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non-specific alkaline phosphomonoesterases of eight species of digenetic trematodes.alkaline phosphatases from different trematodes occupying the same habitat have identical ph otima but different levels of enzyme activities. isoparorchis hypselobagri, from the fish wallago attu, shows four to six times more enzyme activity than fasciolopsis buski, gastrodiscoides hominis and echinostoma malayanum, from the pig sus scrofa, and fasciola gigantica, gigantocotyle explanatum, cotylophoron cotylophorum and gastrothylax crumenifer, from the buffalo bubalus bubalis. at least two peaks ...19751442
the role of carbohydrates in the biology of the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica: effects of temperature and ph upon glucose uptake. 19755167
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: total cholinesterase, characteristics, and effects of specific inhibitors. 197716762
changes in serum protein values of sheep infected with fasciola gigantica.serum protein values were determined in 6 lambs given 1 dose of 200 metacercariae of fasciola gigantica. over the 22 weeks of the experiment, total serum protein values in these lambs were only moderately increased over those of control lambs (n = 6). the increase was mainly associated with the change in alpha2-globulin and gamma-globulin fractions. the highest value of gamma-globulin (39.03%) of total serum protein was observed at 18 weeks after infection. mean albumin concentration in the expo ...197656910
trials with rafoxanide. 8. efficacy of an injectable solution against trematodes and nematodes in cattle.four experiments are described in which the efficacy of an experimental 5% injectable solution of rafoxanide was evaluated against various adult and immature helminths in cattle. subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 3 mg/kg live mass resulted in the following reductions in mean worm burdens: adult fasciola hepatica, 82,6%; adult fasciola gigantica, 99,8% immature paramphistomum microbothrium, 10,1% adult haemonchus placei, 99,6%, third stage h. placei, 73,7%; adult bunostomum phlebotomum, 99,8% ...1977144191
antibody response of calves to a single infection of fasciola gigantica determined by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique.the antibody response of six calves infected with 500 metacercariae of fasciola gigantica each was monitored throughout 30 weeks of infection using an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (ifa). in vitro excysted f gigantica were employed as the test antigen. all animals showed high antibody titres from two to six weeks post-infection. thereafter the antibody titres diminished gradually. although all the experimentally infected animals harboured fluke burdens at autopsy, most gave negative if ...1977327523
the serodiagnosis of chronic fascioliasis (fasciola gigantica) using a fluorescent-antibody technique with single and multiple whole-fluke antigens.sera from cattle with single or mixed infections of fasciola gigantica. dicrocoelium hospes, schistosoma bovis and paramphistomes were examined for fluorescent antibodies. cross-reacting antibodies of the heterologous flukes were easily detected by using cryostat sections with whole-fluke-antigen of all three flukes. the presence of f. gigantica antibodies in a cattle herd was tested at two monthly intervals in order to establish the occurrence of chronic fascioliasis. the lack of significant di ...1979384628
ovine facioliasis (fasciola gigantica) on the ahmadu bello university farm.outbreaks of fascioliasis (fasciola gigantica) in sheep were observed on the ahmadu bello university farm during the end of the dry season in 1972-74 and in 1978. during 1972 especially the pregnant ewes were affected. pre- and post-mortem exmaination of the affected sheep showed typical signs of acute fascioliasis; the number of flukes in the liver ranged between 77 and 239. the infections were acquired when the animals grazed near the man-made lake on the farm. a limited snail survey revealed ...1979505587
assessment of the attenuation produced by irradiation of fasciola gigantica metacercariae in hamsters.severe pathological changes were seen in hamsters given metacercariae of fasciola gigantica irradiated at doses below 4 krads. no adult flukes were recovered from hamsters given metacercariae irradiated at doses above 4 krads and little hepatic damage was caused. it was not ascertained whether resistance resulted following these latter infections.1979523813
an aberrant location of fasciola gigantica in spleen and lung of indian buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) and pathological study. 1979536042
the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal roundworms, tapeworms, lungworms and liverflukes in sheep.anthelmintic trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against helmi of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg administered orally, resulted in a 98,8 to 100% reduction of adult parasites of the genera haemonchus, ostertagia, trichostrongylus, nematodirus, gaigeria, oesophagostomum, chabertia, marshallagia and cooperia. against the immature stages of these genera, except for marshallagia and cooperia, which were not tested, a dose level of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg was 83,9-100% effective. albendazole at ...1979551183
effect of anthelmintic treatment on the performance of awassi sheep in iraq.studies are reported on the effect of anthelmintic treatment on the body weight gain and wool growth of ewes with subclinical helminth infections. the parasites involved were fasciola gigantica and ostertagia spp., together with some haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus spp., and dictyocaulus filaria. in 1 group, 5 sheep, which were treated twice with tetramisole at an interval of 4 weeks to remove gastro-intestinal nematodes and lungworms, showed an increase of 41% in weight gain and 3.2% in ...1979552676
