TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
population dynamics.this chapter reviews aspects of population dynamics that may be conceptually important for biological control of mosquitoes. density dependent population regulation among immature stages has important implications for biological control of mosquito populations, primarily because it can lead to compensatory or overcompensatory mortality due to additions of a biological control agent. this can result in control efforts leading to no change in the target population, or actual increases in the targe ...017853611
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
mosquito vitellogenin genes: comparative sequence analysis, gene duplication, and the role of rare synonymous codon usage in regulating expression.comparative sequence analysis of mosquito vitellogenin (vg) genes was carried out to gain a better understanding of their evolution. the genomic clones of vitellogenin genes were isolated and sequenced from all three subfamilies of the family culicidae including culicinae (aedes aegypti, ochlerotatus atropalpus, ae. polynesiensis, ae. albopictus, ochlerotatus triseriatus and culex quinquefasciatus), toxorhynchitinae (toxorhynchites amboinensis), and anophelinae (anopheles albimanus). genomic clo ...020337554
a review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. the antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different t ...021864156
surplus killing by predatory larvae of corethrella appendiculata: prepupal timing and site-specific attack on mosquito prey.surplus or 'wasteful' killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge corethrella appendiculata, which in florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of toxorhynchites rutilus. provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of c. appendic ...019081802
mosquitoes of the papuan subregion (diptera: culicidae) toxorhynchites (toxorhynchites) amboinensis (doleschall). 19684386862
[enzyme immunoassay for the detection and identification of dengue viruses from infected mosquitoes (author's transl)].the authors deal with a "double sandwich" enzyme immunoassay for the detection and identification of dengue viruses 1, 2 and 4. they use ground glass-beads (7 mm diameter) coated with human heterospecific anti-dengue antibodies, to bind viruses obtained from infected mosquitoes (toxorhynchites amboinensis). the mouse antibodies bound to the viruses coated on the beads are revealed by anti-mouse 7s immunoglobulins labelled with peroxydase. the method is practical, sensitive and confident. the sta ...197943691
the use of toxorhynchites mosquitoes to detect and propagate dengue and other arboviruses.both sexes of toxorhynchites amboinensis, an unusually large, non-blood sucking mosquito, were found to be as susceptible to infection with each of the four types of dengue virus by intrathoracic inoculation as aedes albopictus. tx. amboinensis infected with dengue virus could be identified easily by fluorescent antibody staining of head squashes and had advantages of size, hardiness, and safety (for females) as compared with ae. albopictus. tx. amboinensis also were more susceptible to infectio ...19816111230
sensitivity of toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes versus chicken embryonic cell cultures for assays of venezuelan encephalitis virus.toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes inoculated intrathoracically with venezuelan encephalitis virus and tested for infectious virus 12 to 19 days later by inoculation of primary chicken embryonic cell cultures yielded approximately the same titers of virus as did direct inoculation of cultures, with counting of plaques 3 days thereafter. titers were slightly higher in t. amboinensis for three virus strains, equal for two virus strains, and slightly lower for two virus strains. comparative tite ...19816113251
replication of dengue, yellow fever, st. louis encephalitis and vesicular stomatitis viruses in a cell line (tra-171) derived from toxorhynchites amboinensis.the replication of seven arboviruses in a cell line (tra-171) derived from a nonhematophagous mosquito was studied. four serotypes of laboratory adapted and three serotypes of unadapted dengue viruses replicated in the tra-171 cell line, inducing syncytia. the sensitivity of tra-171 cells to dengue virus infection was comparable to that of aedes albopictus or a. pseudoscutellaris cells. yellow fever, st. louis encephalitis, and vesicular stomatitis viruses also replicated. all four serotypes of ...19816119288
lack of greater seroconversion of rhesus monkeys after subcutaneous inoculation of dengue type 2 live-virus vaccine combined with infection-enhancing antibodies.four groups of six nonimmune male rhesus monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously with formulations of dengue type 2 vaccine virus den-2/s-1. group a received 1.9 x 10(4) plaque-forming units of vaccine in normal human serum albumin diluent. group b received the same dose combined with a dengue type 2-immune human serum diluted 1:1,600, beyond its neutralization endpoint of 1:300, but having an immune enhancement titer of 250,000. groups c and d received 10-fold dilutions of these respective formu ...19817024129
