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monoclonal antibody against recombinant fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1h could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin ls of fasciola gigantica.cathepsin ls (catls), the major cysteine protease secreted by fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1h (fgcatl1h) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. in the present study, a monoclonal antibody (moab) against recombinant f. gigantica cathepsin l1h (rfgcatl1h) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with recombinant profgcatl1h (rprofgcatl1h). this moab i ...201525324133
cholestasis caused by fasciola gigantica.fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by the hepatic trematodes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. here, we report the case of fasciola gigantica presenting with biliary obstruction and abdominal pain that was diagnosed and treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ercp). a 46-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and jaundice. physical examination revealed icterus and hepatomegaly. laboratory findings revealed an increase in liver transaminases ...201425308461
identification of fasciola species based on mitochondrial and nuclear dna reveals the co-existence of intermediate fasciola and fasciola gigantica in thailand.molecular techniques were used to identify fasciola species collected from chiang mai thailand. morphometrically, 65 stained and 45 fresh worms collected from cattle suggested the possible occurrence of both f. gigantica and f. hepatica. twenty-two worms comprising 15 from cattle and 7 from human patients, were identified subsequently based on three genetic markers: mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) ...201425300764
fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. this trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. however, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in travel medicine. different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, ...201425287722
specific diagnosis of opisthorchis viverrini using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) targeting parasite microsatellites.opisthorchis viverrini and other food-borne trematode infections are major health problems in thailand, the lao people's democratic republic, vietnam and cambodia. differential diagnosis of o. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) has been widely used for detection and identification of trematode for its simple method that is usef ...201525268466
rnai dynamics in juvenile fasciola spp. liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (rna interference, rnai) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. the susceptibility of juvenile fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)rna-induced rnai has been reported. to exploit this we probe rnai dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse ...201425254508
liver fluke vaccines in ruminants: strategies, progress and future opportunities.the development of a vaccine for fasciola spp. in livestock is a challenge and would be advanced by harnessing our knowledge of acquired immune mechanisms expressed by resistant livestock against fluke infection. antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed to the surface tegument of juvenile/immature flukes is a host immune effector mechanism, suggesting that antigens on the surface of young flukes may represent prime candidates for a fluke vaccine. a type 1 immune response shortly af ...201425200351
a 170kda multi-domain cystatin of fasciola gigantica is active in the male reproductive system.cystatins are functional as intra- and extracellular inhibitors of cysteine proteases and are expressed as single or multi-domain proteins. we have previously described two single domain type 1 cystatins in the trematode fasciola gigantica that are released into the parasite's intestinal tract and exhibit inhibitory activity against endogenous and host cathepsin l and b proteases. in contrast, the here presented 170kda multi-domain cystatin (fgmdc) comprises signal peptide and 12 tandem repeated ...201425176159
opisthorchis viverrini: analysis of the sperm-specific rhophilin associated tail protein 1-like.concurrent deficiency of rhophilin associated tail protein (ropn1) and ropn1-like (ropn1l) in mice causes structural abnormalities and immotility of sperm and thereby infertility. in the present research, ropn1l of the human liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini was molecularly characterized and showed unexpected potential as a diagnostic tool. ropn1l transcripts were detected in 2-week-old juveniles by rt-pcr. immunohistochemical analysis of the adult worm localized the protein in testis lobes, se ...201425124046
fasciola gigantica transmission in the zoonotic fascioliasis endemic lowlands of guilan, iran: experimental assessment.the lowland flatlands around the city of bandar-anzali, at the caspian sea shore, guilan province, are an endemic area where fasciola gigantica appears to be the fasciolid species involved and past outbreaks affecting around 15,000 people and the highest human infection rates in iran have been reported. fascioliasis transmission in that area has been experimentally analysed for the first time, by means of assays of monomiracidial (group a: 120 snails) and pentamiracidial (group b: 96 snails) inf ...201425095734
effect of feeding deoiled mahua (bassia latifolia) seed cake on the growth performance, digestibility and balance of nutrients in cross-bred calves during pre-patent period of fasciola gigantica infection.a study was conducted to assess the growth performance and nutrient utilization of cross-bred calves serially infected with fasciola gigantica and/or supplemented with deoiled mahua seed cake (dmsc) during pre-patent period of infection. twenty healthy cross-bred (holstein friesian × haryana) male calves aged 6-7 months with an initial average live weight of 79.6 ± 2.71 kg were divided into four treatment groups (con, con-inf, dmc and dmc-inf) of five animals each following randomized block desi ...201525065976
