PMID(sorted descending)
the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanol leaf extracts of terminalia catappa l. on fasciola present, there are no medicinal plant extracts currently available for treatment and control of fasciolosis. the present work could provide, for the first study, conclusions on the in vitro fasciolicidal properties of the ethanol extract of terminalia catappa l. (tcce) leaves against adult fasciola gigantica after incubation with rpmi-1640 medium containing the tcce at various concentrations and times when compared with triclabendazole (tcz). the relative motility and survival index values of ...201728805167
immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis: an update of concepts and performances of the serological assays.human fascioliasis (hf) is a foodborne neglected parasitic disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. new epidemiological data suggest that the endemic areas of the disease are expanding and hf is being reported from areas where it was previously not observed. diagnosis of hf is challenging. performances of parasitological approaches, based on the detection of parasite's egg in the stool, are not satisfactory. currently serological methods for the diagnosis of hf are mainly base ...201728764235
identification of potential inhibitors of fasciola gigantica thioredoxin1: computational screening, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy studies.fasciola gigantica is the causative organism of fascioliasis and is responsible for major economic losses in livestock production globally. f. gigantica thioredoxin1 (fgtrx1) is an important redox-active enzyme involved in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the cell. to identify a potential anti-fasciolid compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the zinc database (n = 1,67,740) against the fgtrx1 structure. the ligands were docked against fgtrx1 and ...201728627969
genotoxic potential of fasciolagigantica infection in experimentally infected rabbits.a number of parasitic platyhelminthes are known to cause genotoxicity in humans and animals. however no such information is available on tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica, which incurs huge economic losses worldwide. in the present study the genotoxic potential of f. gigantica infection in rabbits, experimentally infected with the metacercarial cysts of this parasite, has been investigated using the standard comet assay and micronucleus (mni) test on the isolated hepatocytes and the whole ...201728615853
gastrointestinal helminthosis: prevalence and associated determinants in goats of jabalpur, india.a total of 632 faecal samples of goats of jabalpur district of madhya pradesh state were examined during three years of the study period (november 2012-october 2015), out of which 82.75 % samples were positive for helminthic infections. among various helminths, maximum prevalence was of strongyles (32.59 %) followed by amphistomes (14.40 %), moniezia spp. (12.50 %), strongyloides spp. (0.79 %), trichuris spp. (0.47 %) and fasciolagigantica (0.32 %). year wise prevalence revealed a highly signifi ...201728615851
a review of bovine fasciolosis and other trematode infections in nigeria.trematode infections cause serious economic losses to livestock worldwide. global production losses due to fasciolosis alone exceed us$3 billion annually. many trematode infections are also zoonotic and thus a public health concern. the world health organization has estimated that about 56 million people worldwide are infected by at least one zoonotic trematode species, and up to 750 million people are at risk of infection. fasciolosis caused by the fluke fasciola gigantica is endemic in nigeria ...201728528590
a novel ex vivo immunoproteomic approach characterising fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens identified using immune antibody from resistant sheep.a more thorough understanding of the immunological interactions between fasciola spp. and their hosts is required if we are to develop new immunotherapies to control fasciolosis. deeper knowledge of the antigens that are the target of the acquired immune responses of definitive hosts against both fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica will potentially identify candidate vaccine antigens. indonesian thin tail sheep express a high level of acquired immunity to infection by f. gigantica within 4w ...201728455238
molecular and morphometrical characterization of fasciola species isolated from domestic ruminants in ardabil province, northwestern iran.we aimed to describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of fasciola spp. in livestock from ardabil province, northwest iran.201728435817
prevalence, economic analysis and chemotherapeutic control of small ruminant fasciolosis in the sargodha district of punjab, pakistan.this study describes the epidemiology, the economic significance of small ruminant fasciolosis in animals slaughtered in the abattoirs of the sargodha district, punjab, pakistan between january and june 2012. in vivo fasciolicidal efficacy of commercially available compounds was examined using a randomised complete block design. microscopically screened faecal samples revealed 40.51% positive animals for fasciolosis. the prevalent species included fasciola hepatica (35.64%) and fasciola gigantic ...201728365925
fasciola hepatica immune regulates cd11c(+) cells by interacting with the macrophage gal/galnac lectin.fasciolosis, caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health and livestock production. like other helminths, f. hepatica modulates the host immune response by inducing potent polarized th2 and regulatory t cell immune responses and by downregulating the production of th1 cytokines. in this work, we show that f. hepatica glycans increase th2 immune responses by immunomodulating tlr-induced maturation and function of dendritic cells (dcs). t ...201728360908
chronic bovine fasciolosis associated cholangiolithiasis: a case report.cholangiolithiasis is a rare condition in animals wherein the choleliths are formed in the biliary tracts causing chronic inflammation. in the current study, choleliths which were firm and friable concretions of approximately 3-4 cm in diameter were found in the bile ducts of the liver of an adult cattle infected with fasciola gigantica. two such irregularly shaped concretions were encountered in the two biliary tracts leading to common bile duct in the liver. there were localized irregular sacc ...201728316393
de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the juvenile and adult stages of fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica is regarded as the major liver fluke causing fasciolosis in livestock in tropical countries. despite the significant economic and public health impacts of f. gigantica there are few studies on the pathogenesis of this parasite and our understanding is further limited by the lack of genome and transcriptome information. in this study, de novo illumina rna sequencing (rna-seq) was performed to obtain a comprehensive transcriptome profile of the juvenile (42days post infection) a ...201728286139
