pathogenicity of mycobacterium avium complex serovar 9 isolated from painted quail (excalfactoria chinensis).avian tuberculosis accompanied with many tubercular lesions in the liver and spleen was found in a painted quail at a zoological garden in japan. mycobacterium avium complex (mac) serovar 9 without insertion sequence of is901 was isolated from the liver (1.3 x 10(8) cfu/g), oviduct (9.4 x 10(7) cfu/g), and intestine (1.5 x 10(5) cfu/g). the isolates were inoculated intravenously to chickens. the inoculated chickens showed clinical symptoms of avian tuberculosis. birds are susceptible to mac sero ...199910651051
characterization and chromosomal distribution of a novel satellite dna sequence of japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica).a novel satellite dna sequence of japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) was isolated from genomic dna digested with restriction endonuclease, bg/ii. sequence analysis of three different-size clones revealed the presence of a tandem array of a gc-rich 41 bp repeated element. this sequence was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) primarily to microchromosomes of japanese quail (2n = 78); approximately 50 of the 66 microchromosomes showed positive signals, although hybridiza ...200010994713
complete nucleotide sequence of the coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in galliformes phasianidae coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the coturnix japonica (japanese quail) and gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are class ...200212642645
a comparative karyological study of the blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis, phasianidae) and california quail (callipepla californica, odontophoridae).we conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken dna probes against the blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis, cch) and california quail (callipepla californica, cca), which are classified into the old world quail and the new world quail, respectively. each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. in california quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe pai ...200415218246
karyotypic evolution in the galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular define the process of karyotypic evolution in the galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (lophura nycthemera), lady amherst's pheasant (chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (phasianus colchicus), turkey (meleagris gallopavo), western capercaillie (tetrao urogallus), chinese bamboo-partridge (bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (pavo cristatus) of the phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (o ...200415218250
chronic administration of leptin in asian blue is well known that leptin has the capacity to reduce food intake, cause body weight loss, and increase energy expenditure in several vertebrate species. in this study, we investigated the effects of chronically elevated leptin levels on behavior and physiology of asian blue quail (coturnix chinensis). fifteen male quail were treated with chicken leptin dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) via subcutaneously inserted osmotic pumps that released approximately 1 microg/g body weight/day ...200616358276
a novel family of repetitive dna sequences amplified site-specifically on the w chromosomes in neognathous birds.a novel family of repetitive dna sequences was molecularly cloned from apai-digested genomic dna of two galliformes species, japanese quail (coturnix japonica) and guinea fowl (numida meleagris), and characterized by chromosome in-situ hybridization and filter hybridization. both the repeated sequence elements produced intensely painted signals on the w chromosomes, whereas they weakly hybridized to whole chromosomal regions as interspersed-type repetitive sequences. the repeated elements of the ...200616964568
parthenogenesis in unfertilized eggs of coturnix chinensis, the chinese painted quail, and the effect of egg clutch position on embryonic development.parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, was studied for many years in turkeys. in fact, as many as 49% of unfertilized beltsville small white turkey eggs develop embryos. however, no research exists on parthenogenesis in quail. the chinese painted quail is a close relative of the more common japanese quail and, unlike turkeys or chickens, the small chinese painted quail reaches sexual maturity rapidly, making it a great candidate for further research on parthenogenesis. ob ...200919276421
identification and characterization of an avian beta-defensin orthologue, avian beta-defensin 9, from this study, a newly identified avian beta-defensin (avbd) orthologue was isolated from chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) lung and bone marrow tissues. the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene contained a 204-bp open-reading frame encoding 67 amino acids. homology, characterization, and comparison of the gene with avbd from other avian species confirmed that it was quail avbd9. to analyze and compare the expression pattern of avbd9 in tissues from young and adult quails, layer hen ...201020396878