molecular phylogenetic identification of fasciola flukes in nepal.eighty-one fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and for their phylogenetic relation with fasciola flukes from other asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial nadh dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as fasciola gigantica. all of the asp ...201425025757
molecular and morphological characterization of fasciola spp. isolated from different host species in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in iran.the current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in iran. adult fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from kohgiluyeh and boyer-ahmad province, southwest of iran. genomic dna was extracted from the flukes and pcr-rflp was used to characterize the isolates. the its1, its2, and mitochondrial genes (mtdna) of ndi and coi from individual liver flukes ...201425018891
first insight into cd59-like molecules of adult fasciola hepatica.the present study focussed on investigating cd59-like molecules of fasciola hepatica. a cdna encoding a cd59-like protein (termed fhcd59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the f. hepatica tegument was isolated. this homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (orf) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human cd59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved cd59/ly-6 family motif "ccxxxxcn". an analysis of cdnas from tw ...201424955521
a case of fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and its-1 sequencing of the worm.fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by fasciola hepatica or fasciola gigantica. we report an 87-year-old korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to f. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp) with extraction of 2 worms. at his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. ct and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (mrcp) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile ...201424850964
[case report: fasciola gigantica infection treated by triclabendazole]. 201324809182
thiosulphate: cyanide sulphur transferase activity in some species of helminth parasites.investigation on the characteristic pattern of enzymes in various organisms may be of particular importance, as this type of information can help to understand certain physiological and biochemical processes in living organisms. thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) is a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme, which its major function is generally believed to be in cyanide detoxification. the present study was conducted to determine the activity of this enzyme in some parasitic helminths ...201424808648
[comparison between albendazole and triclabendazole against fasciola gigantica in human].to compare the anthelmintic effect of albendazole with that of triclabendazole against fasciola gigantica.201424800585
characteristics and molecular phylogeny of fasciola flukes from bangladesh, determined based on spermatogenesis and nuclear and mitochondrial dna analyses.this study aimed to precisely discriminate fasciola spp. based on dna sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadh) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. we collected 150 adult flukes from the bile ducts of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats from six different regions of bangladesh. spermatogenic status was determined by analyzing stained seminal vesicles. the its1 types were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restr ...201424781019
time-dependent tegumental surface changes in juvenile fasciola gigantica in response to triclabendazole treatment in goat.triclabendazole (tcbz), the anthelmintic drug active against both mature and immature liver flukes, was used to investigate the effect of in vivo treatment on the tegumental surface of juvenile fasciola gigantica. five goats were infected with 150 f. gigantica metacercariae each by oral gavage. four of them were treated with single dose of tcbz at 10mg/kg at four weeks post-infection. they were euthanized at 0 (untreated), 24, 48, 72 and 96h post treatment. juvenile flukes were manually retrieve ...201424742909
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica.monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against a recombinant cathepsin l1 of fasciola gigantica (rfgcatl1) were produced in vitro by fusion of balb/c mice spleen cells immunized with rfgcatl1 and mouse myeloma cells. reactivity and specificity of these moabs were evaluated by indirect elisa and immunoblotting techniques. seven moab clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1e10, 1f5, 3d11, 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e7. clones 1e10, 1f5 and 3d11 were igm, whereas clones 4b10, 4d3, 4e3 and 5e ...201424736227
identification and expression of fasciola gigantica thioredoxin.in the present study, a cdna encoding trx from f. gigantica (fgtrx) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the sequence of fgtrx, analyzed by blast, signalp, and clustralw programs, showed 315 bp of an open reading frame (orf), 12 bp 5'utr, 78 bp 3'utr, and the putative fgtrx peptide comprising of 104 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 11.68 kda, with the active site containing five amino acids (tryptophan, cysteine, glycine, proline, cysteine) with a conserved dithiol motif from th ...201424718754
prevalence of fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern lake chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels.fasciolosis has been described in sub-saharan africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from chad are from the 1970s. mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to lake chad can lead to infection. this study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists' livestock in the south-eastern lake chad region.in 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near gredaya in the south-eastern lake chad area ...201424708774