the epidemiology of fascioliasis in malawi: i. the epidemiology in the intermediate host.fasciola gigantica cobbold was studied in the intermediate host snail. on snail survey lymnaea natalensis krauss was the species found responsible for the transmission of fasciola gigantica in malawi. the ecology of this snail was studied at 5 different habitats spread throughout malawi. the snail population was recorded high from april to october. the epidemiological cycle of fasciola gigantica in the snail was determined and it was shown that snail infection was high in april and may and thus ...1979552677
a preliminary observation on the pathogenicity of fasciola gigantica in pregnant west african dwarf ewes. 1979554281
nitroxynil. anthelmintic activity in cattle following subcutaneous injection.nitroxynil injected subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg live mass achieved class a efficacy when evaluated by the non parametric method against adult fasciola gigantica. haemonchus placei, bonustomum phlebotomum and oesophagostomum radiatum in cattle. the compound was not effective against adult cooperia spp. at the same dosage.1978569707
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. x. helminths in impala.two to four impala in the nylsvley nature reserve were culled each month from february 1975-february 1976. two trematode species, 1 cestode species and 13 species of nematodes were recovered from these antelope. of these, fasciola gigantica, gongylonema pulchrum, haemonchus placei and trichostrongylus falculatus are new records for impala. in general, h. placei, longistrongylus sabie and impalaia tuberculata exhibited a similar pattern of seasonal occurrence. adult worms were present during nove ...1978572950
schistosoma mattheei in the ox: the serological response.thirty friesian steers were infected with schistosoma mattheei and the antibody response was followed for up to 76 weeks by the complement fixation (cf), indirect haemagglutination (ih) and indirect immunofluorescent (if) tests. cf and if antibodies rose to a peak at about 25 weeks and then fell, while ih antibodies rose more slowly and remained high. peak ih and if titres were proportional to the level of infection. peak cf titres were reduced in animals on a low plane of nutrition. there was a ...1977605296
a survey on liver infections with fasciola gigantica among slaughtered animals in iraq. 1977617942
enzyme histochemistry of fasciola gigantica. 1978631652
studies on the intestinal parasites in african patients in owamboland, south west africa.the paper gives the results of a survey of intestinal parasites among 501 in-patients drawn from four mission hospitals in owambo and kavango in northern south west africa. most of the patients (90%) were examined twice by the formol-ether concentration method, while the remaining 10% had one stool specimen examined. 10 species of helminths and 3 species of potentially-pathogenic protozoa were recorded--necator americanus, strongyloides stercoralis, strongyloides fuelleborni, hymenolepis nana, t ...1978635971
viability of fasciola gigantica metacercariae. 1978671936
[capacity of resistance to dryness of the snail (limnaea natalensis), an intermediate host of fasciola gigantica in senegal]. 1978715292
[effectiveness of injectable rafoxanide against the adult fasciola gigantica in the madagascar zebu]. 1978734202
hepatic changes in natural fasciola gigantica infestations of the fulani zebu. 1978749966
initial fractionation of adult schistosoma bovis antigen for diagnosis of infection in cattle.initial work on the fractionation of schistosoma bovis adult worms is described. both male and female worms were homogenized and sonicated before being passed through sephadex g200. five peaks were obtained with male fractionation (designed m1 to m5) and four with female (designated f1 and f4). using the complement fixation test s. bovis antigen activity was detected primarily in peaks m1 and f1. with the indirect haemagglutination and indirect haemagglutination inhibition tests s. bovis antigen ...1975805168
laboratory investigations on natural infection in zebu cattle with fasciola gigantica and schistosoma bovis. 1977835347
the pattern of parasitic infection in human gut at the specialist hospital, benin city, nigeria.in a survey of 6213 persons conducted between january 1973 to december 1974, at the specialist hospital, benin city, the most common helminths were necator americanus (16.8%), ascaris lumbricoides (19l5%) and trichuris trichiur (5-9%). dicrocoelium hospes (0-06%) was also recorded and this may become an important liver parasite of man in nigeria. its snail vectors are believed to be species of limicolaria and achatina which are widely dispersed in nigeria. entamoeba coli and e. histolytica showe ...1977849017
occurrence of a sporocyst generation of fasciola gigantica in the mollusc lymnaea rubiginosa.thirty laboratory-reared, juvenile lymnae rubiginosa were exposed to 20 miracidia each of fasciola gigantica. eight days postinfection snails were dissected, and clearly recognizable sporocysts were recovered from the mantle collar and renal vein. behavior of sporocysts and mother rediae differed markedly. these observations contradict those of direct metamorphosis of miracidium into redia as reported by ogambo-ongoma and goodman (1976).1977859085
an in vitro study of the relative importance of bile and carbon dioxide in the activation of fasciola gigantica metacercariae.the relative importance of bile and atmospheric stimuli in activating metacercariae of fasciola gigantica prior to excystment has been studied by omitting each in turn from the in vitro excystment medium, and by separating each from the period of incubation at 37 degrees c. the results indicate that bile is less important than carbon dioxide in triggering excystment, and may serve only to increase the permeability of the cyst wall to carbon dioxide. it is speculated that activation involves init ...1976935671
