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numerical taxonomy of mycobactin-dependent mycobacteria, emended description of mycobacterium avium, and description of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subsp. nov., and mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov.we performed a numerical taxonomy analysis of 38 mycobacterium paratuberculosis and related mycobacterial strains, including wood pigeon mycobacteria; this analysis was based on 22 tests, which were selected for their potential discriminative value from a total of 51 tests studied and produced four well-defined clusters. cluster 1 contained the m. paratuberculosis strains, including two strains isolated from crohn's disease patients; cluster 2 contained mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intr ...19902397193
rapid differentiation of mycobacterium avium and m. paratuberculosis by pcr and restriction enzyme analysis.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (m. avium) and m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis), intracellular bacteria that can cause chronic granulomatous enteritis in cattle, are difficult to distinguish on the basis of growth and biochemical characteristics. we report the development of a pcr-based strategy for the rapid differentiation of isolates of m. avium from isolates of m. paratuberculosis. restriction fragment length polymorphism was identified by pcr amplification and subsequ ...19968904449
typing of clinical mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured during a 2-year period in denmark by using is1245.in the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence is1245 as a probe was performed with clinical mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in denmark during a 2-year period. the overall aim of the study was to disclose potential routes of transmission of these microorganisms. as a first step, the genetic diversity among isolates from aids patients and non-human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients was described. in a ...19999986819
pcr-restriction endonuclease analysis for identification and strain typing of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium based on polymorphisms in is1311.point mutations in the is 1311 sequences from sheep and cattle strains of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) and m. avium subsp. avium (m. avium) were targeted to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that would be useful in the diagnosis and control of johne's disease. candidate pcr tests were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity and ease of interpretation of the restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) products. one is 1311 pcr, amplifying a 608 base pair pr ...199910208802
occurrence of the is900 gene in mycobacterium avium complex derived from hiv patients.the occurrence of the insertion sequence is900 in mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains isolated from hiv infected patients has been investigated. in this study, genomic dna from 62 mycobacterial isolates [31 strains of m. avium complex (mac) consisting of 26 m. avium subsp. avium hiv-isolates and five non-hiv isolates and 31 additional mycobacterium species] were analysed by an is900 -based polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay and southern hybridization using a non-radioactive-labelled 251 ...199910508558
detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of captive exotic birds using polymerase chain reaction.a presumptive diagnosis of avian tuberculosis can be made when characteristic histologic lesions and acid-fast bacilli are observed in avian tissue samples. however, a definitive diagnosis requires isolation and identification of the causative organism, a process that can take several weeks to complete. the purpose of the study was to determine whether formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival avian tissues could be tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to reliably and rapidly diagnose avia ...199910572856
alkyl hydroperoxide reductases c and d are major antigens constitutively expressed by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.antigens characteristic for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis were identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie) and by absorbing out cross-reactive antigens by using a polyclonal and polyvalent mycobacterium avium subspecies avium antiserum. two antigens were present in m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and not detected in mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. they were identified as antigens 17 and 20 in a cie reference system for m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens. purifie ...200010639449
comparison of is1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing clinical isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp avium.little is still known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of mycobacterium avium subsp avium (masa) infection.200010815741
a pre-existing infection by mycobacterium avium subsp. avium modulates anti-cryptococcus neoformans and anti-candida albicans activities in human macrophages.mycobacterium avium is a facultative intracellular microorganism, able to survive and multiply within mammalian macrophages by circumventing antimicrobial mechanisms. in this study we hypothesize that pre-existing m. avium infection could result in macrophage superinfections by other microorganisms. we found that 24 h after ingestion of m. avium at a low multiplicity of infection, macrophages are unable to efficiently produce superoxide anions when over-stimulated with phorbol esters, and that t ...200010906264
distinct differences in repertoires of low-molecular-mass secreted antigens of mycobacterium avium complex and mycobacterium tuberculosis.antigens in a 4-week-old culture filtrate (cf) of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium were separated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by western blotting. the culture had minimal lysis of bacilli, giving a cf preparation consisting mainly of secreted proteins. comparison with a similar cf of mycobacterium tuberculosis with almost no contamination with intracellular proteins showed the presence of cross-reactive antigens homologous to the four components of ...200011101579
further studies on the gs element. a novel mycobacterial insertion sequence (is1612), inserted into an acetylase gene (mpa) in mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum but not in mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.we have recently described the gs element, found in mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum (mas) and some isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium serotype 2 (maas2), which contains a set of genes of low gc% content, putatively associated with the biosynthesis, modification and transference of fucose to cell wall glycopeptidolipids. here we describe a further gene of low gc% content (mpa), within the gs element in map. mpa is a putative acety ...200011118730