complete mitochondrial genomes of the 'intermediate form' of fasciola and fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with f. hepatica.fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus fasciola. fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear.201424685294
trematode infections in cattle in arumeru district, tanzania are associated with irrigation.the relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at arumeru district, arusha region, northern tanzania. randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (zz) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (zc) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (zci).201424650420
immunodiagnosis of egyptian human fasciolosis gigantica using fas1 and fas2 cysteine proteinase antigens.fasciolosis caused by fasciola gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world including egypt. immunodiagnostic methods are more applicable for their better sensitivity and specificity than other methods. the present study was conducted to cysteine proteinase (cp) antigens of f. gigantica in igg-elisa to diagnose human fasciolosis. igg-elisa with 2 cysteine proteinases of 27 kda (fas1) and 29 kda (fas2), obtained from the regurgitated materials of adult worms, were evaluated u ...201324640878
role of oxidative stress in concomitant occurrence of fasciola gigantica and leiomyoma in cattle.fasciola gigantica is a parasitic helminth that predominantly infects the liver and bile ducts of cattle and causes great losses of cattle production in the southwestern regions of iran. the purpose of the present study was to find out the possible relationship between the extent of liver destruction and oxidative stress by estimating the level of mda, and sod and gpx enzymes in the liver of cattle infected with f. gigantica. studies were carried out on 49 infected and 20 healthy livers. based o ...201424636711
analysis of the expression and antioxidant activity of 2-cys peroxiredoxin protein in fasciola gigantica.2-cys peroxiredoxin (prx) is the main antioxidant enzyme in fasciola species for detoxifying hydrogen peroxide which is generated from the hosts' immune effector cells and the parasites' own metabolism. in this study, the recombinant prx protein from fasciola gigantica (rfgprx-2) was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic expression system. this recombinant protein with molecular weight of 26 kda was enzymatically active in reduction of hydrogen peroxide both in presence of thioredoxin and glut ...201424594261
a consistent pcr-rflp assay based on its-2 ribosomal dna for differentiation of fasciola species.fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by liver fluke species of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. differentiation of these two species, based on their morphological characteristics, is difficult. the current study aimed to use pcr-rflp assay to distinguish between f. hepatica and f. gigantica, based on profiles of rflp, produced by effect of endonucleases on its2 of the ribosomal dna genes from these two species.201324570833
invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with egyptian fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail pseudosuccinea columella.the liver fluke fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in africa and asia. cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to f. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. the introduced snail species galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. therefore, we investigated snails collect ...201424523913
protection against fasciola gigantica using paramyosin antigen as a candidate for vaccine production.yet no vaccine to protect ruminants against liver fluke infection has been commercialized. in an attempt to develop a suitable vaccine against fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) infection in rabbits, using 97 kda pmy antigen. it was found that, the mean worm burdens and bile egg count after challenge were reduced significantly by 58.40 and 61.40%, respectively. on the other hand, immunization of rabbits with pmy induced a significant expression of humoral antibodies (igm, total igg, igg1, igg2 an ...201324511686
prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using its-2 region of fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from chiang mai province, thailand.to investigate the infection of fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) in domestic cattle from chiang mai province and molecular confirmation using its-2 region.201424507641
survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in west java, indonesia.to evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in indonesia have never been performed.201424507639
serodiagnosis of bovine fasciolosis by dot-enzyme immuno assay in chennai, tamil nadu.excretory/secretory (e/s) antigen of adult fasciola gigantica was used for diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes sera from slaughter houses and different places in and around chennai, tamil nadu. a total of 6.4 mg of e/s antigen was obtained from the 60 flukes collected from slaughter houses. coprological examination was done to detect endoparasitic infection in 321 fecal samples. dot-enzyme immuno assay (dot-eia) was standardized with optimum working dilution of e/s antigen, serum, a ...201424505174
neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans.fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the trematode species fasciola hepatica, distributed worldwide, and fasciola gigantica, restricted to given regions of africa and asia. this disease in humans shows an increasing importance, which relies on its recent widespread emergence related to climate and global changes and also on its pathogenicity in the invasive, biliary, and advanced chronic phases in the human endemic areas, mainly of developing countries. in spite of the large ...201424480313
praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update.status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. the target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ech ...201324265948
tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail lymnaea acuminata.snail lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of liver fluke fasciola gigantica, which cause endemic fasciolosis among cattle population of eastern uttar pradesh. control of snail population by molluscicides is one of the effective methods to control fasciolosis. in the present study molluscicidal activity of tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of different indian breeds of cow sahiwal, geer and tharparkar with annona squamosa seed powder, ferula asafoetida root latex, azadirachta indi ...201224199478
the in vitro anthelmintic effects of plumbagin on newly excysted and 4-weeks-old juvenile parasites of fasciola gigantica.the effect of plumbagin (pb, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) against newly excysted juveniles (nejs) and 4-weeks-old immature parasites of fasciola gigantica were compared with triclabendazole (tcz). the anthelmintic efficacy of 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of pb or tcz following incubation in vitro for 1-24h was compared using a combination of relative motility (rm), survival index (si) and larval migration inhibition (lmi) assays for parasite viability. the rm and si values of the pb-treated grou ...201424157317
immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of fasciola gigantica by glutathione s-transferase (gst).in the present study, effort to isolate purified gst from fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. in this study, immunoprotection studies with gst and antibody titer post-infection has revealed gst to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.201224082529
comparative toxicity of paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in lymnaea natalensis snails.paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. the present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of lymnaea natalensis snails. it was found that the exposure of l. natalensis to paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snai ...201624081640
vaccine potential of recombinant saposin-like protein 2 against fasciolosis gigantica in mice.saposin-like protein 2 (sap-2) is a protein that adult of fasciola spp. use to lyse plasma membrane of red blood cells, so that their contents can be digested by proteases for the parasites' nutrients. thus sap-2 is a plausible target for vaccination against these parasites. recombinant fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 2 (rfgsap-2) was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3). a vaccination was performed in icr mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rfgsap-2 combined with freu ...201324075921
immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen.many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility.201323961441
development and hatching mechanism of fasciola eggs, light and scanning electron microscopic studies.both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used in the description. there were variable measurements of eggs from the same fluke and there was no relationship between the size of the fluke and size of eggs. light microscopy revealed that the operculum has different shapes in fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica. under normal laboratory conditions of temperature (26 ± 1 °c), miracidia of f. gigantica developed within 12-16 days period, but those of f. hepatica developed within a pe ...201023961086
an outbreak of human fascioliasis gigantica in southwest china.fascioliasis is a common parasitic disease in livestock in china. however, human fascioliasis is rarely reported in the country. here we describe an outbreak of human fascioliasis in yunnan province. we reviewed the complete clinical records of 29 patients and performed an epidemiological investigation on the general human population and animals in the outbreak locality. our findings support an outbreak due to fasciola gigantica with a peak in late november, 2011. the most common symptoms were r ...201323951181
immunodetection of fasciola gigantica circulating antigen in sera of infected individuals for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis.currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. here, a 27-kda-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a fasciola giganti ...201323945158
immunization with recombinant leucine aminopeptidase showed protection against fasciola gigantica in mice.leucine aminopeptidase (lap) is expressed in all stages of fasciola gigantica and, hence, is considered as a potential vaccine candidate. in this study, we have tested a vaccine potential of lap and the types of immune responses it elicited in vaccinated mice. recombinant f. gigantica leucine aminopeptidase (rfglap) was expressed in escherichia coli, bl21 (de3). the imprinting control region mice subcutaneously immunized with 50 μg of rfglap combined with freund's adjuvant (n = 10) exhibited a s ...201323917327
[effect evaluation of three elisa kits in detection of fasciolasis].to evaluate the effect of 3 elisa kits on detection of human fasciolasis.201323894840
th1 and th2 cytokine gene expression in primary infection and vaccination against fasciola gigantica in buffaloes by real-time pcr.th1 and th2 cytokine gene expression in buffalo calves during primary infection with fasciola gigantica as well as in response to immunization with the parasite recombinant fatty acid binding protein (rfabp) and recombinant glutathione s-transferase (rgst) proteins was measured at 14th week of infection by real-time pcr with the double-stranded dna-binding dye sybr green. experimental animals were randomly distributed into fabp, gst, cocktail, challenge and healthy groups. animals in groups fabp ...201323873619
possible fasciocidal activity of methanol extract of dregea volubilis leaves.in eastern and southern part of india dregea volubilis (family asclepediaceae) is widely used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine. the present study was conducted to evaluate the fasciocidal activity of the methanol extract of d. volubilis leaves (medv) and to observe the drug's effect on organisms through scanning electron microscopic (sem) study. live parasites (trematode: fasciola gigantica) were collected in 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline from the bile ducts of buffalo. those w ...201323850996