genetic selection increases parthenogenesis in chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis).parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, occurs naturally in turkey, chicken, and quail species. in fact, parthenogenesis in turkeys and chickens can be increased by genetic selection. however, it is unknown if genetic selection for parthenogenesis is effective in quail or if selection for parthenogenesis affects egg production. therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if the incidence of parthenogenesis in quail could be increased by genetic selection and ...201020548074
development of heart rate in the precocial king quail coturnix chinensis.our aim was to examine changes in heart rate (fh) during the embryonic and posthatching periods of the smallest precocial avian species, coturnix chinensis. in experiment i, repeated measurements of mean fh were made for individual quail by ballistocardiogram (bcg) during incubation, and by both piezo-electric film and electrocardiogram (ecg) during the posthatching period (resting and thermoneutral conditions). mean fh of all embryos increased during the second half of incubation and the first ...19989487098
estimating the requirement of dietary crude protein for growing blue-breasted quail (excalfactoria chinensis).two experiments were conducted to investigate the requirement for dietary crude protein (cp) in growing blue-breasted quail (bbq). in experiment 1, 300 1-day-old quails were randomly assigned to 10 groups according to a 2×5 factorial arrangement of treatments with two metabolisable energy (me) levels (12.13 and 13.39 mj/kg) and five cp concentrations (160, 190, 220, 250 and 280 g/kg) for 8 weeks. in experiment 2, 300 1-day-old quails were subjected to a different factorial arrangement of treatme ...201122440340
parthenogenesis in mated chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin chinese painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (pv). when these pv hens are mated (pm), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (cm) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. however, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in pm hens, reduces hatchability d ...201627349138
parental sex effect of parthenogenesis on hatchability and sperm-egg penetration in mated chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis).selecting quail for an increased incidence of parthenogenesis also impacts egg weight and albumen ph as well as reduces hatchability and fertility due to decreased sperm-egg penetration (sep). however, it is unknown which parental sex is responsible for these changes in quail selected for parthenogenesis. therefore, the objective of this study was to determine which sex influences egg weight, albumen ph, hatchability, and sep in birds selected for parthenogenesis. in this study, 2 lines of birds ...201728237328
protection of chinese painted quails (coturnix chinensis) against a highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza virus strain after vaccination.chinese painted quails immunized with a single dose (6 μg ha) of inactivated h5n1 (clade 1) influenza vaccine nibrg-14 and challenged with 100 ld50 of the heterologous a/swan/nagybaracska/01/06(h5n1) (clade 2.2) strain were protected, whereas unvaccinated quails died after challenge. no viral antigens or rna were detected in cloacal swabs from immunized animals. sera obtained post-immunization gave low titres in serological assays against the vaccine and the challenge viruses. our results demons ...201323771736
high-throughput sex identification by melting curve analysis in blue-breasted quail and chicken.the objective was to develop a high-throughput method of identifying sex in both coturnix chinensis and gallus gallus, which would be useful for biomedical research and hatcheries. because chromo-helicase-dna binding protein (chd)-based griffiths p2/p8 primers do not produce polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products with distinguishable sex-specific curves in melting curve analysis (mca), these primers are unsuitable for high throughput application in either species. conserved regions were identi ...201222341710
molecular cloning and characterization of novel centromeric repetitive dna sequences in the blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis, galliformes).a new family of centromeric highly repetitive dna sequences was isolated from ecori-digested genomic dna of the blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis, galliformes), and characterized by filter hybridization and chromosome in situ hybridization. the repeated elements were divided into two types by nucleotide length and chromosomal distribution; the 578-bp element predominantly localized to microchromosomes and the 1,524-bp element localized to chromosomes 1 and 2. the 578-bp element represented ...200212826749