[dengue outbreak by virus type 4 in french polynesia. ii. preliminary biological observations on epidemiology and physiopathology of the disease (author's transl)].authors report some accurate epidemiologic and physiopathologic data about dengue 4. thanks to virus intrathoracic inoculation in toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleshall, 1857), 202 viral strains have been isolated from 633 sera samples. the incidence of the disease has decreased very early after immunization of the whole population and resulted in an eradication of dengue type 1 virus which was endemic in french polynesia since 1976. only one type of dengue virus seems to be tolerated in french p ...19817278575
[study of the larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on toxorhynchitinae larvae (author's transl)].toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, h 14 serotype, has been tested on larvae of toxorhynchites amboinensis, predaceous larvae of other culicinae larvae. the toxorhynchites larvae are not sensitive to the bacterial toxin up to relatively high dosages, except when larvae of aedes aegypti are provided in the suspension. mode of action of the crystal appears to be similar to the one observed in the epithelial cells of intoxicated aedes aegypti larvae midgut.19826125271
persistent infection of a nonvector mosquito cell line (tra-171) with dengue viruses.dengue viruses often caused an apparent, persistent infection in a cell line derived from a nonvector mosquito, toxorhynchites amboinensis. the characteristics of the viruses were modified during the course of persistent infection, as demonstrated by the changes in neutralizing titers of hyperimmune ascitic fluids against dengue serotypes, increased ability to induce syncytia, and increased temperature sensitivity. although neurovirulence in suckling mice was reduced for all serotypes, considera ...19826126465
anopheles stephensi and toxorhynchites amboinensis: aseptic rearing of mosquito larvae on cultured cells.aseptic larvae of anopheles stephensi and toxorhynchites amboinensis were reared on a continuous cell line (ru tae 12 v) from the mosquito, t. amboinensis, that grew in suspension as multicellular vesicles. surface-sterilized eggs were hatched in a 24-well plate containing 0.2 ml of leibovitz's l-15 medium per well and incubated in a humidified atmosphere. toxorhynchites amboinensis eggs of 36 hr or older were placed singly to assure hatching and avoid cannibalism. hatching rates were over 80%. ...19826129294
dengue virus replication in a polyploid mosquito cell culture grown in serum-free medium.a subline of a polyploid cell line (tra-284) derived from a nonbiting mosquito, toxorhynchites amboinensis, was adapted to a serum-free medium. the sensitivity of the subline (tra-284-sf) to all serotypes of adapted dengue viruses was generally comparable to that of aedes albopictus (c6/36), and den 3 viruses replicated to higher titers in tra-28f-sf cells than in c6/36 cells. the subline was found to be useful for isolation of dengue viruses from human serum, since isolation rates were higher i ...19826130104
susceptibility of cloned toxorhynchites amboinensis cells to dengue and chikungunya viruses. 19836135139
cultivation of mosquito cell lines in serum-free media and their effects on dengue virus mosquito cell lines from five species (aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. pseudoscutellaris, culex tarsalis, and toxorhynchites amboinensis) were adapted to three kinds of serum-free media (sem), which were composed of equal volumes of tryptose phosphate broth and of either leibovitz (l15) medium, eagle's minimum essential medium, or medium 199 with hanks' salts. population growth rates of the cells cultivated in the smfs were generally slower than those of original cell cultures maintaine ...19836137452
experimental transovarial transmission of st. louis encephalitis virus by culex and aedes mosquitoes.colonized and field-collected female culex tarsalis, infected with st. louis encephalitis, (sle) virus by intrathoracic inoculation or by feeding on a viremic host, transmitted virus to their f1 adult and/or larval progeny when reared at 18(+/- 1) degree c but not when reared at 27(+/- 1) degrees c. the minimal infection rates (mir) for different populations of cx. tarsalis ranged from 1:32 to less than 1:250 (mean = 1:121) for larval progeny and from 1:32 to less than 1:1, 989 (mean = 1:1,571) ...19846696174
effects of toxorhynchites amboinensis on laboratory-reared aedes aegypti populations (diptera: culicidae). 19846144797
effect of weekly releases of toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) on aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in new orleans, louisiana. 19852861216
comparative sensitivity of three mosquito cell lines for isolation of dengue viruses.comparative studies were carried out on three mosquito cell lines (c6/36 clone of aedes albopictus, ap-61 from a. pseudoscutellaris, and tra-284 from toxorhynchites amboinensis) to determine their sensitivity to dengue virus isolation, growth, and handling characteristics for immunofluorescent testing. virus isolation rates from human sera were the highest in the tra-284-sf (a line adapted to serum-free medium), followed by the tra-284 parental line and ap-61. virus isolation was the lowest in t ...19852861916
vertical transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes of the aedes scutellaris group.seventeen strains of mosquitoes belonging to 12 species in the aedes scutellaris subgroup were tested for an ability to transmit one or more dengue virus serotype(s) vertically. strains of virus employed for dengue types 1, 2, 3, and 4 were from fiji, bangkok, burma, and medan, respectively. after parental females were infected by intrathoracic inoculation, f1 larval and pupal progeny were tested for the presence of virus by inoculating aliquots of triturated suspensions into toxorhynchites ambo ...19873688318