direct and indirect affection of the central nervous system by fasciola infection.fascioliasis is a worldwide, zoonotic disease caused by the liver trematodes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. neurological fascioliasis has been widely reported in all continents, affecting both sexes and all ages. two types of records related to two physiopathogenic mechanisms may be distinguished: cases in which the neurological symptoms are due to direct effects of a migrating juvenile present in the brain or neighboring organ and with cerebral lesions suggesting migration through th ...201323829920
molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a novel juvenile-specific cathepsin l of fasciola gigantica.cathepsin l proteases are a major class of endopeptidases expressed at a high level in fasciola parasites. several isoforms of cathepsin l were detected and they may perform different functions during the parasite development. in this study, a complete cdna encoding a cathepsin l protease was cloned from a newly excysted juvenile (nej) cdna library of fasciola gigantica and named fgcatl1h. it encoded a 326 amino acid preproenzyme which shared 62.8-83.1% and 39.5-42.9% identity to fasciola spp. a ...201323820262
vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsin b against fasciola gigantica.in fasciola gigantica, cathepsin bs, especially cathepsin b2 and b3 are expressed in early juvenile stages, and are proposed to mediate the invasion of host tissues. thus they are thought to be the target vaccine candidates that can block the invasion and migration of the juvenile parasite. to evaluate their vaccine potential, the recombinant cathepsin b2 (rfgcatb2) and cathepsin b3 (rfgcatb3) were expressed in yeast, pichia pastoris, and used to immunize mice in combination with freund's adjuva ...201323811052
phenotypes of intermediate forms of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica in buffaloes from central punjab, pakistan.fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults and eggs infecting buffaloes inhabiting the central punjab area, pakistan, have been studied to characterize fasciolid populations involved. morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (cias) applied on the basis of standardized measurements. since it is the first study of this kind undertake ...201423731975
tegumental histological effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica.to evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally.201323730566
dot-blot immunoassay of fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kda and adult worm regurge antigens in egyptian patients.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-kilodalton (kda) antigen versus fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a dot-blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in egyptian patients. fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(kda) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution sds-page. a dot-blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific ...201323710084
activity of superoxide dismutase (sod) enzyme in the excretory-secretory products of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica parasites.the aim of this study was to compare superoxide dismutase (sod) activity in fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica parasites.201323682275
effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions.to evaluate the effects of mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions.201223569864
diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa for detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease.a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa) was developed for the detection of circulating cathepsin b3 protease (catb3) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica and cattle naturally infected with the same parasite. the moab 2f9 and biotinylated rabbit polyclonal anti-recombinant catb3 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities to f. gigantica catb3 antigen based on indirect elis ...201323567552
in vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke fasciola gigantica.the present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as allium sativum, lawsonia inermis, and opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, oxyclozanide on fasciola gigantica adults. the efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of f. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. based on the in vitro trials conducted us ...201123543611
extra-hepatic fascioliasis with peritoneal malignancy tumor feature.fascioliasis is a zoonose parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica and is widespread in most regions of the world. ectopic fascioliasis usually caused by juvenile fasciola spp., but in recent years a few cases of tissue-embedded ova have been reported from different endemic areas. a 79-year-old iranian man resident in eird-e-mousa village from ardabil province, north-west of iran, complained with abdominal pain, nausea, and intestinal obstruction symptoms referred to ...201123542770
evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola adult worm vomit for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.the diagnostic efficacy of fasciola gigantica adult worm vomit (awv) preparation in diagnosis of human fasciolosis was evaluated using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and falcon assay screening test (fast)-elisa in comparison with f. gigantica adult total soluble extract (tse). sera of fasciolosis patients, patients with other parasitic diseases (hydatid disease, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, and amebiasis), and sera of healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. th ...201323512028
[clinical diagnosis and treatment in an outbreak of fasciola gigantica infection in yunnan province].to carry out clinical diagnosis and treatment of fasciola gigantica infection during an outbreak in yunnan province.201223484257