[histology, immunocytology, histochemistry and muscle fiber innervation of the pectoralis major and supracoracoideus muscles of excalfactoria chinensis chinensis (l.)].the morphology of the pectoralis major muscle and its antagonist, the supracoracoideus muscle, of the chinese quail was studied in comparison with the japanese quail, in relation to behavioral characteristics. the actomyosin atpase reaction after alkaline and acid preincubation reveals two fibre types. the indirect immunofluorescence, using specific antibodies against 'slow' (twitch) myosin from the human vastus lateralis muscle, provokes a weak reaction. all fibres observed show focal, monoaxon ...19921414211
the relationship of parthenogenesis in virgin chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) hens with embryonic mortality and hatchability following mating.unfertilized chicken, turkey, and quail eggs are capable of developing embryos by parthenogenesis. however, it is unknown if the physiological mechanisms regulating parthenogenesis in virgin hens may actually work against fertilization, embryonic development, and hatchability of eggs from these same hens following mating. additionally, because most parthenogenic development closely resembles early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs during the first 2 to 3 d of incubation, it is possible that ...201222582303
muscle designed for maximum short-term power output: quail flight muscle.take-off in birds at high speeds and steep angles of elevation requires a high burst power output. the mean power output of the pectoralis muscle of blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis) during take-off is approximately 400 w kg(-1) muscle, as determined using two independent methods. this burst power output is much higher than has been measured in any other cyclically contracting muscle. the power output of muscle is determined by the interactions between the physiological properties of the ...200212110648
effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial oviparous vertebrates, maternal steroid allocation to eggs can have important fitness consequences for the offspring. however, elevated testosterone levels are not only associated with beneficial postnatal effects, such as enhanced growth and high social status, but may also entail costs by suppressing the immune system. in this study, testosterone levels in eggs of chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) were experimentally manipulated to evaluate its effects on growth and immunocompetenc ...200415149393
growth rate and thermoregulation in reared king quails (coturnix chinensis).growth rate was investigated in king quails between 1st and 60th day of life. gompertz growth constants were 0.075 in males and 0.056 in females. colonic temperature (tb) was measured in quails divided into four age groups (1-3, 7-10, 16-19, and 44-59 days old) in ambient temperatures set separately for each group. metabolic rate was measured only in 44-59-day-old birds. the mean value of the thermoneutral body temperature (tb at tnz) in the active phase in the youngest quails was 39.0 degrees c ...200515664318
culture system for embryos of blue-breasted quail from the blastoderm stage to hatching.the blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis), the smallest species in the order galliforms, is a candidate model animal for avian developmental engineering because it is precocious and prolific. this species requires 17 days to hatch and 8 to 9 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of about 50 g, whereas the japanese quail (coturnix japonica) requires 16 days to hatch and 6 to 8 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of 100 to 150 g. the early embryo is the most challenging embryonic stage in ...200515725676
transient receptor potential ion channels control thermoregulatory behaviour in reptiles.biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. the capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. however, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. the recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (trp) render these proteins suitable ...200717356692
expression and localization of ca2+-atpase in the uterus during the reproductive cycle of king quail (coturnix chinensis) and zebra finch (poephila guttata).calcium atpase (ca2+-atpase) is a key enzyme that participates in the translocation of calcium in the uterus of oviparous amniotes during eggshell formation. we used western blot and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine expression and localisation of uterine ca2+-atpase during the reproductive cycle of king quail and zebra finch. the pattern of ca2+-atpase expression and localisation during the reproductive cycle was similar for both species. immunoblots of uterine extracts from q ...200817988911
the effect of acute fenitrothion exposure on a variety of physiological indices, including avian aerobic metabolism during exercise and cold exposure.the effect of fenitrothion exposure on birds was examined by measuring aerobic metabolism, blood hemoglobin content, plasma cholinesterases, and body weight for up to 21 d postdose. peak metabolic rate was measured in a flight chamber in three-dose groups of house sparrows (passer domesticus; 100 mg/kg = high, 60 mg/kg = medium, 30 mg/kg = low) and one-dose groups of zebra finches (taeniopygia guttata; 3 mg/kg) and king quails (coturnix chinensis; 26 mg/kg). aerobic metabolism was measured durin ...200918771337