laboratory experiments on factors affecting oviposition site selection in toxorhynchites amboinensis (diptera: culicidae), with a report on the occurrence of egg cannibalism.laboratory experiments tested the effects of water quality and the presence of conspecific and heterospecific immatures on oviposition by toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall). the females showed a highly significant preference for oak leaf infusion water over distilled water. when twenty starved third and fourth instar tx.amboinensis larvae were present in the water, substantially fewer eggs were counted from pots containing these conspecifics, than from controls in which no larvae were prese ...19882908785
preliminary field observations on the killing behavior of toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae. 19892573693
egg cannibalism and carnivory among three species of laboratory experiments, third and early fourth instar larvae of toxorhynchites amboinensis, tx. splendens and tx. brevipalpis, previously starved 24 h, rapidly cannibalized eggs of their own species, or ate the eggs of other species present on the water surface in small containers. toxorhynchites amboinensis and tx. splendens larvae of either instar cannibalized eggs somewhat more rapidly than tx. brevipalpis, probably because brevipalpis eggs distributed themselves around the edge of the con ...19892573688
potential for insect transmission of hiv: experimental exposure of cimex hemipterus and toxorhynchites amboinensis to human immunodeficiency virus.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) was detected in bedbugs (cimex hemipterus) up to 8 d after oral exposure to highly concentrated virus in blood meals, but no virus replication was observed. hiv did not replicate in either intraabdominally inoculated bedbugs or intrathoracically inoculated mosquitoes (toxorhynchites amboinensis). the virus was not detected in bedbug feces. mechanical transmission of hiv by bedbugs could not be demonstrated in an in vitro model. the persistence of hiv in an inse ...19892479697
toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae released in domestic containers fail to control dengue vectors in a rural village in central java.the efficacy of toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae for control of dengue vectors in household water storage containers was tested in a rural village in central java, indonesia. concrete cisterns and clay jars were the most common types of containers used for long-term water storage, although smaller numbers of metal drums were also used. all containers in use in the village received 5-10 second- or third-instar tx. amboinensis larvae biweekly for 7 months. vector surveillance (adult and larval) w ...19901969929
efficiency gains from the use of sample pooling technique: a theoretical example of dengue virus detection in vector.testing large numbers of specimens for viral antigens, antibodies, requires a great deal of manpower, time and money. therefore it would be useful if testing could be performed with the specimens pooled. however, how to establish the optimal number of specimens to be pooled to achieve the maximum efficiency while maintaining both sensitivity and specificity is a question that needs to be answered. in this study, we developed a mathematical model and procedure to resolve this problem. we estimate ...19912005671
determination of whether tomato spotted wilt virus replicates in toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and the relatedness of this virus to phleboviruses (family bunyaviridae).tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) has been reported to be morphologically, molecularly and structurally similar to viruses in the family bunyaviridae. by various types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and western blot hybridizations, we tested tswv with antibodies to 12 viruses in the phlebovirus genus of this family. serological relatedness was not found between tswv and phleboviruses. however, one preparation of antibody to arumowot virus reacted with a 53-kd protein from healthy p ...19921346784
development of plasmodium berghei ookinetes to young oocysts in vitro.the mosquito stage of plasmodium berghei was cultivated in vitro, with special attention to ookinete transformation into early oocyst. the ookinetes were obtained by in vitro culture of gametocytes taken from infected mice, purified by density gradient of metrizoic acid or a lymphocyte separation medium, and incubated either in acellular culture or in co-cultivations with mosquito cells. in acellular culture, the ookinetes were found to aggregate with each other and transformed from banana to ro ...19921578408
direct sequence analysis of amplified dengue virus genomic rna from cultured cells, mosquitoes and mouse brain.a method is described for direct sequence analysis of selected regions of dengue virus genomic rna in infected tissues. using specific primers, total high-molecular-weight infected-cell rna is reverse transcribed to single-stranded (ss) complementary dna, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced using ssdna obtained after lambda exonuclease digestion of one strand of the pcr product (r.g. higuchi and h. ochman, nucleic acids research, 17, 5865, 1989). sequence data for t ...19921634599
