the indian liver fluke, fasciola (trematoda: fasciolidae).most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary dna sequence information. however, rna secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information which is not found in the primary sequence. also dna sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (its) of the nuclear rrna repeat are useful for identification of trematodes. the species of liver flukes of the genus fasciola (platyhelminthes: di ...200919294000
localization of antigenic molecules of adult fasciola gigantica using monoclonal antibodies against the parasite tegumental this study, monoclonal antibodies were developed from the partially purified surface tegumental antigens of f. gigantica. nine moabs: 2g11, 1g2, 1b12, 2g2, 2g5, 3c6, 3g2, 3g3 and 3f6 were used for anatomical localization of adult f. gigantica. the reaction was demonstrated by avidin-biotin method. the results revealed that among the sections stained with non-immune sera and control group, there were no reaction products on either the tegument or the cecal epithelium. the only brownish areas w ...200319230580
efficacy of five chemicals on fasciola gigantica encysted metacercariae infectivity.the efficacy of treating encysted metacercariae (emc) of fasciola gigantica with different concentrations (conc.) of acetic acid, citric acid, cetrimide, potassium permanganate and sodium hydroxide, for 15 & 30 minutes was evaluated. the efficacy of these chemicals on the vitality and infectivity of the emc was evaluated by the development of fascioliasis infection, and the histopathological changes in the livers of experimentally infected albino rabbits. the results showed that 1% sodium hydrox ...200819209774
sequence-related amplified polymorphism, an effective molecular approach for studying genetic variation in fasciola spp. of human and animal health the present study, a recently described molecular approach, namely sequence-related amplified polymorphism (srap), which preferentially amplifies orfs, was evaluated for the studies of genetic variation among fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica and the "intermediate" fasciola from different host species and geographical locations in mainland china. five srap primer combinations were used to amplify 120 fasciola samples after ten srap primer combinations were evaluated. the number of fragmen ...200919204953
effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in kilolo district, tanzania.a longitudinal demonstration project was carried out in 2005/2006 for thirteen months to determine the effectiveness of a strategic community-based worm control (cbwc) programme in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. two villages namely, a cbwc village (ilula-masukanzi) and a village without cbwc (kilolo-luganga) were randomly selected in kilolo district, iringa region of tanzania. animals in both villages were under the traditional management system ...200919190995
[prevalence of liver flukes in hair goats slaughtered in hakkari (yüksekova) province].the aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of distomatosis in 267 hair goats which were slaughtered in the slaughterhouses belonging to butchers located in yüksekova district of hakkari province. in the study, distomatosis were detected in 165 (61.80%) of the 267 hair goats. distomatosis was found in 20/98 (20.41%) hair goats which were younger than one year old and in 145/169 (85.80%) which were older than one year. it was found that the species most often responsible were fa ...200819156606
efficacy of some fasciola gigantica antigens.the present study tested the antigenic relationship between the three egyptian strain of fasciola gigantica antigens; coproantigen, excretory-secretory and egg antigens, versus their related hyper-immune sera and select the most specific one. by using sds-page, a structural homology was demonstrated in f. gigantica es and egg antigens. this homology was resided in the components of the similar molecular weights between both antigens. when no cross-reaction was recorded with the coproantigen, the ...200819143134
the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola gigantica coproantigen in naturally infected cattle and buffaloes.monoclonal antibody sandwich elisa was used detect f. gigantica coproantigen in 33 selected animals according to the faecal history to evaluate sensitivity and specificity by using three different rabbit hyper-immune sera; copro his, egg his and es his. the results showed that copro his & es his detected f. gigantica coproantigen in faecal of naturally infected cattle and buffaloes, but egg his failed. the 26-28 kda coproantigen proved sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (90.9%) in diagnosis of ...200819143125
fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.little is known about the response of fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. the effect of long-term exposure of lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (cd) on the infection rates with f. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. the snails were exposed to cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. the poss ...200919101545