phylogenetic data suggest the reclassification of fasciola jacksoni (digenea: fasciolidae) as fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov.fasciola jacksoni (cobbold, 1869) is a highly prevalent (18-62%) species colonizing the liver (less frequently the lungs, kidneys, pericardia, and intestines) of elephas maximus indicus and elephas maximus maximus in the indomalayan region, causing cirrhosis, hemorrhages, and connective tissue proliferation. the phylogenetic relationships of fasciola jacksoni in relation to representative species of the superfamily echinostomatoidea was assessed using four independent dna regions. the analysis i ...201323411741
comparative characterization of micrornas from the liver flukes fasciola gigantica and f. hepatica.micrornas (mirnas) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. the present study specifically explored and compared the mirna expression profiles of f. gigantica and f. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time pcr. nineteen and 16 mirna candidates were identified from f. gigantica and f. hepatica, respectively. the two parasites shared 11 mirnas, with 8 also showing similarity to mirnas of schistosoma japonicum. ano ...201223300925
[acute fasciolosis: a cuban case report].fasciolosis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. the causative agents of fasciolosis are fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica but, in cuba, only f. hepatica has been notified. as others neglected diseases, f. hepatica is more common in people living in rural areas where infected animals, intermediate hosts and susceptible hosts coexist. we describe the clinical features of a case that could contribute to the process of continuing medical education of health profess ...201223282500
antigenic components, isolation and partial characterization of excretion-secretion fraction of paramphistomum cervi.the immunogenic components of adult paramphistomum cervi excretion-secretion (es) fraction were revealed by sds-page and immunoblotting technique using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. cervi, fasciola gigantica, strongylids, trichuris sp., and strongyloides sp. by sds-page, it was found that the es fraction comprised 13 distinct protein bands. immunoblotting analysis of these proteins exhibited nine prominent antigenic bands which were recognized by paramphistomosis antisera. these an ...201223266486
proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion us$. fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while f. gigantica dominates in the tropics. in the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are be ...201223167294
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant saposin-like protein 2 of fasciola gigantica.a monoclonal antibody (moab) against recombinant fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 2 (rfgsap-2) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with rfgsap-2. this moab is an igg1, κ light chain isotype. by immunoblotting and indirect elisa, the moab reacted specifically with rfgsap-2, the natural fgsap-2 at 10kda in whole body (wb) and excretory-secretory (es) fractions of f. gigantica. it did not cross react with antigens in wb fractions from other paras ...201323164839
fhcabp3: a fasciola hepatica calcium binding protein with ef-hand and dynein light chain domains.a dna sequence encoding a protein with predicted ef-hand and dynein light chain binding domains was identified in a fasciola hepatica est library. sequence analysis of the encoded protein revealed that the most similar known protein was the fasciola gigantica protein fgcabp3 and so this newly identified protein was named fhcabp3. molecular modelling of fhcabp3 predicted a highly flexible n-terminal region, followed by a domain containing two ef-hand motifs the second of which is likely to be a f ...201323142130
substantial genetic divergence between morphologically indistinguishable populations of fasciola suggests the possibility of cryptic speciation.the liver flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, are considered to be sister species and between them present a major threat worldwide to livestock production. in this study sequence data have been employed from informative regions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of over 200 morphologically f. hepatica-like or f. gigantica-like flukes from europe, sub-saharan africa and south asia to assess genetic diversity. evidence is presented for the existence of four well-separated clad ...201223131680
efficient inhibition of cathepsin b by a secreted type 1 cystatin of fasciola gigantica.cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. while their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. in the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with fgstefin-1 and human cystatin c, that a second type 1 cystatin of the pa ...201223085005
bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of mount elgon, uganda.to clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of mount elgon, uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes.201222958402
characterization and expression of cathepsin b2 in fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica cathepsin b belongs to a family of cysteine proteases which is involved in invasion of host tissues. in this study, the recombinant cathepsin b2 (rfgcatb2), synthesized in pichia pastoris, showed enzymatic activity on a fluorometric substrate z-phe-arg-amc and gelatin. furthermore, this recombinant enzyme could degrade igg and type i collagen. mouse antiserum against rfgcatb2 reacted with the native fgcatb2 in whole body (wb) extracts of metacercariae (met), newly excysted juv ...201222885402
development and evaluation of a single-step duplex pcr for simultaneous detection of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica (family fasciolidae, class trematoda, phylum platyhelminthes).a single-step multiplex pcr (here referred to as a duplex pcr) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. these species overlap in distribution in many countries of north and east africa and central and southeast asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) spanning the region of cox1-trnt-rrnl, two species-specific forward primers w ...201222692744
epizootiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylactic trends to control tropical bubaline fasciolosis: an overview.on the indian sub-continent, nearly 5,000 years ago, the domestication of the riverine buffalo-the incredible asian dairy animal was initiated. it plays a versatile role in socio-economic upliftment of its owners from the rural agricultural communities in asian, african, south american and a few european countries. comparatively, buffaloes are lesser evolved and susceptible to infectious diseases than cattle. however, poor body thermoregulation and wallowing nature predisposed them to snail born ...201122654308
molecular, biochemical, and morphometric characterization of fasciola species potentially causing zoonotic disease in egypt.fascioliasis is an important disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the distributions of both species overlap in many areas of asia and africa including egypt. fifty adult fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, cairo, egypt. they were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electroph ...201222638917
trematode infections: liver and lung flukes.food-borne trematodiases are an emerging public health problem in southeast asia and latin america and of growing importance for travel clinics in europe and north america. the disease is caused by chronic infections with liver, lung, and intestinal flukes. this article focuses on the most important liver and lung flukes that parasitize man, namely clonorchis sinensis, fasciola gigantica, fasciola hepatica, opisthorchis felineus, opisthorchis viverrini, and paragonimus spp. the article describes ...201222632646
molecular study for detecting the prevalence of fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana (pulmonata: lymnaeidae) in northwestern iran.fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in iran. this study was aimed to determine prevalence of fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of radix gedrosiana in northwestern iran. the snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from may to december 2010 and identified. a fragment of 618 bp of 28s rrna gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr ...201222579498
molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from fasciola gigantica.m17 leucine aminopeptidase (lap) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the n-terminals. in this study, the full length of cdna encoding fasciola gigantica lap (fglap) was cloned from adult parasites. the amino acid sequences of fglap showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fglap was closely re ...201222543100
update on trematode infections in sheep.trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke fasciola hepatica. hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are fasciola ...201222521973
protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. cysteine proteinases (cp) released by fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. there has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. multiple doses (2 mg of cp in fre ...201222451733
fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (fabp) as a prophylactic agent against schistosoma mansoni infection in cd1 mice.although schistosomicidal drugs and other control measures exist, the advent of an efficacious vaccine remains the most potentially powerful means for controlling this disease. in this study, native fatty acid binding protein (fabp) from fasciola gigantica was purified from the adult worm's crude extract by saturation with ammonium sulphate followed by separation on deae-sephadex a-50 anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration using sephacryl hr-100, respectively. cd1 mice were immunized w ...201222451732
fasciola gigantica: the in vitro effects of artesunate as compared to triclabendazole on the 3-weeks-old juvenile.the in vitro effect of artesunate (ats) on the 3-week-old juveniles of fasciola gigantica was compared with triclabendazole (tcz) by incubating the parasites in m-199 medium containing the drugs at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h. the anthelmintic activities of these drugs were evaluated based on the relative motility value (rm) and the alterations of the tegument as observed by scanning (sem) and transmission (tem) electron microscopy. the rm values of tcz-treate ...201222425749
in vitro effects of triclabendazole (tcbz) on the excretory-secretory products (esp) of fasciola spp parasites.fascioliasis is an endemic disease in iran and triclabendazole (tcbz) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. excretory-secretory products (esp) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione s-transferase (gst) and superoxide dismutase (sod) enzymes respectively. therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against tcbz drug by detection of enzymatic activities, ...201222418984
assessing the validity of an elisa test for the serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis in different epidemiological situations.to improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), with fasciola antigen from the adult liver fluke, for the detection of igg against fascioliasis in human sera.201222413850
diagnostic potential of fasciola gigantica-derived 14.5 kda fatty acid binding protein in the immunodiagnosis of bubaline fascioliasis.the 14.5 kda fatty acid binding protein (fabp) was isolated from the crude extract of adult fasciola gigantica worms. polyclonal anti-fabp igg was generated in rabbits immunized with prepared fabp antigen. sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was applied to detect coproantigen in stools and circulating fasciola antigen (ca) in sera of 126 water buffaloes by using purified and horseradish peroxidase (hrp)-conjugated anti-fabp igg. sandwich elisa sensitivity was 96.97% and 94.95%; wh ...201322409954