fasciolopsis buski (digenea: fasciolidae) from china and india may represent distinct taxa based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal dna sequences.fasciolopsis buski is a zoonotic intestinal fluke infecting humans and pigs, but it has been seriously neglected. it is yet to know whether there is any genetic diversity among f. buski from different geographical locations, particularly in sequences of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna) and mitochondrial (mt) dna. therefore, we determined the sequences of partial 18s, the complete internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna and the complete mt genome of f. buski from china, compared the rdna and mtdna seq ...201728228149
immunodiagnosis of paramphistomosis using monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa for detection of paramphistomum gracile circulating 16 kda this study, we have produced a monoclonal antibody (moab) against 16 kda antigen of paramphistomum gracile (16 kdaagpg), and developed an accurate sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa) for the detection of circulating 16 kdaag in the serum and fecal samples from cattle naturally infected with p. gracile. moab 1d10 was immobilized on a microtitre plate, and the antigen in the samples was captured and detected with biotinylated rabbit anti-16 kdaagpg antibody. the lower de ...201728219472
fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and the freshwater snail galba truncatula from dakhla oasis, egypt.infection by fasciola species was investigated in seven districts of dakhla oasis, egypt, through abattoir inspection of cattle livers for adult worms and sedimentation of faecal samples from local cattle to detect fasciola eggs. in addition, lymnaeid snails collected from the study area were examined microscopically for developmental stages of fasciola spp. abattoir inspection revealed that 51 out of 458 cattle livers (11.1%) contained adult flukes, which were identified morphologically as fasc ...201728162101
anthelmintic potential of thymoquinone and curcumin on fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis an economically important global disease of ruminants in the temperate and tropical regions, caused by fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica, respectively, also poses a potential zoonotic threat. in india alone it causes huge losses to stakeholders. anthelmintics including triclabendazole have been used to control this menace but the emerging resistance against the available compounds necessitates identification of novel and alternative therapeutic measures involving plant derived natur ...201728152102
transcriptomic responses of water buffalo liver to infection with the digenetic fluke fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica, the tropical liver fluke, infects buffaloes in asian and african countries and causes significant economic losses and poses public health threat in these countries. however, little is known of the transcriptional response of buffaloes to infection with f. gigantica. the objective of the present study was to perform the first transcriptomic analysis of buffalo liver infected by f. gigantica. understanding the mechanisms that underpin f. gigantica infection in buffaloes will co ...201728143561
photomediated larvicidal activity of pheophorbide a against cercaria larvae of fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by fasciola gigantica. the freshwater snail lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of f. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of india. to investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (pa) against cercaria larvae of f. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (pa) cause ...201728127494
characterization and vaccine potential of fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (sap-1).the recombinant fasciola gigantica saposin-like protien-1 (rfgsap-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from nej cdna, expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rfgsap-1). by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit igg anti-rfgsap-1 reacted with rfgsap-1 at a molecular weight 12kda, but not with rfgsap-2. the rfgsap-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with f. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and ...201728043381
molecular characterization of animal fasciola spp. isolates from kermanshah, western iran.we evaluated the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as fasciola spp. from sheep, cattle and goat from kermanshah province, western iran using pcr-rflp method.201627957438
identity of fasciola spp. in sheep in egypt, liver flukes, fasciola spp. (digenea: fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. both fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. little is known on the identity and genetic variability of fasciola populations in sheep.201627906040
animal fascioliasis: perspectives from high altitudinal regions.the parasitic flukes of the genus fasciola (platyhelminthes: trematoda: digenea) cause fascioliasis or liver-rot disease in ruminant livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. classically, two species of fasciola- f. hepatica and f. gigantica, are universally recognized as taxonomically valid species. our survey studies on ovid and bovid animals including yak and mithun from high altitudinal mountainous regions in northeast india revealed the occurrence of fasciola gigantica an ...201627890078
re-infection with fasciola gigantica 6-month post-treatment with triclabendazole in cattle from mobile pastoralist husbandry systems at lake lake chad in central africa, livestock fascioliasis caused by fasciola gigantica represents a major veterinary health problem, particularly in cattle reared in mobile pastoralist husbandry systems. we assessed re-infection after a single dose of triclabendazole with fascioliasis in cattle in a mobile pastoralist setting towards the end of the dry season. within the cattle herds of 14 groups of mobile pastoralists, 375 cattle were randomly selected. a faecal sample was obtained from each anima ...201627884440
detection of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica common and uncommon antigens, using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against their excretory-secretory and somatic antigens.fasciolosis is an important neglected helminth disease caused by two liver flukes, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the two species of fasciola are usually different in their morphological and molecular features. they have also common and uncommon antigens in both their somatic and excretory secretory metabolites. in this study, we compared somatic and excretory-secretory (es) antigens of f. hepatica and f. gigantica, by using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against these antigens. adu ...201627876981