[rafoxanide in the treatment of fasciola gigantica fascioliasis in the zebu of chad]. 1976959621
in vitro maintenance of juvenile fasciola gigantica and their use to establish infections in mice.studies on the growth of juvenile fasciola gigantica in vitro on tissue culture feeder layers and their subsequent infectivity for mice have indicated that although no significant growth occurs in vitro the juveniles are not damaged physiologically for at least six weeks. thus the in vitro system may be used with confidence in studies of the physiology of newly excysted flukes. significantly more flukes became established in mice from an intraperitoneal injection of juveniles than from an oral i ...1976968196
trematodes of domestic ruminants of afghanistan and their role in pathology.seven trematode species were found in the bile ducts and rumen of domestic ruminants: fasciola gigantica, f. hepatica, gigantocotyle explanatum, g. siemense, paramphistomum epiclitum, fischoederius cobboldi and gastrothylax cruminifer. the parasites caused marked pathological changes in the liver and rumen.19761010490
v. effect of enzymes and temperature on the serological activity of the antigen of fasciola gigantica.the partially purified extract of fasciola gigantica was incubated with enzyme pepsin and samples were taken at different time intervals from 0-24 hours, and tested intradermally for diagnosing bilharziasis. the enzymatic degradation of the protein molecule results in the progressive decrease and eventually the complete disappearance of serological activity. this showed that the protein portion of the antigen was deemed necessary for its activity in intradermal tests for diagnosing schistosomias ...19751095775
the corticosteroid content of cattle skin washings.in vitro techniques have been developed to study the invasive processes of fasciola gigantica. the conditions necessary for excystment were identical with those required by f hepatica. the ability of larvae to penetrate mouse gut in vitro was influenced by the composition of the fluid within the gut, and by the region of gut wall to which the larvae were exposed. larvae remained viable on spleen cell monolayers for at least 60 days.19751153903
methods for in vitro study of the invasive processes of fasciola gigantica.in vitro techniques have been developed to study the invasive processes of fasciola gigantica. the conditions necessary for excystment were identical with those rquired by f hepatica. the ability of larvae to penetrate mouse gut in vitro was influenced by the composition of the fluid within the gut, and by the region of gut wall to which the larvae were exposed. larvae remained viable on spleen cell monolayers for at least 60 days.19751153904
the comparative efficacy of diamphenethide and rafoxanide against fasciola gigantica in sheep.efficacy of diamphenethide ("coriban", burroughs wellcome) and rafoxanide ("ranide", merck sharpe & dohme, ltd.) was evaluated in lambs against 8-week old experimentally induced fasciola gigantica infection. results were assessed by the reduction in worm counts at post-mortem examination 8 weeks after treatment. diamphenethide at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight was found 99.4 per cent effective. rafoxanide at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg body weight showed 98.78 per cent efficacy. six weeks ...19751162735
[the efficacy of dirian against fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes in naturally infected cattle in madagascar]. 19751164394
clinico-pathological studies on naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the sudan.an investigation was made of the pathological, haematological and biochemical aspects of naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the sudan. 228 animals infected with fasciola gigantica and 25 non-infected controls were used in the study. the infected cattle revealed emaciation, typical liver pathology, and, occasionally, lesions in the lung and the pancreas. analysis of their sera also showed reduced albumin values, increased globulin concentrations and decrease albumin/globulin ratio, in add ...19751184942
the structure and cytochemistry of the neurosecretory cells of fasciola gigantica cobbold and fasciola hepatica l.histochemical studies of the nervous system of fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica were undertaken. neurosecretory cells were detected by gomori's aldehydefuchsin, bargmann's chrome hematoxylin-phloxin, mallory's triple stain, periodic acid-schiff, heidenhain's azan and alcian blue after potassium permanganate oxidation. two types of neurosecretory cells were recognized and designated as "a" and "b". type "a" cells occurred in small numbers in the brain and subesophageal mass and type "b" c ...19751189578
[attempted induction of acquired resistance to fasciola gigantica infestation]. 19751208923
in vitro studies of the action of carbon tetrachloride on glucose consumption of fasciola gigantica. 19751225412
the role of carbohydrates in the biology of the liver fluke, fasciola gigantica: glycogen content, its utilization and resynthesis by starved flukes. 19751225417
fasciola gigantica cobbold 1856 in the snail.intramolluscan stages of fasciola gigantica were followed experimentally in laboratory-reared lymnaea natalensis, from the time of miracidial entry until the 85th day. contrary to previous accounts, the miracidium was found to metamorphose directly into a first-generation redia during the first 4 days. about the 16th day, the redia migrated to the snail liver. second-generation rediae gave rise to 3rd-generation rediae and/or cercariae by the 45th to 50th day. the release of cercariae from 3rd-g ...19761255351