analysis of a calcium-binding ef-hand protein family in fasciola gigantica.transcriptome data supports the notion of a platyhelminthes-specific protein family that is characterized by combination of two n-terminal ef-hands and a c-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. family members in schistosomes induce an ige response that has been connected with resistance to reinfection in schistosomiasis and is considered as a marker of protection. in the present study, we have compared three homologs of the liver fluke fasciola gigantica for their immunological properties in ...201222366577
characterization of fasciola samples by its of rdna sequences revealed the existence of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica in yunnan province, china.on mainland china, liver flukes of fasciola spp. (digenea: fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. the objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of fasciola species in yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its-1 and its-2) of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna). the its rdna was amplified from 10 samples representing fasciola species in catt ...201222360550
molecular identification and differentiation of fasciola isolates using pcr- rflp method based on internal transcribed spacer (its1, 5.8s rdna, its2).in this study, we used both its1 and its2 for molecular identification of fasciola species.201122347295
development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini (opisthorchiidae; trematoda; platyhelminthes).mitochondrial dna sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-lamp) because multiple copies occur in every cell. four lamp primers [f3, fip(f1c+f2), bip(b1c+b2), and b3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-ovlamp) to distinguish dna of o. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes ...201222322346
molecular identification of fasciola spp. (digenea: platyhelminthes) in cattle from vietnam.fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of khanh hoa province, vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) of the ribosomal rna revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presen ...201222314245
fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from cajamarca and mantaro, peru.fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. of both species, f. hepatica is the only one described in the americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the galba/fossaria group. human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of andean countries. given the necessity to characterize f. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis e ...201222285769
Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study r ...201122186976
Evaluation of a 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of 14.5 kDa-Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as a diagnostic antigen for human fascioliasis. 14.5 kDa FABP was isolated from the crude extract of adult F. gigantica worms by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography and then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing condition. Anti-FABP IgG polyclonal antibody (pAb) was generated in rabbits and pu ...201122113304
cholangiocarcinoma in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and fascioliasis in endoscopic ultrasonography.fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the zoonoses are particularly endemic in sheep-raising countries and are also endemic in iran. typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by phases of the disease, including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. cholestatic symptoms may be absent, and in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long pe ...201122110417
development of cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase based dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.native cathepsin-l cysteine proteinase (28 kda) was purified from the excretory secretory products of fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of f. gigantica infection in buffaloes by dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa). the test detected f. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ∼ 90%. no specific igg antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of ...201222055612
tegumental alterations of fasciola gigantica due to in vitro treatment with ro-354.triclabendazole is the drug of choice against fasciola infections in humans and animals. however, parasite resistance against triclabendazole is spreading in veterinary field, and there are no drugs of comparable activity currently available for the treatment and control of fascioliasis. the efficacy of a new rhodanine derivative ro-354 against adult fasciola gigantica in vitro was investigated. one hour post incubation, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examination reveal ...201122041747
Development and evaluation of a dipstick assay in diagnosis of human fasciolosis.For the diagnosis of human fasciolosis, a new dipstick assay was developed and its diagnostic efficacy was evaluated in comparison to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory antigen. Sera samples were collected from patients with confirmed fasciolosis and patients with other parasitic diseases as well as from normal healthy individuals. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the dipstick assay as well as ELISA were 100%, 96.7%, and ...201122015473
diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool.this research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (moab)-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of active fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes.201121917183
hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica.summaryexperiments on hybridization between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two fasciola species. molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the dna sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region in nuclear ribosomal dna, which differs between the species. the results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. however, ...201121767436
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