inhibitory effect of egyptian propolis on fasciola gigantica eggs with reference to its effect on clostridium oedematiens and correlation to chemical composition.the chemical composition of the propolis samples was investigated by gc/ms and hplc. 91 compounds have been identified, 26 compounds are being new to propolis. siwa oasis propolis was characterized by the presence of diprenyl-dihydrocoumaric acids (4.15%), coumarate esters (10.93%), benzofuran lignans (13.47%) and valeric acids derivatives (11.42%). matrooh sample was characterized by the presence of new ferulate esters, hydroxy acetophenones and furanon derivatives, furofuran lignans and sterol ...200719090144
evaluation of snail derived antigens of fasciola gigantica for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.serum samples collected from a total number of twenty parasitologically confirmed cases of human fasciolosis were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of snail derived antigens; non infected snail (sa), infected snail (isa), redia (ra), cercaria (ca) and encysted metacercaria (emca) of f. gigantica using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (eitb). elisa results showed that the highest level of sensitivity (100%) was with the ...200719070170
biochemical changes in the livers of bovines naturally infected with fasciola gigantica.the present study was carried out to determine the total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid content in the non-infected (control) and naturally infected with fasciola gigantica liver samples of buffaloes and cows. the estimated total protein and lipid content in the infected livers of these animals were found significantly higher as compared to their control samples. total carbohydrate content in the infected livers of buffaloes and cows did not show any significant change as compared t ...200719070098
immune responses to polyethylenimine delivered plasmid dna encoding a fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein in mice and rabbits.fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was evaluated for evoking an effective immune response in mice and rabbits, when delivered as a dna vaccine in muscle cells. polyethylenimine (pei), 25 kda, branched cationic polymer was used as a delivery vehicle for this dna in the muscle cells of mice and rabbits. naked dna evoked mixed th1 and th2 responses in mice. pei condensed dna, at amine nitrogen over dna phosphate (n/p) ratios of 4, 6 and 8 and with various dna concentrations, faile ...200919063770
effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle in iringa region, tanzania.a longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes and fasciola gigantica in cattle. a total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine small-scale dairy farms were randomly selected. the selected animals on each farm were ear tagged and allocated into three groups based on live weight and treated as follows: group t4 was treated with al ...200919052899
in vitro effect of artemether and triclabendazole on adult fasciola gigantica.triclabendazole "fasinex" is the drug of choice against fasciolosis because of its high efficacy against both mature and immature flukes, however parasite resistance against this drug is increasing. hence, there is pressing need for new fasciolicidal drugs. in the present study, the in vitro effect of artemether on adult flukes was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. after 24 h incubation with 10 microg/ml artemether, the tegument of the apical cone appeared to be slightly more swollen ...200919036519
using indirect elisa to assess different antigens for the serodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) was evaluated for its diagnostic capability in detecting antibodies against fasciola gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and donkeys sera using crude worm, excretory-secretory and glutathione s-transferase antigens prepared from adult liver fluke. presence of f. gigantica worms at post-mortem examination of cattle, sheep and donkey's livers was taken as a gold standard for the evaluation of the assay. the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity ...200918947842
concurrent infections of fasciola, schistosoma and amphistomum spp. in cattle from kafue and zambezi river basins of zambia.this study investigated interactions among fasciola gigantica, schistosoma spp. and amphistomum spp. concurrent natural infections in zambian cattle, based on egg and worm counts. in the abattoir 315 cattle were screened for worms of f. gigantica in the liver, schistosoma spp. in mesenteric veins and/or amphistomum spp. in the rumen. one hundred and thirty-three (42.2%) of the abattoir-examined cattle harboured one, two or all three trematodes. of 133 cattle, 50 were randomly selected for worm a ...200818854056
efficacy of temperature, and two commonly used molluscicides and fertilizers on fasciola gigantica eggs.this study evaluated the effect of temperature, molluscicides (copper sulphate and niclosamide), fertilizers (superphosphate and ammonium sulphate) on the hatchability of fasciola gigantica eggs. the results showed that hatchability decreased to 4% when eggs were incubated in bile secretion at 37 degrees c for 5 days and to 1.4% for 10 days, but few eggs incubated in water at 37 degrees c hatched. bile secretion at 37 degrees c was a poor medium for in-vitro egg preservation. but, hatching occur ...200818853633
helminth pathogen cathepsin proteases: it's a family affair.helminth pathogens express papain-like cysteine peptidases, termed cathepsins, which have important roles in virulence, including host entry, tissue migration and the suppression of host immune responses. the liver fluke fasciola hepatica, an emerging human pathogen, expresses the largest cathepsin l cysteine protease family yet described. recent phylogenetic, biochemical and structural studies indicate that this family contains five separate clades, which exhibit overlapping but distinct substr ...200818848453
detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the process of isolation of the 27-kda glycoprotein from the somatic antigen of fasciola gigantica was standardized and the diagnostic potentiality was evaluated for the detection of bubaline fasciolosis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. initially, the test was standardized using the sera from experimentally noninfected(n = 20) and infected (n = 5)animals. further, the sensitivity and the specificity of the test were evaluated through the sera of buffaloes with different natural inf ...200818781327
development and application of a fecal antigen diagnostic sandwich elisa for estimating prevalence of fasciola gigantica in cattle in central java, indonesia.the purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of an elisa test to detect fasciola gigantica antigens (coproantigens) in bovine feces, with fecal egg counting and an elisa for detecting anti-f. gigantica antibodies in serum. monoclonal antibodies to cathepsin l were generated and used to capture this antigen in feces of infected cattle. blood, feces, and livers were collected from 150 cattle at an abattoir in jakarta, indonesia, for anti-fasciola antibodies, coproantige ...200918763850
molecular identification of the indian liver fluke, fasciola (trematoda: fasciolidae) based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions.the species of liver flukes of the genus fasciola (platyhelminthes: digenea: fasciolidae) are obligate parasitic trematodes residing in the large biliary ducts of herbivorous mammals. while fasciola hepatica has a cosmopolitan distribution, the other major species, i.e., fasciola gigantica is reportedly prevalent in the tropical and subtropical regions of africa and asia. to determine the phylogenic location of fasciola sp. of assam (india) origin based on rdna molecular data, ribosomal its regi ...200818696113
elucidation of genetic variability among different isolates of fasciola gigantica (giant liver fluke) using random-amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction.the present communication focuses on molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica isolates derived from cattle, buffalo, and goat using random-amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis to elucidate genetic variability between the three isolates. seventeen random oligonucleotide primers of 10-11 bases with gc content varying from 50-81.8% were used in the study. depending upon the f. gigantica isolate-primer combination, one to five fragments in the range of 32 ...200818626662
expression of atp-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics.atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide spectrum of different substrates. certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. the role of abc proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes increasingly evident. however, studies on abc transporters in helminths have been limited to mdr1 and mrp orthologues. in the pr ...200818543082
host responses during experimental infection with fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica in merino sheep ii. development of a predictive index for fasciola gigantica worm burden.this study reports on the predictive relationship between serological, immunological and pathological responses following experimental inoculation with incremental doses of fasciola gigantica in sheep. fifty, 6-month-old, naive merino wethers were allocated to one of 5 experimental groups, four of which received 50, 125, 225 and 400 metacercariae, respectively, whilst a 5th group acted as non-inoculated control. strong individual correlations were observed between liver score, gldh (glutamate de ...200818468797
screening for indian isolates of egg-parasitic fungi for use in biological control of fascioliasis and amphistomiasis in ruminant livestock.wild isolates of the egg-parasitic fungi paecilomyces lilacinus and verticillium chlamydosporium, obtained from the organic environment of durg, chhattisgarh, india, were subjected to screening for in vitro growth using different media types, range of incubation temperature and ph, and their predatory activity to the eggs of fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle explanatum. maximum growth of p. lilacinus was obtained in corn-meal agar compared to any other media types. the preferred medium for gr ...200818462555
fasciola gigantica: purification and characterization of adenosine deaminase.nucleotidase cascades (apyrase, 5' nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ada) were investigated in the parasitic trematode fasciola gigantica. ada had the highest activity in the nucleotidase cascades. adenosine deaminase was purified from f. gigantica through acetone precipitation and chromatography on cm-cellulose. two forms of enzyme (adai, adaii) were separated. adaii was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on sephacryl s-200. the molecular mass was 29 kda for the native and denatu ...200818436213
early detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent an attempt to develop a suitable serological test for early detection of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes, a group of proteins were isolated from the somatic antigen of the parasite by immunoaffinity chromatography. the process of isolation of the proteins has been standardized and significant level of repeatability was achieved. to test the diagnostic potentiality of the antigens, two serological tests, viz., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and dot enzyme-linked immunosorb ...200818344058
a randomized controlled pilot study of artesunate versus triclabendazole for human fascioliasis in central vietnam.human fascioliasis caused by fasciola hepatica or fasciola gigantica is an increasing global problem. the mainstay of current treatment is triclabendazole, but resistance in animals has been described, and it is not available in many countries. the antimalarial artesunate has an excellent safety profile, and there is increasing evidence of its efficacy against other parasites both in vitro and in vivo. we performed a study to investigate the usefulness of artesunate in symptomatic human fascioli ...200818337331
fasciola gigantica and schistosoma mansoni: vaccine potential of recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rfggst26) against infections in mice.recombinant fasciola gigantica glutathione s-transferase (rfggst26) was expressed in escherichia coli. this protein had 86% and 56% sequence identity with 26 kda gst from fasciola hepatica and schistosoma mansoni, respectively. polyclonal antibody raised in icr mice against rfggst26 recognized immunoblotted 26 kda native gsts from f. gigantica and s. mansoni. rfggst26 was used as a vaccine in combination with freund's adjuvant to evaluate the induction of immune responses and protection against ...200818329021
biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. this article focuses on primary biliary parasites: ascaris lumbricoides, clonorchis sinensis, opisthorchis viverrini, opisthorchis felineus, dicrocoelium dendriticum, fasciola hepatica, and fasciola gigantica. tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, d ...200818321435
fasciola gigantica: evaluation of the effect of phenyl vinyl sulfone in vitro.phenyl vinyl sulfone is a synthetic inhibitor of cysteine protease and has antihelminthic and antiprotozoal properties. phenyl vinyl sulfone was assayed in vitro for antifasciola activity against adult fasciola gigantica worms using a well-established culture medium. worms were treated with phenyl vinyl sulfone for incubation periods ranging from 0 to 12h and its activity was assessed in terms of viability, motility and death of worms. phenyl vinyl sulfone exhibited a minimum effective concentra ...200818291373
the distribution of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica within southern tanzania--constraints associated with the intermediate east africa, fasciola gigantica is generally the causative agent of fasciolosis but there have been reports of f. hepatica in cattle from highland regions of kenya, ethiopia, uganda and zaire. the topography of the southern highlands of tanzania provides an environment where the climatic conditions exist for the sustenance of lymnaeid species capable of supporting both fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. theoretically this would allow interaction between fasciolid species and the possible cre ...200818205983
interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 expression during fasciola gigantica primary infection in crossbred bovine calves as determined by real -time pcr.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and interleukin-4 (il-4) expression in crossbred (bos taurusxbos indicus) bovine calves during primary infection with fasciola gigantica was measured. ten crossbred calves of 1-year age were divided into two groups of five calves each, group i uninfected control and group ii calves orally infected with a dose of 1000 metacercariae of f. gigantica. the two cytokines were measured 10, 30 and 75 days post-infection (pi) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) wi ...200818201826
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: cloning and characterisation of 70 kda heat-shock proteins reveals variation in hsp70 gene expression between parasite species recovered from sheep.fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica are trematode parasites responsible for fasciolosis, a disease of ruminant animals which is also increasingly recognised as a disease in humans. by biochemical and in silico methods, we have cloned and characterised the 70 kda heat-shock proteins (hsp70s) of f. hepatica and f. gigantica. the nucleotide and protein sequences for hsp70 were found to be 98% and 99% identical between liver fluke species, respectively, and to encode conserved amino acid motifs ...200818190913
genetic characterisation of fasciola samples from different host species and geographical localities revealed the existence of f. hepatica and f. gigantica in the present study, 16 samples representing fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) from sheep and cattle from seven geographical locations in niger were characterized genetically by sequences of the first (its-1) and second (its-2) internal transcribed spacers (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from individual liver flukes by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and the amplicons were sequenced directly. the lengths of the its-1 and its-2 sequences were 422 a ...200818183422
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