some clinico-pathological aspects of experimental fasciola gigantica infection in calves. 19761262690
larval stages of medically important flukes (trematoda) from vientiane province, laos. part ii. cercariae.the cercariae of five flukes, which are potential human parasites, opisthorchis viverrini (family opisthorchiidae), haplorchis taichui (heterophyidae), schistosoma spindale (schistosomatidae), fasciolopsis buski, and fasciola gigantica (fasciolidae) were found in freshwater snails from laos. the cercariae of the above species, recorded in laos for the first time, are illustrated and their morphology is briefly described. the snail helicorbis umbilicalis represents a new intermediate host of f. b ...19921290378
the purification and characterization of a cysteine protease of fasciola gigantica adult worms.a 26-28 kda protease was isolated from fasciola gigantica adult worms by a two-stage purification process of column chromatography in a sephacryl s-200 column and affinity chromatography in an l-phenylalanine-agarose column. this protease is a cysteine (thiol) proteinase with an optimum ph of 4.5 and is not inhibited by anti f. gigantica immunoglobulin g. the enzyme was inhibited by protease inhibitors known to inhibit cysteine proteases but not by metallo-, aspartate or serine protease inhibito ...19921413454
redial generations of fasciola gigantica in the pulmonate snail lymnaea truncatula.lymnaea truncatula, 4 mm in height, were subjected to infection by a single miracidium of fasciola gigantica, then raised at 23 degrees c until day 60 of the experiment. histological study of these snails demonstrated a mean redial burden of 34 parasites at day 60, of which one third were degenerating forms. the mean number of living independent rediae did not exceed 5 for the first and second generations. conversely, in subsequent generations there were as many as 18 rediae per snail at day 60. ...19921452990
seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in india.seasonal variations in the prevalence of fasciola gigantica and eurytrema pancreaticum in cattle, and opisthorchis noverca, artyfechinostomum malayanum, fasciolopsis buski and gastrodiscoides hominis in pigs, were studied post-necropsy over a 1 year period in a humid, subtropical north-east hilly region in india. the overall prevalence rate was 53.02% in cattle (n = 960) and 12.92% in pigs (n = 960). fasciola gigantica and e. pancreaticum occurred throughout the year with peaks during cold winte ...19921561763
glycogen, protein and lipid content of adult fasciola gigantica (trematoda).the concentration of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the whole worm, gut, and body musculature of fasciola gigantica was investigated from worms collected from cattle slaughtered in the jos abattoir. protein accounted for the highest concentration of the constituents constituting 62.59 +/- 0.86% of the dry weight of the fluke. this was followed by lipid with 28.15 +/- 0.86% of the dry weight while carbohydrate (glycogen) was 6.29 +/- 0.11% of the dry weight. thin-layer chromatography reve ...19921590595
cloning and characterization of ribosomal rna genes from opisthorchis viverrini.the ribosomal dna (rdna) unit of the liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini has been cloned and characterized. the results demonstrated that the total length of this unit is approximately 13 kb, containing 4.2 kb of large subunit (lsu) rdna, 2.0 kb of small subunit (ssu) rdna, 1.0 kb of transcribed spacer dna and 5.8 kb of non-transcribed + external transcribed spacer dna. examination of the non-transcribed spacer region between different rdna units showed variation in the restriction sites rather t ...19921594296
the effects of fascioliasis on the activities of some drug-metabolizing enzymes in desert sheep liver.desert sheep experimentally or naturally infected with fasciola gigantica were used to study the influence of infection on the activities of some drug-metabolizing enzymes found in the liver. the enzymes investigated were aminopyrine n-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and udp-glucuronyltransferase. the experimental infection was confirmed histologically by detection of fasciola eggs in faeces and by measuring the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase (sd), glutamate dehydrogenase (gd) and aspar ...19921617399
control of fasciola gigantica with triclabendazole in indonesian cattle.the efficacy of triclabendazole (tcbz) against natural infections with fasciola gigantica was evaluated in a field study using 102 indonesian cattle. the animals were divided into two groups; one received tcbz at 12 mg/kg orally every eight weeks for one year while the other remained untreated. relative to controls the fasciola faecal egg count in treated animals was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) to almost zero at all observations. there were no differences between the groups in blood ...19911686688
a purified fasciola gigantica worm antigen for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.partially purified fasciola gigantica worm antigens were evaluated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the specific serological diagnosis of fascioliasis. the diagnostic potential of 10 antigen fractions derived from gel-filtration peaks (ii & iii) were evaluated individually or in combination against a panel of admission sera obtained from 50 patients subsequently diagnosed as having a variety of systemic parasitic diseases, and from 10 healthy volunteers with no recent history ...19911755065