the relative importance and distribution of aedes polynesiensis and ae. aegypti larval habitats in preparation for a filariasis control programme in samoa, during 1978 monthly larval surveys of the vector mosquito aedes polynesiensis were carried out in four study villages in the main island of upolu. a more extensive survey of larval habitat distribution was then made in twenty-two villages of upolu and eighteen of savai'i island, to determine the importance of habitat types according to their abundance, volume of water and whether their productivity was permanent or seasonal. ae.aegypti ...19938435486
search behavior associated with egg cannibalism in toxorhynchites amboinensis and toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (diptera: culicidae).observations based on time-lapse video recordings were used to study behavior associated with egg cannibalism in fourth-instar toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) and tx. r. rutilus (coquillett). analysis indicated that, once triggered by finding of the first egg, larvae of both species engaged in a systematic search of the water surface in an attempt to find additional eggs, which were often seized and eaten. seven behavioral elements were identified in the search repertoire, and their rela ...19938099624
behavior on approach to surface prey by larvae of toxorhynchites amboinensis and t. brevipalpis (diptera: culicidae).behavior of toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) and toxorhynchites brevipalpis (theobald) larvae (starved 48 h) as they approach and capture surface prey is described quantitatively from videotaped records. of 106 t. amboinensis and 82 t. brevipalpis larvae observed, 84.9 and 97.6%, respectively, responded to the presence of surface prey within 2 min (most < 20 s). once they detected prey, larvae executed initial backward swims if prey was rearwardly positioned, then approached it in a serie ...19957869343
mass spectrometric profiling of glucosamine, glucosamine polymers and their catecholamine adducts. model reactions and cuticular hydrolysates of toxorhynchites amboinensis (culicidae) pupae.glucosamine (gln), glucosamine polymers, and their catecholamine adducts were characterized using positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (esms) and tandem mass spectrometry (esms-ms). n-acetyldopamine (nada), a catecholamine found in many insect cuticles, was oxidized using mushroom tyrosinase, and the resulting quinone derivatives were reacted with gln, (gln)3, and polymeric glucosamine (chitosan). adducts of glucosamine and its trisaccharide with nada were readily identified as [m + h]+ i ...199910436936
colour cues for oviposition behaviour in toxorhynchites moctezuma and toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes.gravid female toxorhynchites moctezuma (dyar and knab) and toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) were offered the choice of coloured (spray-painted) containers for oviposition in laboratory trials. both species oviposited preferentially into black containers rather than into white, red, yellow, green, or blue containers. black containers also acted as oviposition stimulants of tx. moctezuma females, and black and red containers for tx. amboinensis females. absorption spectra were measured for ...200011217211
stimulation of dengue virus replication in cultured aedes albopictus (c6/36) mosquito cells by the antifungal imidazoles ketoconazole and miconazole.replication of dengue type 3 virus in aedes albopictus c6/36 cells was enhanced more than 50-fold by addition of the antifungal imidazole derivative ketoconazole within the first 4 h of infection. the stimulatory effect was reflected in the yield of infectious virus and in levels of viral rna and protein synthesis. enhanced yields were observed also for other flaviviruses, including dengue type 2 virus and murray valley encephalitis virus. increased yields of dengue type 3 virus were not observe ...200010725192
olfactory cues for oviposition behavior in toxorhynchites moctezuma and toxorhynchites amboinensis (diptera: culicidae).in laboratory tests gravid female toxorhynchites moctezuma (dyar & knab) and toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) were offered the choice of black oviposition jars containing a diethyl ether extract of water collected from a natural oviposition site for these species (i.e., used tires), a dilution series of 4-methylcyclohexanol, 3-methylindole, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol, or solvent. tire water extract and all test compounds acted as oviposition attractants and stimulan ...200211931244
abstracts of the fourth international symposium on molecular insect science. may 28-june 2, 2002. tucson, arizona, usa. 200215455051
american genotype structures decrease dengue virus output from human monocytes and dendritic cells.the dengue virus type 2 structures probably involved in human virulence were previously defined by sequencing the complete genome of both american and southeast (se) asian genotype templates in patient serum (k. c. leitmeyer et al., j. virol. 73:4738-4747, 1999). we have now evaluated the effects of introducing a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (e) gene and/or replacement of 5'- and 3'-nontranslated regions on dengue virus replication in human primary cell cultures. a series of chimeric in ...200312634353