the relationship of incubational egg weight loss with parthenogenesis in chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis).parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, has been studied extensively in turkeys. recently it has been revealed that parthenogenesis also occurs in chinese painted quail, and the percentage of eggs exhibiting parthenogenesis is negatively correlated with clutch sequence position. in broiler breeders, it has been reported that the first egg of a clutch sequence loses less egg weight during incubation than subsequent eggs. because the incidence of parthenogenesis is greater a ...201222184443
apportioning protein requirements for maintenance v. growth for blue-breasted quail (excalfactoria chinensis) from 7 to 21 days of age.the aim of this study was to investigate protein requirements for the maintenance and growth of blue-breasted quail (excalfactoria chinensis) from 7 to 21 days of age. a total of 180 quails, 7 days old, were randomly assigned to 36 cages and for 2 weeks were fed diets with a metabolisable energy concentration of 12.13 mj/kg and a dietary cp concentration of 125, 150, 175, 200, 225 or 250 g/kg. the average bw per cage and the feed intake per cage were recorded daily. the results showed that quail ...201122440341
comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (bengalese finch, lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.the present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. six altricial bengalese finches (lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. tasks consisted of presenting birds with discri ...201423865600
is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; ndf), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% ndf (i.e. low-quality food). to examine whether phenotypic plasticity o ...201424577452
selection for the parthenogenetic trait in chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) affects hatchability parameters.poultry are capable of laying unfertilized eggs in which embryonic development occurs; this phenomenon is called parthenogenesis. through genetic selection, the incidence of parthenogenesis in virgin chinese painted quail hens can be increased. however, it is unknown if selection for this trait affects hatchability of fertilized eggs. therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if genetic selection for parthenogenesis in virgin chinese painted quail affects hatchability of mated hens ...201424604860
fibre-induced feed sorting in king quail (coturnix chinensis): behavioural plasticity elicited by a physiological challenge.we examined the effect of an abrupt change in diet fibre content on the feed intake, gastrointestinal morphology and utilisation of gastroliths by a small (ca. 40 g body mass) herbivorous bird, the king quail (coturnix chinensis). king quail were acclimated for 14 days on a low-fibre (lf) pullet starter diet. following acclimation, half the quail population was immediately switched to a 23% wood-shaving diluted high-fibre (hf) diet for a further 14 days. contrary to expectations, we found no dif ...201424938477
factors affecting the levels of protection transferred from mother to offspring following immune challenge.the transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. such maternal effects also allow young that may be exposed to disease in early life to focus resources on growth and development at this critical period of development. maternally transferred antibodies are therefore an important source of phenotypic variation in host phenotype as well as influencing host susceptibility a ...201425057280
pairing behavior of the monogamous king quail, coturnix chinensis.animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. the goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a ...201627257681
mixed infection with reovirus and chlamydophila in a flock of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).eleven budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) from a zoological collection presented at necropsy with emaciation and splenomegaly or hepatomegaly or both. polymerase chain reaction assays performed on liver and spleen samples were positive for chlamydophila psittaci in 2 of 3 birds tested, and histologic findings in 2 additional birds were compatible with chlamydiosis. the aviary was subsequently closed to the public, and a 45-day treatment regimen with doxycycline in the seeds was initiated. no ...201021302762
the mechanical power output of the pectoralis muscle of blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis): the in vivo length cycle and its implications for muscle performance.sonomicrometry and electromyographic (emg) recordings were made for the pectoralis muscle of blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis) during take-off and horizontal flight. in both modes of flight, the pectoralis strain trajectory was asymmetrical, with 70 % of the total cycle time spent shortening. emg activity was found to start just before mid-upstroke and continued into the downstroke. the wingbeat frequency was 23 hz, and the total strain was 23 % of the mean resting length. bundles of fibr ...200111719526