comparison between in-house indirect elisa and dot-elisa for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica in cattle.this survey was done to investigate the efficacy of the in-house indirect elisa (ielisa) and dot-elisa methods prepared from excretion-secretory (es ag) and crude (cr ag) antigens of fasciola for sero-diagnosis of fasciola gigantica in cattle. the liver specimens of slaughtered cattle were collected and their liver examined macroscopically and microscopically for infestation to fasciolosis. sera from two groups of cattle, one infected with fasciolosis (n = 60) and the other non-infected with fas ...201627876956
nuclear and mitochondrial dna analysis reveals that hybridization between fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica occurred in china.the well-known pathogens of fasciolosis, fasciola hepatica (fh) and fasciola gigantica (fg), possess abundant mature sperms in their seminal vesicles, and thus, they reproduce bisexually. on the other hand, aspermic fasciola flukes reported from asian countries, which have no sperm in their seminal vesicles, probably reproduce parthenogenetically. the aim of this study was to reveal the origin of aspermic fasciola flukes. the nuclear single copy markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and dna ...201727804894
molecular and immunological characterisation of fasciola species.fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are polymorphic liver flukes that show considerable overlap between species, and various protein separation techniques have been used as alternative means of differentiation. acid and alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) show differences between f. hepatica and f. gigantica. following sds-page, f. hepatica proteins are characterised by the presence of eight major peptide bands, with molecular weights estimated as 48, 45, 43.5, 37, 33, 29, 27 and 2 ...200227786093
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of fasciola gigantica from nigeria.fasciola gigantica is considered the major pathogen causing fasciolosis in africa; however, molecular characterization of this fluke has not been adequately elucidated. it is important to scientifically elucidate the dispersal history of f. gigantica by analyzing its genetic diversity. fasciola flukes from nigeria were analyzed using nuclear and mitochondrial dna markers. a total of 172 fasciola flukes collected from cattle were identified as f. gigantica because they displayed the f. gigantica ...201727771460
toxicity of chlorophyllin against lymnaea acuminata at different wavelengths of visible light.fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. this disease is widespread in different parts of the world. lymnaeidae and planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% etha ...201627688849
development and evaluation of real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cystic echinococcosis.cystic echinococcosis (ce) or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus (eg)-complex, is a neglected parasitic disease of public health importance. the disease is endemic in many african and mediterranean countries including the sudan. the objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for simple and rapid detection of ce in humans and domestic live stock in sudan.201627619674
2d-page analysis of the soluble proteins of the tropical liver fluke, fasciola gigantica and biliary amphistome, gigantocotyle explanatum, concurrently infecting bubalus bubalis.the digenetic trematodes, fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle explanatum, belonging to the family fasciolidae and paramphistomidae respectively, have been often found to concurrently infect the liver of indian water buffalo bubalus bubalis, causing serious pathological damage to the vital organ, incurring huge economic losses. in the present study the soluble gene products of both f. gigantica and g. explanatum were analyzed by 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the soluble prote ...201627605808
effect of induced fasciola gigantica infection during pre-patency on the performance of buffalo calves fed on different percentage of protein.thirty growing murrah buffalo calves (8-12 months of age, 109.85 ± 2.43) were reared in parasite free conditions and randomly divided into three equal groups as per crd. they were fed on iso-caloric (2.01 me mcal/kg diet) diets containing standard protein (sp) diet at 100 %, 90 % of sp (medium protein, mp) and 80 % of sp (low protein, lp) of the protein requirements (kearl 1982). after 21 days of feeding, each group was further subdivided into two sub-groups (a & b). animals in sub-groups 'a' se ...201627605773
cross-sectional study of fasciola gigantica and other trematode infections of cattle in edu local government area, kwara state, north-central nigeria.trematode infections of livestock are of global veterinary and public health importance causing serious economic losses. majority of data on burden of trematode infections in nigeria are based on abattoir surveys and there are very few data on herd level risk factors. the present study investigated the prevalence of, and herd level risk factors for, fasciolosis and other trematode infections in cattle in edu local government area (lga).201627565768
vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsinl1g against fasciola gigantica in this study, we characterized and investigated the vaccine potential of fgcatl1g against fasciola gigantica infection in mice. recombinant mature fgcatl1g (rmfgcatl1g) was expressed in escherichia coli bl21. the vaccination was performed in imprinting control region (icr) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rmfgcatl1g combined with freund's adjuvant. two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by the oral route. the percents of protection of rmfgca ...201627514897
identification of chalcones as fasciola hepatica cathepsin l inhibitors using a comprehensive experimental and computational approach.increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. however, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and t ...201627463369
a retrospective study of the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at major abattoirs in botswana.a retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the department of veterinary services in gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in botswana. meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to fasciola gigantica infection. o ...201627380655