[main features of helminth parasitism in cattle in ituri (haut-zaire). iii. geographic distribution and prevalence of the main helminths].a necropsic survey, carried out in eleven slaughterhouses in ituri (haut-zaïre), has permitted to define the geographic distribution and prevalences of the main cattle helminths. trematodes, except the paramphistomes, had a very heterogeneous distribution. prevalence of fasciola gigantica ranged from 9 to 72% according to the sites, but these variations were not linked to topographic or climatologic parameters. the infection with schistosoma bovis was much variable as well (12.5 to 72%) and seem ...19911775693
susceptibility to homologous reinfection with fasciola gigantica in goats.goats previously infected with 100 viable fasciola gigantica metacercariae and treated with rafoxanide (ranide, 7.5 mg/kg) at week 4 were not protected against subsequent homologous challenge with 250 metacercariae administered two weeks later. reinfection resulted in more severe hepatic lesions and a higher percentage of flukes recovered as compared with primarily infected controls. however, the size of flukes originating from the second (challenge) infection was considerably reduced. the plasm ...19911775694
comparative pathological study of hepatic changes induced by fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle explanatum in javanese thin-tailed sheep.pathological changes in the liver induced by fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle explanatum were readily distinguishable from each other. lesions associated with the migration of immature flukes through the parenchyma were a prominent feature of infection with fasciola gigantica, whereas lesions induced by gigantocotyle explanatum were confined to the large bile ducts. the size of the hepatic lesions increased during the course of infection with fasciola gigantica and was associated with the fo ...19911779036
partial purification and characterisation of the proteolytic enzymes of fasciola gigantica adult worms.the proteases of adult fasciola gigantica whole worm were analysed by preparative isoelectric focusing and by gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis at acidic and neutral ph (4.5 and 7.0). at least 15 bands of proteases were observed. these proteases had molecular weights ranging from 26 to 193 kda and isoelectric points of 4.92-7.63. protease-rich fractions were subsequently separated from whole worm preparation of the parasite by filtration in sephacryl s-200. the proteases were able to digest ...19911788929
problem of fascioliasis in animal husbandry in thailand.one of the most important parasitic diseases in adult cattle and buffalo in thailand is fascioliasis, caused mainly by fasciola gigantica. the economic loss from fascioliasis in cattle and buffalo throughout thailand has been assessed at not less than 100 million baht. recent investigations have been shown that the average prevalence of f. gigantica in cattle and buffalo in thailand was 11.8%. however, the prevalence varies considerably between villages, ranging from 0 to 85%. the prevalence is ...19911822925
first report of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) among nubian goats in sudan.in a flock of 425 female and male nubian goats in the khartoum province, an outbreak of a disease causing sudden death of 18 apparently healthy goats occurred (11 females and 7 males, 3-6 years old). adult fasciola gigantica were found in the livers of all goats and in seven of them cysticercus tenuicollis cysts. these organs showed necrotic and severe histopathological changes. clostridium novyi type b was isolated from necrotic areas of all livers and found to be highly pathogenic and toxigeni ...19911824134
common antigens of fasciola gigantica, dicrocoelium hospes and schistosoma bovis and their relevance to serology.the possession of common antigens by three trematode parasites which commonly occur together in ruminants in the tropics, fasciola gigantica, dicrocoelium hospes and schistosoma bovis was studied in relation to the reliability of serodiagnosis of infection with these helminths. the crude antigenic extracts of the three trematodes were subjected to sephacryl s-300 column chromatography and f. gigantica was fractionated into six peaks, s. bovis into nine peaks and d. hospes into seven peaks. commo ...19911909064
[does human distomiasis due to fasiola gigantica exist in the delta of the niger river in mali? (apropos of a serological survey)].finding of specific anti-fasciola antibodies in persons living in the central area of the delta of niger shows that human fascioliasis is a reality in mali. fasciola gigantica, the single species affecting livestock is probably the parasite concerned. we think that this parasitic disease in humans is underestimated, obscured by schistosomiasis which is hyperendemic in the country. complementary studies are much needed for better identification of the problem.19911943637
early diagnosis of human fascioliasis by the detection of copro-antigens using counterimmunoelectrophoresis.we have reported the use of partially purified fasciola gigantica worm antigens (peaks ii and iii separated by sephadex g-200) in counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep) for the specific and early detection of antibodies in sera of fascioliasis patients. in the present study, we report the use of hyperimmune serum from rabbits immunized with these partially purified worm antigens in ciep for the detection of parasite antigens in saline extracts of patients' stools. this test was conducted on stool s ...19911949144
high resistance to experimental infection with fasciola gigantica in javanese thin-tailed sheep.innate resistance of javanese thin-tailed sheep to fasciola gigantica was investigated in animals infected with single doses of 150 or 500 metacercariae and killed 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after infection. infected and non-infected sheep had similar values for packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, serum glutamate dehydrogenase, serum gamma glutamyl transferase and serum aspartate transferase throughout the trial, except for one animal infected with ...19901979191