dengue 2 pdk-53 virus as a chimeric carrier for tetravalent dengue vaccine development.attenuation markers of the candidate dengue 2 (d2) pdk-53 vaccine virus are encoded by mutations that reside outside of the structural gene region of the genome. we engineered nine dengue virus chimeras containing the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of wild-type d1 16007, d3 16562, or d4 1036 virus within the genetic backgrounds of wild-type d2 16681 virus and the two genetic variants (pdk53-e and pdk53-v) of the d2 pdk-53 vaccine virus. expression of the heterologous prm-e genes in the ...200314557629
replication of certain recently classified viruses in toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and in mosquito and mammalian cell lines, with implications for their arthropod-borne status.thirty-one viruses recently placed in taxa were studied for their replication in toxorhynchites amboinensis by intrathoracic inoculation. results were compared to those obtained in vitro in mammal and insect cell cultures. these findings provide presumptive evidence for the association of eighteen of these viruses with arthropod vectors.20032575779
nodamura virus nonstructural protein b2 can enhance viral rna accumulation in both mammalian and insect cells.during infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines, the alphanodavirus nodamura virus (nov) expresses two nonstructural proteins of different lengths from the b2 open reading frame. the functions of these proteins have yet to be determined, but b2 of the related flock house virus suppresses rna interference both in drosophila cells and in transgenic plants. to examine whether the nov b2 proteins had similar functions, we compared the replication of wild-type nov rna with that of mut ...200415163762
dengue emergence and adaptation to peridomestic mosquitoes.phylogenetic evidence suggests that endemic and epidemic dengue viruses (denv), transmitted among humans by the anthropophilic mosquitoes aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus, emerged when ancestral, sylvatic denv transmitted among nonhuman primates by sylvatic aedes mosquitoes adapted to these peridomestic vectors. we tested this hypothesis by retrospectively examining evidence for adaptation of epidemic and endemic versus sylvatic strains of denv-2 to ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti. first and seco ...200415504265
chimeric dengue 2 pdk-53/west nile ny99 viruses retain the phenotypic attenuation markers of the candidate pdk-53 vaccine virus and protect mice against lethal challenge with west nile virus.chimeric dengue serotype 2/west nile (d2/wn) viruses expressing prm-e of wn ny99 virus in the genetic background of wild-type d2 16681 virus and two candidate d2 pdk-53 vaccine variants (pdk53-e and pdk53-v) were engineered. the viability of the d2/wn viruses required incorporation of the wn virus-specific signal sequence for prm. introduction of two mutations at m-58 and e-191 in the chimeric cdna clones further improved the viability of the chimeras constructed in all three d2 carriers. two d2 ...200515919884
effects of larval density and predation by toxorhynchites amboinensis on aedes polynesiensis (diptera: culicidae) developing in coconuts.organisms manipulated as biological control agents of disease vectors should tolerate ranges of developmental conditions exploited by their target species. furthermore, they should reduce numbers of host-seeking vector adults without providing fitness benefits to larval survivors developing among fewer competitors. we studied electrochemistry in rat-chewed coconuts, an important developmental habitat used by aedes polynesiensis, a vector of lymphatic filariasis. we also studied the effects of la ...200516506567
ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health.investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. this review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. first, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing wh ...200517637849
satellite dna from the y chromosome of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.satellite dna is an enigmatic component of genomic dna with unclear function that has been regarded as "junk." yet, persistence of these tandem highly repetitive sequences in heterochromatic regions of most eukaryotic chromosomes attests to their importance in the genome. we explored the anopheles gambiae genome for the presence of satellite repeats and identified 12 novel satellite dna families. certain families were found in close juxtaposition within the genome. six satellites, falling into t ...200515466420
reduced infection in mosquitoes exposed to blood meals containing previously frozen flaviviruses.the increased difficulty and expense of using live animals for delivering infectious blood meals in arthropod-borne virus vector competence experiments has resulted in an increase in the use of artificial feeding systems. compared to live hosts, artificial systems require higher viral titers to attain mosquito infection, thereby limiting the utility of such systems with low or moderate titer virus stocks. based on the report that freshly propagated virus is more infectious than previously frozen ...200717686541