cytosolic superoxide dismutase can provide protection against fasciola gigantica.superoxide dismutases (sod), antioxidant metallo-enzymes, are a part of the first line of defense in the trematode parasites which act as the chief scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ros). a recombinant fasciola gigantica cytosolic sod (fgsod) was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) and used for immunizing rabbits to obtain polyclonal antibodies (anti-rfgsod). this rabbit anti-rfgsod reacted with the native fgsod at a molecular weight of 17.5kda. the fgsod protein was expressed at high ...201627338185
a prospective view of animal and human fasciolosis.fasciolosis, a food-borne trematodiasis, results following infection with the parasites, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. these trematodes greatly affect the global agricultural community, infecting millions of ruminants worldwide and causing annual economic losses in excess of us $3 billion. fasciolosis, an important zoonosis, is classified by who as a neglected tropical disease with an estimated 17 million people infected and a further 180 million people at risk of infection. the sign ...201627314903
immunodiagnostic monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa of fasciolosis by detection of fasciola gigantica circulating fatty acid binding protein.up to now, parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable and possesses low sensitivity. hence, the detection of circulating parasite antigens is thought to be a better alternative for diagnosis of fasciolosis, as it reflects the real parasite burden. in the present study, a monoclonal antibody (moab) against recombinant fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (rfgfabp) has been produced. as well, a reliable sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa) has been ...201627312522
molecular characterization of fasciola gigantica in delhi, india and its phylogenetic relation to the species from south asian countries.the aim of this study was to phylogenetically analyze fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) from mainland india and to reveal the expansion history of f. gigantica in the indian subcontinent. we analyzed 40 fasciola flukes that were collected from delhi, in the indian mainland, and identified them as f. gigantica by using nucleotide analyses of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and dna polymerase delta (pold) genes. based on the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial nadh dehydroge ...201627301703
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of fasciola gigantica from western java, indonesia.fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in southeast asian countries. the objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western java, indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. sixty fasciola flukes from western java were identified as f. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and dna polymerase delt ...201627266482
anthelmintic activity of chlorophyllin against different larval stages of fasciola gigantica.fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode fasciola. freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (fcu) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of f. gigantica. the larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. toxicit ...201627253741
use of bait containing triclabendazole against fasciola gigantica in a herd of captive wild impala (aepyceros melampus).although the efficacy of triclabendazole treatment against fasciola gigantica has been shown before in cattle and buffaloes, there appears to be no published report on the efficacy of triclabendazole in impala or other antelope species. as part of a health monitoring programme at mulungushi international conference centre, lusaka, zambia, a coprological examination was undertaken to investigate the helminthological status of captive impala (aepyceros melampus). of 39 fresh coprological samples, ...201727225321
purification and characterization of two-domain glutaredoxin in the parasitic helminth fasciola gigantica.glutaredoxins (grxs) are small thiol-dependent proteins and key elements of redox signaling as they regulate the redox state of important cellular proteins. in the present study, the complete sequence of a glutaredoxin protein, obtained from the liver fluke fasciola gigantica, was pcr-amplified and cloned. the 690-bp open reading frame (orf) encodes a 230-amino acid protein with two conserved domains (fggrxd1 and fggrxd2) and has similarities with two monothiol grxs of saccharomyces cerevisiae, ...201627189489
antigenic profile, isolation and characterization of whole body extract of paramphistomum antigenic component of adult paramphistomum gracile was characterized by means of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect elisa), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblotting using sera from cattle naturally infected with p. gracile, eurytrema pancreaticum, fasciola gigantica, moniezia benedeni, strongylids, trichuris sp. and strongyloides sp. the whole body (wb) extracts of p. gracile were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography ...201627135198
fasciola gigantica thioredoxin glutathione reductase: biochemical properties and structural modeling.platyhelminth thioredoxin glutathione reductase (tgr) is a multifunctional enzyme that crosstalk between the conventional thioredoxin (trx) and glutathione (gsh) system. it has been validated as a potential drug target in blood flukes. in the present study, we have performed a biochemical study on fasciola gigantica tgr with substrates dtnb and gssg. the michaelis constant (km) with dtnb was found to be 4.34±0.12μm while it was 61.15±1.50μm with gssg. the kinetic results were compared with the t ...201627112978
cias detection of fasciola hepatica/f. gigantica intermediate forms in bovines from bangladesh.fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by two trematode species, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. the characterisation and differentiation of fasciola populations is crucial to control the disease, given the different transmission, epidemiology and pathology characteristics of the two species. lineal biometric features of adult liver flukes infecting livestock have been studied to characterise and discriminate fasciolids from bangladesh. an accurate analysis w ...201627078650
development of fasciola vaccine in an animal model.fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are the parasites that cause the zoonotic parasitic disease called fasciolosis. although several anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat these parasitic infections, recombinant protein vaccines have been developed to overcome the anthelmintic resistance that has recently been reported in many regions of the world. these vaccines have been shown to induce high levels of immune responses and high percentages of protection in experimental and large animals. eff ...201627076294