characterization of the opisthorchis viverrini genome.the methylations of trematode genomic dna were analyzed using restriction enzymes and southern blot hybridization. restriction enzymes mspi, hpaii, hhai were used to probe cpg methylation while mboi, sau3a, dpni were used for a methylation. the results revealed that opisthorchis viverrini, fasciola gigantica and gigantocotyle siamensis had neither cpg nor a methylations. the presence of highly repeated dna elements was also demonstrated in o. viverrini genomic dna.19912050985
[inventory of fresh water snails in mayotte, comoro islands].no trematodosis is known at the present time in mayotte despite the close historical relationships between the mayotte archipelago and the neighbouring island of madagascar, which is heavily infested. it is noteworthy that no intermediate host has been described in previous studies in mayotte. an inventory of fresh water snails was performed from 1985 to 1988, in 53 experimental stations during the rainy and the dry seasons: 3,940 snails of eight different species were collected and further iden ...19902092350
triclabendazole in the treatment of fasciola gigantica infection in swamp buffalo (bubalus bubalis). 19902222372
causes of mortality in impala (aepyceros melampus) on 20 game farms in zimbabwe.the most common cause of death in impala (aepyceros melampus) herds on 20 game farms in zimbabwe was stress or physical injury during capture. acute fascioliasis due to fasciola gigantica was identified as the main disease problem associated with smaller game farms and where impala had been recently introduced. losses associated with ticks and tick-borne diseases were rare. impala in zimbabwe are maintained in a healthy condition on game farms where they are given supplementary feed during the d ...19902238405
countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in goats.the procedure of countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in goats was carried out for antemortem diagnosis of t. hydatigena cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected goats. the antigens of cyst fluid, scolex and membrane of t. hydatigena metacestodes were purified and compared. the sensitivity of the test in experimentally and naturally infected goats was 57.1 and 52.5%, respectively, whereas its specificity using antisera raised agai ...19902267724
comparative evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in the diagnosis of natural fasciola gigantica infection in cattle.the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated for the diagnosis of naturally acquired fasciola gigantica infection in cattle in comparison with conventional parasitological techniques. using unfractionated whole worm extract of f. gigantica as the antigen, it was observed that there was a good correlation between elisa positivity and positive diagnosis of fascioliasis by post mortem liver examination, bile egg sedimentation and faecal egg sedimentation. there was, however, a dispar ...19902321350
antigens and antibodies in the ascitic fluid of mice infected with fasciola gigantica.fluke antigens were detected in the ascitic fluid of mice infected with fasciola gigantica. the precipitating antibodies reactive against the antigens from metacercariae were detected as early as 2 weeks after the infection, and those against the adult and immature worms appeared 3 and 4 weeks later.19902343528
[principal helminths of small ruminants in ituri (upper zaire)].from august 1986 to november 1987, about 180 slaughtered sheep and goats were examined at bunia (haut-zaïre) in order to establish the main helminth parasites. seventeen and fifteen species were identified in sheep and goats respectively. the occurrence of stilesia hepatica, oesophagostomum multifoliatum and muellerius capillaris as well as the absence of echinococcus granulosus constituted the original features of this check-list in the area. parasitism the most frequently encountered both in s ...19902369171
properties of phenol oxidase in fasciola gigantica.phenol oxidase of fasciola gigantica exists both as the soluble form as well as the membrane-bound form. the membrane-bound enzyme is considered to be a tyrosinase type because it is capable of oxidizing mono- and diphenol and is inefficient in oxidizing paraphenols. the soluble enzyme is a laccase type showing more affinity to various diphenols and paraphenols. membrane-bound enzyme exists as isoenzymes, showing 3 fractions, of which the slow-moving fraction is capable of oxidizing both 4-methy ...19892514408
restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal dna can distinguish between fasciolid (liver fluke) species.recognition sites for nine different restriction endonucleases were mapped on rdna genes of fasciolid species. southern blots of digested dna from individual worms were probed sequentially with three different probes derived from rdna of schistosoma mansoni and known to span between them the entire rdna repeat unit in that species. eighteen recognition sites were mapped for fasciola hepatica, and seventeen for fasciola gigantica and fascioloides magna. each fasciolid species had no more than two ...19892552311
susceptibility of japanese lymnaea ollula to nigerian fasciola gigantica. 19892585940
specific detection of circulating surface/secreted glycoproteins of viable cysticerci in taenia saginata cysticercosis.a mouse monoclonal antibody (moab), reactive with a repetitive carbohydrate epitope on lentil-lectin adherent glycoproteins present on the surface and in the secretions of taenia saginata cysticerci, was used in the construction of a diagnostic elisa assay to detect these glycoproteins in the serum of t. saginata infected cattle. the moab was used as the trapping layer and subsequently bound glycoprotein was revealed using the same moab and biotinylated peroxidase-streptavidin complex as the dev ...19892674862