evolution and horizontal transfer of a dd37e dna transposon in mosquitoes.itmd37e, a unique class ii transposable element (te) with an ancient origin, appears to have been involved in multiple horizontal transfers in mosquitoes as itmd37e sequences from 10 mosquito species of five genera share high nucleotide (nt) identities. for example, itmd37e sequences from aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae, which have an estimated common ancestor of 145-200 million years ago, display 92% nt identity. the comparison of itmd37e and host mosquito phylogenies shows a lack of congru ...200717947403
the juan non-ltr retrotransposon in mosquitoes: genomic impact, vertical transmission and indications of recent and widespread contrast to dna-mediated transposable elements (tes), retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-ltrs), are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards horizontal transfer. detailed studies on site-specific non-ltr families have demonstrated strict vertical transmission. more studies are needed with non-site-specific non-ltr families to determine whether strict vertical transmission is a phenomenon related to site specificity or a more gener ...200717620143
productivity of natural and artificial containers for aedes polynesiensis and aedes aegypti in four american samoan villages.six mosquito species were identified in a survey of containers associated with 347 households in four villages in american samoa. aedes polynesiensis marks (diptera: culicidae) and aedes aegypti (l) were the most abundant species, representing 57% and 29% of the mosquitoes identified. culex quinquefasciatus (say), culex annulirostris (skuse), aedes oceanicus (belkin) and toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) were also found. aedes aegypti and ae. polynesiensis showed distinct differences in th ...200717373943
an insight into the sialotranscriptome of the non-blood feeding toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquito.all adult mosquitoes take sugar meals, and most adult females also take blood meals to develop eggs. salivary glands (sg) of males are thus much smaller and do not contain many of the antihemostatic and antiinflammatory compounds found in females. in the past 5 years, transcriptome analyses have identified nearly 70 different genes expressed in adult female sg. for most of these, no function can be assigned in either blood or sugar feeding. exceptionally, toxorhynchites mosquitoes are unusual in ...200818405828
larval competition alters susceptibility of adult aedes mosquitoes to dengue infection.dengue, the most important human arboviral disease, is transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, by aedes albopictus. the current distributions of these invasive species overlap and are affected by interspecific larval competition in their container habitats. here we report that competition also enhances dengue infection and dissemination rates in one of these two vector species. we determined the effects of competition on adult a. aegypti and a. albopictus, comparing their ...200818077250
viral paratransgenesis in the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.paratransgenesis, the genetic manipulation of insect symbiotic microorganisms, is being considered as a potential method to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria. the feasibility of paratransgenic malaria control has been hampered by the lack of candidate symbiotic microorganisms for the major vector anopheles gambiae. in other systems, densonucleosis viruses (dnvs) are attractive agents for viral paratransgenesis because they infect important vector insects, can be genetically manipulat ...200818725926
phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology.phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. the generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address.200920028549
colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others.mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (sit), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. after these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of cha ...200919917074
the salivary gland transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector anopheles darlingi reveals accelerated evolution of genes relevant to hematophagy.mosquito saliva, consisting of a mixture of dozens of proteins affecting vertebrate hemostasis and having sugar digestive and antimicrobial properties, helps both blood and sugar meal feeding. culicine and anopheline mosquitoes diverged ~150 mya, and within the anophelines, the new world species diverged from those of the old world ~95 mya. while the sialotranscriptome (from the greek sialo, saliva) of several species of the cellia subgenus of anopheles has been described thoroughly, no detailed ...200919178717
the integrated use of toxorhynchites amboinensis and ground-level ulv insecticide application to suppress aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). 20102877093
an insight into the sialome of blood-feeding nematocera.within the diptera and outside the suborder brachycera, the blood-feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (culicidae), black flies (simulidae), biting midges (ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (corethrellidae). alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. successful blood-feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pa ...201020728537