in vitro tegumental alterations on adult fasciola gigantica caused by mefloquine.emergence of drug-resistant fasciola strains has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. the purpose of this study is to explore the in vitro effect of the antimalarial mefloquine against adult fasciola gigantica. light and scanning electron microscopic observations could be used to determine the target of the drug following 6 and 12 h of incubation in medium containing mefloquine at three different concentrations 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml, as morphological changes could be observed. ...201627065615
the role of ser-(arg-ser-arg-ser-glucnac)19-glucnac fasciola gigantica glycoprotein in the diagnosis of prepatent fasciolosis in the present study, the carbohydrate structures associated with fasciola gigantica adult worm were identified by indirect hemagglutination inhibition test. glucose was found to be the main monosaccharide associated with the fluke. according to indirect hemagglutination inhibition results, purification of glycoprotein fractions from worm crude extract was carried out by affinity chromatography immobilized glucose agarose gel and con-a lectin columns. the isolated glycoprotein fractions, fi and ...201627065591
staining of platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: an eco-friendly technique for the environment compatible technique to stain platyhelminthes, fasciola gigantica, gastrothylax crumenifer, taenia solium, and moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (beta vulgaris), china rose (hibiscus rosa-sinensis), and red rose (rosa hybrida) were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes.201527047037
cross antigenicity of immunodominant polypeptides of somatic antigen of oesophagostomum columbianum with other helminths by western blotting.oesophagostomum columbianum in small ruminants in india is found as mixed infection commonly in sheep and goat. haemonchus contortus, an abomasal nematode is found as concurrent infection with it. eggs of haemonchus and o. columbianum cannot be easily distinguished. diagnosis of o. columbianum may only be possible if a non-cross antigenic polypeptide was available for immunodiagnosis.201527047030
fasciola gigantica enolase is a major component of worm tegumental fraction protective against sheep fasciolosis.infection of cattle and sheep with the parasite fasciola gigantica is a cause of important economic losses throughout asia and africa. many of the available anthelmintics have undesirable side effects, and the parasite may acquire drug resistance as a result of mass and repeated treatments of livestock. accordingly, the need for developing a vaccine is evident. triton-soluble surface membrane and tegumental proteins (tsmtp) of 60, 32, and 28 kda previously shown to elicit protective immunity in ...201626970372
characterization of a fasciola gigantica protein carrying two dm9 domains reveals cellular relocalization property.even at the present age of whole-organism analysis, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, the biological roles of many proteins remain unresolved. classified among the proteins of unknown function is a family of proteins harboring repeats of the dm9 domain, a 60-75 amino acids motif first described in a small number of drosophila melanogaster proteins. proteins may carry two or more dm9 domains either in combination with other domains or as their sole constituent. here we have charact ...201626946400
screening for zoonotic fascioliasis in slaughtered large ruminants in abattoirs in perak, malaysia.fascioliasis, or trematode infestation, is an important disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. both species are hepatic parasites that affect humans. we have examined the zoonotic aspects of fascioliasis. a total of 80 fresh liver samples were collected from 67 kedah-kelantan crossbred cattle and 13 murrah buffalo at 4 local abattoirs in perak, malaysia. the samples were examined macroscopically to detect the presence of fasciola spp. the results show 7.50% (6 of 80) of the ...201526868715
a singleplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr with melting curve analysis for the differential detection of paragonimus heterotremus, echinostoma malayanum and fasciola gigantica eggs in faeces.because the eggs of paragonimus, echinostoma and fasciola are very similar in size and shape, it is difficult to distinguish and accurately identify species by the morphology of their eggs, which is a standard diagnostic method.201626740365
higher physiopathogenicity by fasciola gigantica than by the genetically close f. hepatica: experimental long-term follow-up of biochemical markers.fascioliasis is caused by fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica. the latter, always considered secondary in human infection, nowadays appears increasingly involved in africa and asia. unfortunately, little is known about its pathogenicity, mainly due to difficulties in assessing the moment a patient first becomes infected and the differential diagnosis with f. hepatica.201626740363
immunodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection using monoclonal antibody-based sandwich elisa and immunochromatographic assay for detection of circulating cathepsin l1 protease.tropical fasciolosis caused by fasciola gigantica infection is one of the major diseases infecting ruminants in the tropical regions of africa and asia including thailand. parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable and possesses low sensitivity. therefore, the detection of circulating parasite antigens is thought to be a better alternative for diagnosis of fasciolosis, as it reflects the real parasite burden.201626731402
in vitro screening of cymbopogon jwarancusa and conyza canadensis against liver flukes.aim of present study was to screen medicinal plants for flukicidal activity in vitro to develop alternative sources of treatment for trematodes infection. for this purpose, crude methanolic extracts (cme) of cymbopogn jwarancusa and conyza canadensis were prepared and live adult flukes viz; fasciola gigantica, and paramphistomum cervi isolated from liver and bile ducts of slaughtered buffalo were subjected to different drug concentrations as well as positive and negative control. motility inhibi ...201526695200
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. the excretory-secretory (e-s ag) antigen of f. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. the test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes ...201526688653
biochemical assessment of oxidative status versus liver enzymes in patients with chronic fascioliasis.the aim of this study was to examine the oxidative status in egyptian patients suffering chronic fascioliasis. the relationship between serum malondialdehyde (mda) levels, superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), and glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activities was investigated in relation to the level of liver enzymes; alt and ast compared to healthy controls. twenty patients versus ten controls were included in the study. among cases the mda, cat, ast and alt were higher than controls, while sod ...201526688624