acute cholecystitis and fasciola sp. infection in thailand: report of two cases.two cases of fascioliasis gigantica from northeast thailand presenting with cholecystitis and gall stones were reported. both cases complained of abdominal pain. on laparotomy the worms were found. in one case five worms were recovered during bile duct exploration and bile drainage; eggs were also revealed in the bile. in the other case of ectopic fascioliasis one young adult worm was found in a nodule which adhered to liver and diaphragm. the parasites were identified as fasciola gigantica.19892699088
response of goats to repeated infections with fasciola gigantica.one or two mature primary infections with fasciola gigantica which had been removed by anthelmintic treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of flukes recovered from challenge infection as compared with that from controls. characteristic lesions of fascioliasis were seen in the livers of the 3 groups, however, goats with two primary abbreviated infections prior to challenge showed more severe lesions than those of animals with one primary abbreviated infection or those of chal ...19892728319
sensitivity of crude and purified fasciola antigens in immunological diagnosis of human fascioliasis.a study has been done to find the effect of purification of crude antigens, extracted from adult fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica worms on the sensitivity of some serological techniques in diagnosis of fascioliasis. using c.i.e.p. test, the partially purified antigens of both fasciola species were less sensitive than their corresponding crude ones. using i.h.a., the difference between results of crude and partially purified antigens for the two species were statistically insignificant, b ...19892768848
comparative study of sheep and buffalo isolates of fasciola gigantica in the intermediate host lymnaea auricularia.a comparison was made of the biological behaviour of two isolates of fasciola gigantica, obtained from sheep and buffalo, in the aquatic snail lymnaea auricularia. the sheep isolate exhibited a lower rate of infection, slower larval development and the production of fewer cercariae. larger eggs, miracidia and metacercariae were obtained from the buffalo isolate while the rediae and cercariae were smaller. metacercariae of sheep origin were dark brown with a mortality after 80 days of storage at ...19892799087
serum enzyme activity and bilirubin concentration in sheep experimentally infected with fasciola gigantica.fasciola gigantica infection in sheep produced liver and lung lesions characterized by damage to blood vessels and parenchymal necrosis. in the lungs, the lesions were those of parasitic bronchopneumonia. the damage to the liver and lung tissues was accompanied by increased activity in serum of ast after 2 weeks, gd and sd after 4 to 5 weeks and ggt and 5'-nt from 8 weeks onwards. bilirubin concentration was not affected.19852866203
studies on the prevalence and laboratory transmission of fascioliasis in animals in the kashmir valley.in kashmir, 85.1% of cattle, 51.3% of sheep and 14.8% of goats were found infected with fasciola spp. the prevalence rate varied from 66.6 to 100.0%, 25.0 to 100% and nil to 66.0% in cattle, sheep and goats respectively in different months of the year. fasciola gigantica was the predominant species in all animal species but sheep harboured both f. gigantica and f. hepatica. the prevalence of f. hepatica infection in sheep happens to be the first report from india. lymnaea auricularia sensu stric ...19892920277
diacetyl reductase activity in the extracts of fasciola gigantica. 19883059781
serodiagnosis of fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.the agar gel precipitation test (agpt), counter immunoelectrophoresis (ciep) and indirect haemagglutination (iha) were evaluated for the diagnosis of fascioliasis due to fasciola gigantica in buffaloes. the sensitivity of these tests varied with the intensity of infection; and was greatest when the fluke burden in liver exceeded 100. ciep detected 76.06% of infected sera and was most sensitive, followed by iha which detected 68.37% of the infected sera. the agpt was found to be least sensitive, ...19873109111
fasciola in horses in the republic of south africa: a single natural case of fasciola hepatica and the failure to infest ten horses either with f. hepatica or fasciola gigantica.the faeces of 11 horses were examined for fasciola spp. eggs. one of them was positive for fasciola hepatica, a finding which was confirmed post-mortem. the 10 negative horses were subsequently infested with either f. hepatica or fasciola gigantica, each animal receiving orally from 500-9,500 metacercariae. no clinical signs were observed and no fluke eggs were detected in the faeces, and neither immature nor adult fasciola worms were recovered from the horses slaughtered 16-26 weeks post-infest ...19883194116
the effect of levamisole (l. tetramisole) treatment on the susceptibility to fasciola gigantica infection in goats. 19883201025
environmental stress and parasitic infections: i. the effects of gramoxone and hexadrin on embryo and hatching of fasciola gigantica miracidia.the effect of two chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture, gramoxone (a herbicide) and hexadrin (an insecticide) on embryonic development and hatching of fasciola gigantica miracidia were experimentally assessed. these two pesticides were introduced in varying quantities into petri dishes containing unembryonated eggs of the trematode for a period of 30 days. lc50 (lethal concentration for 50% hatching) values were determined for them. for gramoxone it was 2 ppm and for hexadrin it was 2 ...19883202331