duplication, concerted evolution and purifying selection drive the evolution of mosquito vitellogenin genes.mosquito vitellogenin (vtg) genes belong to a small multiple gene family that encodes the major yolk protein precursors required for egg production. multiple vtg genes have been cloned and characterized from several mosquito species, but their origin and molecular evolution are poorly understood.201020465817
dengue viral infections.dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. it has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) occur worldwide. an increasing proportion of dhf is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in south east and south asia. the unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, d ...201020418983
universal primers for the amplification and sequence analysis of actin-1 from diverse mosquito species.we report the development of universal primers for the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification and nucleotide sequence analysis of actin cdnas from taxonomically diverse mosquito species. primers specific to conserved regions of the invertebrate actin-1 gene were designed after actin cdna sequences of anopheles gambiae, bombyx mori, drosophila melanogaster, and caenorhabditis elegans. the efficacy of these primers was determined by rt-pcr with the use of total rna ...201020649132
an outbreak of dengue fever in st. croix (us virgin islands), 2005.periodic outbreaks of dengue fever occur in the united states virgin islands. in june 2005, an outbreak of dengue virus (denv) serotype-2 with cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) was detected in st. croix, us virgin islands. the objective of this report is to describe this outbreak of denv-2 and the findings of a case-control study examining risk factors for dhf.201021060852
the native wolbachia symbionts limit transmission of dengue virus in aedes albopictus.the chikungunya (chik) outbreak that struck la reunion island in 2005 was preceded by few human cases of dengue (den), but which surprisingly did not lead to an epidemic as might have been expected in a non-immune population. both arboviral diseases are transmitted to humans by two main mosquito species, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. in the absence of the former, ae. albopictus was the only species responsible for viral transmission on la reunion island. this mosquito is naturally super-in ...201223301109
the sialotranscriptome of antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.the hosts for antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. the mouthparts of nymphal and adult a. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. how a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. adults of a. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always ...201222306723
field studies on the introduction of the mosquito predator toxorhynchites amboinensis (diptera: culicidae) into fiji. 20123981548
mosquito cell lines: history, isolation, availability and application to assess the threat of arboviral transmission in the united kingdom.mosquitoes are highly effective vectors for transmission of human and animal pathogens. understanding the relationship between pathogen and vector is vital in developing strategies to predict and prevent transmission. cell lines derived from appropriate mosquito hosts provide a relatively simple tool for investigating the interaction between the host and viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. this review provides a brief overview of the development of mosquito cell lines, methods of isolation, their ...201425141888
divergent and conserved elements comprise the chemoreceptive repertoire of the nonblood-feeding mosquito toxorhynchites amboinensis.many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. these remarkable differences make toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it p ...201425326137
infection dynamics of sylvatic dengue virus in a natural primate host, the african green monkey.the four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (denv-1, -2, -3, and -4) that circulate in humans each emerged from an enzootic, sylvatic cycle in non-human primates. herein, we present the first study of sylvatic denv infection dynamics in a primate. three african green monkeys were inoculated with 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) denv-2 strain pm33974 from the sylvatic cycle, and one african green monkey was inoculated with 10(5) pfu denv-2 strain new guinea c from the human cycle. all four ...201425092823
gravid females of the mosquito aedes aegypti avoid oviposition on m-cresol in the presence of the deterrent isomer p-cresol.p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and its isomer m-cresol (3-methylphenol) have been shown to activate the same sensilla in aedes aegypti (linnaeus) mosquitoes. whereas p-cresol has been suggested to play a role in oviposition site choice, the behavioral significance of m-cresol is unknown.201425008201
midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito toxorhynchites theobaldi (diptera, culicidae).in most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. however, in toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. the midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. in the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural ...201526514271