brown: a plumage color mutation in chinese painted quail (excalfactoria chinensis)."brown" is the second plumage color mutation reported in chinese painted quail (excalfactoria chinensis). the brown plumage lacks the wild-type black pigmentation that is a representative component of the wild-type plumage; otherwise, the plumage pattern is the same as that of the wild type. the dorsal surface of the female is brown with gray tinge, while that of the male is dark brown with a bluish-gray tinge. the breast of the female is creamy light-brown with numerous gray speckles. the color ...20037657998
excalfactoria quail as a new laboratory research animal.chinese painted quail (excalfactoria chinensis), which is sometimes reared as a bird for pleasure, appears to be an excellent candidate for a laboratory research animal. handling and general care of this species are very easy because of its small body size and hardiness. the body weight (mean +/- sem) of the newly hatched chick, adult male, and adult female is 3.93 +/- .05, 47.66 +/- .52, and 55.89 +/- .75 g, respectively; that is, approximately half the size of japanese quail (coturnix coturnix ...19948072918
oxygen consumption rates of adults and chicks during brooding in king quail (coturnix chinensis).oxygen consumption rates were measured in chicks (0-17 days of age), and in non-brooding and brooding adults. brooded chicks maintained a constant oxygen consumption rate at a chamber ambient temperature of 10-35 degrees c (0-5 days of age: 2.95 ml o2.g-1.h-1 and 6-17 days of age: 5.80 ml o2.g-1.h-1) while unbrooded chicks increased oxygen consumption rate at ambient temperature below 30 degrees c to double the brooded oxygen consumption rate at 25 and 15 degrees c for chicks < 5 days of age and ...19947860803
the effect of l-dopa on the ultrastructure of the adenohypophysis of the chinese quail, excalfactoria chinensis.intraperitoneally injected l-dopa was found to stimulate strongly the lysosomal system of all of the cell types of the adenohypophysis. we suggest that this amine may play a role in the regulation of the secretory activity of the gland by mediating the lysosomal activity, this role being of variable importance according to the fluctuations in hormonal activity. utrastructural changes occur in some cell types following injection of l-dopa. the question as to whether these changes are induced dire ...1979466687
electron microscope study of two types of cells in the anterior lobe of the chinese quail adenohypophysis with special reference to their cytological features after photostimulation.two types of cells in the adenohypophysis of the chinese quail, excalfactoria chinensis, were studied by electron microscopy in birds receiving nine hours of light per day, and birds exposed to continuous light. type-i cells of photostimulated quail have a well-developed vacuolar system consisting of cisternae and perinuclear spaces confluent with each other. the cytoplasm is restricted to small strands enclosing cell organelles. secretory granules reaching 150-250 nm in size are scattered at th ...1977602830
development of thermoregulation in painted quail, excalfactoria chinensis. 19734145755
cutaneous and respiratory evaporation in the painted quail, excalfactoria chinensis, during ontogeny of thermoregulation. 19714396830
parthenogenetic embryos from unfertilized chinese painted quail eggs alter albumen ph, gases, and ion concentrations during incubation.parthenogenesis is a form of embryonic development that occurs without fertilization. recently, parthenogenesis has been reported in chinese painted quail eggs. in japanese quail, it has been shown that albumen ph of incubated fertile eggs is lower than that of incubated infertile eggs. however, it is unknown if alterations, similar to those in incubated fertile eggs, occur in albumen ph, gases, or ion concentrations from unfertilized eggs exhibiting parthenogenetic development. therefore, the o ...201626474681
discovery and characterization of coturnix chinensis avian β-defensin 10, with broad antibacterial activity.a novel avian β-defensin (avbd), avbd10, was discovered in the liver and bone marrow tissues from chinese painted quail (coturnix chinensis) in the present study. the complete nucleotide sequence of quail avbd10 contains a 207-bp open reading frame that encodes 68 amino acids. the quail avbd10 was expressed widely in all the tissues from quails except the tongue, crop, breast muscle, and thymus and was highly expressed in the bone marrow. in contrast to the expression pattern of avbd10 in tissue ...201222389044
the mechanical power output of the flight muscles of blue-breasted quail (coturnix chinensis) during quail (coturnix chinensis) were filmed during take-off flights. by tracking the position of the centre of mass of the bird in three dimensions, we were able to calculate the power required to increase the potential and kinetic energy. in addition, high-speed video recordings of the position of the wings over the course of the wing stroke, and morphological measurements, allowed us to calculate the aerodynamic and inertial power requirements. the total power output required from the ...200111719527
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