[role of nitroxynil in the integrated control of fasciola gigantica fasciliasis in cattle in madagascar]. 19883217565
on the viability of fasciola gigantica metacercariae ingested by lymnaea auricularia.the effect of ingestion by lymnaea auricularia on the viability and infectivity of fasciola gigantica metacercariae was studied. the cyst wall was unaffected by the snail's digestive processes. two rabbits, each infected with 50 ingested metacercariae, died at 83 and 87 days post-infection. eight and 10 immature flukes were recovered from the livers, indicating that the metacercariae had remained infective after passing through the intestine of the snail.19883235797
environmental stress and parasitic infections: ii. effects of gramoxone and hexadrin (pesticides) on the survival characteristics of fasciola gigantica miracidia.miracidia of fasciola gigantica have a maximum longevity of 9 h. miracidial survival was found to be age dependent and the instantaneous mortality rate increased exponentially with miracidial age and pesticide treatment. mortality of the pesticide-treated miracidia differs significantly from that of the control. the lc50 value for hexadrin was calculated at 1.93 ppm and for gramoxone at 0.75 ppm. dosage-mortality lines when tested statistically show no significant difference between the two pest ...19883245635
fasciola gigantica: the second case of human infection in thailand. 19883251969
fasciola gigantica: pathological and helminthological observations in experimental infection of yankassa lambs. 19883253861
[apropos of the origin of some diseases raging in madagascar].madagascar had been separated from african continent since 5 millions years and, if flora and fauna are endemic (40 species of lemuriens) all of parasites and humans populations are imported, from africa with respect to p. falciparum, p. malariae, s. mansoni and s. haematobium (but snails are endemic ), fasciola gigantica (imported with zebus) and perhaps p. vivax, and from asia with respect to w. bancrofti, n. americanus, c. cellulosae (imported with pigs) and perhaps p. vivax, chromoblastomyco ...19873326688
liver fluke infections of cattle in mali. an abattoir survey on prevalence and geographic distribution.six hundred and ninety two cattle, slaughtered in various abattoirs in mali between august 1983 and november 1984 were examined for evidence of fasciola gigantica and dicrocoelium hospes infections. a great variation in geographic prevalence was observed. sufficient knowledge was acquired to demonstrate both the importance of fascioliasis in some areas and also the high prevalence of d. hospes in other areas. we suggest that the difference in prevalence from one geographic area to another is inf ...19883400112
protective effect of irradiated metacercariae of fasciola gigantica and irradiated cercariae of schistosoma bovis against fascioliasis in goats.sensitisation of goats for eight weeks with metacercariae of fasciola gigantica gamma-irradiated at 3 kr resulted in significant resistance to an homologous challenge with normal metacercariae. however, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase assay suggested that, whereas little damage was produced by immunising infections, considerable hepatic damage was caused by flukes remaining from challenge infections. on the other hand sensitisation with cercariae of schistosoma bovis gamma-irradiated at 3 kr did no ...19873424453
studies on the energy reserve of fasciola gigantica (cobb.) from nigerian zebu cattle. ii. the fatty acid composition.the fatty acids were studied of the total lipid extracts of mature liver flukes fasciola gigantica from the bile ducts of nigerian zebu cattle. the high content of saturated fatty acids, which amounted to more than 54% of the total fatty acids, conferred a high level of saturation on these parasites. this was brought about by a general increase in the values of palmitic acid. the results are discussed in connection with the parasite-host relationship.19873426530
hepatic fascioliasis in the abattoirs of basrah.hepatic fascioliasis due to fasciola gigantica among slaughtered animals was studied at the basrah abattoirs from october 1984 to september 1985. the infection rates were 4.8, 3.3, 0.72 and 0.13% for buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats respectively. the approximate annual loss due to condemnation of infected livers is estimated as 29,855 iraqi dinars.19873446027
serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in buffaloes by immunoprecipitation using adult fasciola gigantica antigens.partial purification of a saline extract of adult fasciola gigantica by chromatography on sephadex g200 gave four peaks, of which only the first two contained material which gave a precipitation reaction with sera from infected buffaloes. none of these gave false reactions with sera from uninfected animals but even the first and most sensitive fraction only reacted with 57.5 per cent of sera from animals known to be infected with moderate numbers of f gigantica.19873547527
fasciola gigantica in gallbladder. 19873583338
the protective effect of irradiated metacercariae of fasciola gigantica against homologous challenge in sheep.five lambs were each sensitized with 400 metacercariae of fasciola gigantica irradiated at 3 kr gamma rays. eight weeks later, they were each challenged together with 5 controls with 500 non-irradiated metacercariae. eight weeks later, all of the animals were necropsied and the worm burdens determined. the lambs which received the sensitizing infections had 80% less worms than the controls. the sensitized lambs also showed less hepatic damage compared with the controls as indicated by lower leve ...19873611708
differentiation of the rediae of fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica. 19863632105
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