full-length infectious clone of a low passage dengue virus serotype 2 from brazil.full-length dengue virus (denv) cdna clones are an invaluable tool for many studies, including those on the development of attenuated or chimeric vaccines and on host-virus interactions. furthermore, the importance of low passage denv infectious clones should be highlighted, as these may harbour critical and unique strain-specific viral components from field-circulating isolates. the successful construction of a functional brazilian low passage denv serotype 2 full-length clone through homologou ...201526200712
effect of larval competition on extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of aedes albopictus for dengue virus.despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. we examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (denv-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector aedes albopictus. adult ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions wer ...201525951173
viral interference and persistence in mosquito-borne flaviviruses.mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. however, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through aedes and culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. this establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the ...201526583158
mosquito oviposition behavior and vector control.the burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. the selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. the dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of ovipositio ...201627869724
intra-instar larval cannibalism in anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae).cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. in anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (l4-l1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. in this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (l2, l3 and l4) of anopheles gambia ...201627806728
ape malaria transmission and potential for ape-to-human transfers in africa.recent studies have highlighted the large diversity of malaria parasites infecting african great apes (subgenus laverania) and their strong host specificity. although the existence of genetic incompatibilities preventing the cross-species transfer may explain host specificity, the existence of vectors with a high preference for a determined host represents another possibility. to test this hypothesis, we undertook a 15-mo-long longitudinal entomological survey in two forest regions of gabon, whe ...201627071123
evolutionarily conserved odorant receptor function questions ecological context of octenol role in mosquitoes.olfaction is a key insect adaptation to a wide range of habitats. in the last thirty years, the detection of octenol by blood-feeding insects has been primarily understood in the context of animal host-seeking. the recent discovery of a conserved octenol receptor gene in the strictly nectar-feeding elephant mosquito toxorhynchites amboinensis (taor8) suggests a different biological role. here, we show that taor8 is a functional ortholog of its counterparts in blood-feeding mosquitoes displaying ...201627849027
the neurotranscriptome of the aedes aegypti mosquito.a complete genome sequence and the advent of genome editing open up non-traditional model organisms to mechanistic genetic studies. the mosquito aedes aegypti is an important vector of infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and has a large and complex genome, which has slowed annotation efforts. we used comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of adult gene expression to improve the genome annotation and to provide a detailed tissue-specific catalogue of neural gene expre ...201626738925
antiviral rna interference activity in cells of the predatory mosquito, toxorhynchites amboinensis.arthropod vectors control the replication of arboviruses through their innate antiviral immune responses. in particular, the rna interference (rnai) pathways are of notable significance for the control of viral infections. although much has been done to understand the role of rnai in vector populations, little is known about its importance in non-vector mosquito species. in this study, we investigated the presence of an rnai response in toxorhynchites amboinensis, which is a non-blood feeding sp ...201830563205
the sulcatone receptor of the strict nectar-feeding mosquito toxorhynchites amboinensis.controlling ae. aegypti populations and the prevention of mosquito bites includes the development of monitoring, repelling and attract-and-kill strategies that are based on understanding the chemical ecology of these pests. olfactory-mediated attraction to mammals has recently been linked to the mosquito aedes aegypti odorant receptor or4, which is activated by animal-released 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone). this odorant is also a major component of flower scents and may play a role outside ...201931129164
the evolutionarily conserved indolergic receptors of the non-hematophagous elephant mosquito toxorhynchites amboinensis.the conservation of the mosquito indolergic receptors across the culicinae and anophelinae mosquito lineages, which spans 200 million years of evolution, is a testament to the central role of indolic compounds in the biology of these insects. indole and skatole have been associated with the detection of oviposition sites and animal hosts. to evaluate the potential ecological role of these two compounds, we have used a pharmacological approach to characterize homologs of the indolergic receptors ...201931004793
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