novel methods for the molecular discrimination of fasciola spp. on the basis of nuclear protein-coding genes.fasciolosis is an economically important disease of livestock caused by fasciola hepatica, fasciola gigantica, and aspermic fasciola flukes. the aspermic fasciola flukes have been discriminated morphologically from the two other species by the absence of sperm in their seminal vesicles. to date, the molecular discrimination of f. hepatica and f. gigantica has relied on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region. however, its1 genotypes of aspermic fasciola flukes ...201626680160
partial hepatectomy for the resistant fasciola hepatica infection in a child.fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: fasciola hepatica (f. hepatica) and fasciola gigantica (f. gigantica) infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. we report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from f. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. when anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdo ...201726623254
current status of fasciolosis in vietnam: an update and perspectives.vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. however, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. this review is based on national and international vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in vietnam. it also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. the central region of vietnam is reported as ...201626564097
monitoring of fasciola species contamination in water dropwort by cox1 mitochondrial and its-2 rdna sequencing analysis.fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. water dropwort (oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the korean diet. however, no information regarding fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in korea during february and m ...201526537044
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase activity in fasciola gigantica cercaria by phytoconstituents.fasciolosis is an important cattle and human disease caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. one of the possible methods to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of fasciola by killing its larva (redia and cercaria) in host snail. molecular identification of cercaria larva of f. gigantica was done by comparing the nucleotide sequencing with adult f. gigantica. it was noted that nucleotide sequencing of cercaria larva and adult f. gigantica were 99% same. every month dur ...201626536397
dna sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of fasciola gigantica with f. hepatica in south africa and zimbabwe.the aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of fasciola species in cattle from zimbabwe, the kwazulu-natal and mpumalanga provinces of south africa and selected wildlife hosts from zimbabwe. this was based on analysis of dna sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (co1) regions. the sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abatt ...201526476916
comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against fasciola species, in cattle.this study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (fert) and in vitro egg hatching assay (eha) in evaluating of the anti-fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. a field trial was carried out on fifty naturally fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (a-e). on day zero; groups a-d were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining on ...201526455573
fasciola gigantica cathepsin b5 is an acidic endo- and exopeptidase of the immature and mature parasite.cysteine proteases of the liver fluke fasciola have been described as essential molecules in the infection process of the mammalian host. destinct cathepsin bs, which are already expressed in the metacercarial stage and released by the newly excysted juvenile are major actors in this process. following infection their expression is stopped and the proteins will not be detectable any longer after the first month of development. on the contrary, the novel cathepsin b5 of fasciola gigantica (fgcb5) ...201526453811
preferential regeneration of thioredoxin from parasitic flatworm fasciola gigantica using glutathione system.the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis is a crucial adaptive problem faced by parasites, and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. the thioredoxin (trx) system plays a key role in redox metabolism and defense against oxidative stress. in this study, biochemical experiments were performed on fasciola gigantica thioredoxin1 (fgtrx1). the recombinant fgtrx1 exists as a monomer and catalyzes the reduction of insulin. fgtrx1 is preferentially regenerated by the glut ...201526408792
clinical research abstracts of the british equine veterinary association congress 2015.although fasciolosis is an important livestock disease worldwide, the public health importance of human fasciolosis has increased in recent years and it is recognised as an important re-emerging zoonotic disease, its epidemiology and pathogenicity in donkeys, and the epidemiological role they may play have not been determined.201526375729
biliary fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area--an intraoperative surprise.a 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. the diagnosis was confirmed only by ...201526362003
significance of a common 65 kda antigen in the experimental fasciolosis and the current study, cross-reaction between two important zoonotic parasites; extracellular helminthes fasciola gigantica and intracellular protozoa toxoplasma gondii was proved by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. five antigens were used to identify and compare the cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera. two f. gigantica antigens; adult flukes (fga) and eggs (fgea) were used to detect igg in t. gondii naturally infected human sera (tgihs) and experimentally infected sera of sheep ( ...201526345069
diagnotic value of some fasciola gigantica antigens.the present study was aimed to select the specificity of antigens for fasciola gigantica depending on its diagnostic utility and field applications. the tested antigens were coproantigen, excretory-secretory (es) antigen and egg antigen. coproantigen and copro hyperimmune serum were able to reflect the lowest level of cross-reaction with other tested f. gigantica antigens. by using sds-page, a structural homology was observed in f. gigantica es and egg antigens. intense cross reaction was observ ...201526345056
molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun bos frontalis from north-east india.helminth infections in the mithun bos frontalis, including the liver fluke fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes explanatum explanatum, paramphistomum epiclitum and calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes echinococcus granulosus and e. ortleppi were studied in north-east india over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. cystic echinococcosis caused by e. granulosus and e. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with e. ortleppi being reported for the first time. molecul ...201626343353
a case of fascioliasis treated successfully without sequelae in a japanese expatriate living in jakarta.a 46-year-old japanese female expatriate living in jakarta presented with intermittent fever lasting for a month. although she was considered at low risk of fasciola spp. infection because she lived in an upper-class residential area of the city, the patient presented with eosinophilia after consuming organic raw vegetables; in addition, contrast-enhanced computed tomography detected microabscesses in a tractlike pattern in the liver. these findings led to an early diagnosis of fascioliasis, whi ...201526309420
serological and coprological analyses for the diagnosis of fasciola gigantica infections in bovine hosts from sargodha, pakistan.a serological and coprological survey of fasciolosis was conducted in bovine hosts from the sargodha district, pakistan using excretory-secretory (es) antigens of fasciola gigantica from cattle and buffaloes. livers, faecal and blood samples of 146 cattle and 184 buffaloes were collected from slaughterhouses and examined for the presence of any fasciola in bile ducts and ova in faeces. serum was separated. es antigens were prepared by incubating adult fasciola in phosphate-buffered saline for 6- ...201626300295
[cloning, expression and immunodiagnostic evaluation of the fasciola gigantica thioredoxin peroxidase].to immunoscreen the gene encoding thioredoxin peroxidase (tpx) from a cdna library made from adult fasciola gigantica worms, clone and express the gene, and evaluate the immunodiagnostic value of tpx recombinant protein.201526245114
associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of iringa rural district, tanzania.the epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of iringa rural district, in southern tanzania. fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. the infection rates in cattle were fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and schistosoma bovis 4·8%. notably, prevalenc ...201526152614
vaccine potential of recombinant pro- and mature cathepsinl1 against fasciolosis gigantica in fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1 (catl1) is a family of predominant proteases that is expressed in caecal epithelial cells and secreted into the excretory-secretory products (es). catl1 isotypes are expressed in both early and late stages of the life cycle and the parasites use them for migration and digestion. therefore, catl1 is a plausible target for vaccination against this parasite. recombinant pro-f.gigantica catl1 (rprofgcatl1) and recombinant mature f.gigantica catl1 (rmatfgcatl1) were ...201526116785
juvenile-specific cathepsin proteases in fasciola spp.: their characteristics and vaccine efficacies.fasciolosis, caused by fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica, is one of the most neglected tropical zoonotic diseases. one sustainable control strategy against these infections is the employment of vaccines that target proteins essential for parasites' invasion and nutrition acquiring processes. cathepsin proteases are the most abundantly expressed proteins in fasciola spp. that have been tested successfully as vaccines against fasciolosis in experimental as well as large animals because of t ...201526099239
somatic antigens of tropical liver flukes ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis in wistar rats.parasitic helminths polarize immune response of their vertebrate hosts towards anti-inflammatory th2 type and therefore it is hypothesized that they may suppress the inflammatory conditions in autoimmune disorders. the present study was undertaken to investigate in vivo immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential of somatic antigens (ag) of liver infecting digenetic trematodes [fasciola gigantica (fg) and gigantocotyle explanatum (ge)] in collagen-induced arthritic (cia) wistar rats. the cia rats ...201525992888
fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in great britain are diploid.diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) fasciola hepatica have been reported in the uk, and in asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in uk fluke. here the ploidy of 565 adult f. hepatica from 66 naturally infected british sheep and 150 adult f. hepatica from 35 naturally infected british cattle was determined. all 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 ...201525990533
molecular phylogenetic analysis of fasciola flukes from eastern india.fasciola flukes from eastern india were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear its1. both fasciola gigantica and aspermic fasciola flukes were detected in imphal, kohima, and gantoku districts. the sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. the haplotypes of aspermic fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring coun ...201525936970
molecular differentiation of fasciola species and characterization of genetic diversity of f. gigantica using nadh dehydrogenase i (nd1) gene in the endemic areas of iran.fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica are the causative agents of fasciolosis in domestic animals and humans. based on the morphometric criteria, differential diagnosis between them is problematic. in addition, intermediate forms of fasciola have been found in iran, which makes the differentiation more difficult. the aim of the present study was to provide molecular evidence for the existence of f. gigantica in iran using sequencing analysis of nd1 and pcr-rflp analysis of its2 regions and to study ...201725904941
mitochondrial genome of hypoderaeum conoideum - comparison with selected trematodes.hypoderaeum conoideum is a neglected but important trematode. the life cycle of this parasite is complex: snails serve as the first intermediate hosts: bivalves, fishes or tadpoles serve as the second intermediate hosts, and poultry (such as chickens and ducks) act as definitive hosts. in recent years, h. conoideum has caused significant economic losses to the poultry industry in some asian countries. despite its importance, little is known about the molecular ecology and population genetics of ...201525889473
molecular cloning and characterization of fasciola gigantica thioredoxin-glutathione reductase.the fasciola gigantica thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (fgtgr) gene is a fusion between thioredoxin reductase (tr) and a glutaredoxin (grx) gene. fgtgr was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from adult complementary dna (cdna), and its sequences showed two isoforms, i.e., the cytosolic and mitochondrial fgtgr. cytosolic fgtgr (cytfgtgr) was composed of 2370 bp, and its peptide had no signal sequence and hence was not a secreted protein. mitochondrial fgtgr (mitfgtgr) was composed of 250 ...201525782678
molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke fasciola gigantica is the predominant fasciola species in ruminants from pakistan.fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. it has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. there are two fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may m ...201625758445
experimental life history and biological characteristics of fasciola gigantica (digenea: fasciolidae).this study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation ...201525748710
toxicity of chlorophyllin in different wavelengths of visible light against fasciola gigantica larvae.toxicity of chlorophyllin against redia and cercaria larvae of fasciola gigantica was studied under irradiation of visible light. highest and lowest toxicity of chlorophyllin against both larvae was noted under red (redia - 8 h lc₅₀ 7.88 mg/10 ml and cercaria - 11.99 mg/10 ml) and green (redia - 8 h lc₅₀ 32.12 mg/10 ml and cercaria - 8 h lc₅₀ 43.80 mg/10 ml) light irradiation respectively. the highest toxicity of chlorophyllin under red light irradiation against redia (8h lc₅₀ 7.88 mg/10 ml)/cer ...201525720554
protection against fasciola gigantica infection in mice by vaccination with recombinant juvenile-specific cathepsin l.fasciola gigantica cathepsin l1h (fgcatl1h) is one of the major cathepsin l released by juveniles of f. gigantica to aid in the invasion of host's tissues. due to its high sequence similarity with other cathepsin l (catl) isoforms of late stage f. gigantica, it was considered to be a good vaccine candidate that can block all catl-mediated protease activities and affect juveniles as well as adult parasites. in this study, recombinant profgcatl1h protein expressed in yeast, pichia pastoris, system ...201525701317
genetic characterization of fasciola gigantica from different geographical regions of india by ribosomal dna markers.ribosomal dna sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) and 28s ribosomal dna (618 bp) of fasciola gigantica collected from cattle and buffaloes from four different geographical locations of india, were characterized for genotyping. its-2 sequence was analyzed in 28 worms that was typical of f. gigantica and differed at six positions, with one of these being a distinguishing deletion (t) at the 327th position in f. gigantica relative to f. hepatica. however, fasciola specimens ...201325698855
detection of coproantigens by sandwich elisa in rabbits experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica.the study was targeted to report the appearance of coproantigens in feces and circulating antibodies in the serum of fasciola gigantica experimentally infected rabbits.201425678922
pcr-rflp analysis of 28 srdna for specification of fasciola gigantica (cobbold, 1855) in the infected lymnaea auricularia (linnaeus, 1785) snails from northwestern iran.fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. the aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with fasciola gigantica (cobbold, 1855) larvae in the field-collected snails of lymnaea auricularia (linnaeus, 1785) from northwestern iran using a molecular approach.201425678920
saposin-like protein 2 has an immunodiagnostic potential for detecting fasciolosis gigantica.saposin-like protein 2 (sap-2) plays an important role in the digestive process of fasciola gigantica (fg). it is one of the major proteins synthesized by the caecal epithelial cells and released into fluke's excretion-secretion. therefore, fgsap-2 is a plausible target for detecting fasciolosis. a polyclonal antibody (poab) against recombinant fgsap-2 was produced by immunizing rabbits with the recombinant protein (rfgsap-2), and used in sandwich elisa assay to detect the circulating fgsap-2 in ...201525662434
isolation and characterization of cu/zn-superoxide dismutase in fasciola gigantica.a full-length complementary dna (cdna) encoding cu/zn-superoxide dismutase was isolated from fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with cu/zn-superoxide dismutase (sod) of the temperate liver fluke, f. hepatica. expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and at the protein l ...201525655406
a comparative study of haemocytes from resistant and susceptible lymnaea natalensis snails exposed to fasciola gigantica miracidia.effect ot infection with fasciola gigantica on total and differential haemocytes count of resistant and susceptible lymnaea natalensis snails were studied. exposure of l. natalensis resistant and susceptible strains to f. gigantica on miracidia caused gradual increase in the number of circulating haemocytes at the same time of exposure. in susceptible strain, the increase in the number of circulating haemocytes became significant at the second week post exposure being 2560 cell/ml (p<o.05) in co ...201425643506
high prevalence of schistosoma japonicum and fasciola gigantica in bovines from northern samar, the philippines.the cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the philippines is schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. in china, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. in the philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. we therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistoso ...201525643317
distribution of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica in the endemic area of guilan, iran: relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits.fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. in any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infection must always be considered the starting point before implementing any control measure. fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of different epidemiological, pathological and control characteristics depending on the endemic area and the causal agent, fasciola hepatica and fasciolagigantica. classically it has been accepted that f. hepatica is pres ...201525602718
distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the mara river in kenya and tanzania.we purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the mara river and its two perennial tributaries of amala and nyangores and sampled snails. in addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and ph) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. the snail species encountered included biomphalaria pfeifferi krauss - the intermediate h ...201425405008
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