regulation of expression of major histocompatibility antigens by bovine macrophages infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium are antigenically and genetically very similar organisms; however, they differ markedly in their virulence for cattle. we evaluated the capacity of bovine macrophages infected with m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or m. avium subsp. avium to express major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i and class ii antigens on their surface and to interact with primed autologous lymphocytes. our results indicate that infec ...200111159996
identification and sub-typing of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium by randomly amplified polymorphic dna.a commercially available kit consisting of twenty 10-mer random primers was evaluated to allow selection of a suitable primer that would permit identification and sub-typing of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium by randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd). a primer ope-20 (5'-aac-ggt-gac-c-3') was identified to be the most suitable primer when tested with four atcc reference strains of m. paratuberculosis and eight well characterized field strains e ...200111240105
comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serologic diagnosis of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) in cattle using different subspecies strains of mycobacterium avium.serologic diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis (johne's disease) with currently available tests may give false-positive results due to cross-reactions with avian and bovine tuberculosis viruses and other infectious agents. indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for detection of antibodies against paratuberculosis based on antigens from mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (a-elisa) and m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (p-elisa) were compared. despite an expected higher specificity for m ...200111289215
mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intracellulare infection in mammals.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and m. intracellulare are ubiquitous organisms in the environment. the reservoir of m. avium subsp. avium is generally accepted to be environmental, in particular, water and soil are sources of the organism. in contrast to m. avium infection in wild and domestic birds, m. avium infection in mammals occurs only sporadically and is rarely transmissible. generalised disease is usually uncommon, owing to the non-progressive, chronic character of the infection. howeve ...200111288512
molecular evidence to support a proposal to reserve the designation mycobacterium avium subsp. avium for bird-type isolates and 'm. avium subsp. hominissuis' for the human/porcine type of m. avium.in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of the mycobacterium avium complex, the relationship between is1245 rflp, growth temperature, 16s rdna signature sequences and the 16s-23s rdna internally transcribed spacer (its) of 160 m. avium-complex isolates from different sources was investigated. all 70 isolates identified as m. avium by inno-lipa mycobacteria (innogenetics, belgium), a dna probe test that targets the its, and by 16s rdna analysis carried multiple copies of is1245. three isolates with ...200212361252
putative in vitro expressed gene fragments unique to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.by a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria. the uniqueness and diagnostic potential of seven of these fragments in relation to m. paratuberculosis closest relative mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (m. avium) was confirmed by species-specific pcr and southern b ...200212351231
histologic and genotypic characterization of a novel mycobacterium species found in three cats.three cases of feline atypical mycobacteriosis from different geographical regions in north america were characterized by large clusters of filamentous bacteria visible on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained tissue sections. pcr amplification demonstrated the presence of mycobacterium-specific nucleic acid in samples of skin lesions from these cases. pcr-assisted cloning and dna sequence analysis of a 541-bp length of the mycobacterium 16s rrna gene generated dna sequences which were >95% identical, s ...200212089257
genome scale comparison of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium reveals potential diagnostic sequences.the genetic similarity between mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other mycobacterial species has confounded the development of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific diagnostic reagents. random shotgun sequencing of the m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome in our laboratories has shown >98% sequence identity with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in some regions. however, an in silico comparison of the largest annotated m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contigs, totaling 2,658, ...200211923349
cloning and expression of the haloalkane dehalogenase gene dhma from mycobacterium avium n85 and preliminary characterization of dhma.haloalkane dehalogenases are microbial enzymes that catalyze cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond by a hydrolytic mechanism. until recently, these enzymes have been isolated only from bacteria living in contaminated environments. in this report we describe cloning of the dehalogenase gene dhma from mycobacterium avium subsp. avium n85 isolated from swine mesenteric lymph nodes. the dhma gene has a g+c content of 68.21% and codes for a polypeptide that is 301 amino acids long and has a calculated ...200212147465
differential responses of bovine macrophages to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium are antigenically and genetically similar organisms; however, they differ in their virulence for cattle. m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes a chronic intestinal infection leading to a chronic wasting disease termed paratuberculosis or johne's disease, whereas m. avium subsp. avium causes only a transient infection. we compared the response of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages to ingestion of m. avium subsp. p ...200212228282
characterization of genetic differences between mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains of diverse virulence with a focus on the glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis cluster.the mycobacterium avium complex (mac) encompasses important pathogens in both animals and humans, yet little information is available on the factors required for mac virulence. an animal isolate, m. avium strain 724 was found to be considerably more virulent in balb/c mice than a human isolate, m. avium strain a5. to identify the genetic basis of this difference subtractive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the isolation of six dna fragments unique to strain 724. blast searches showed ...200312458173
genomic homogeneity between mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis belies their divergent growth rates.mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (m. avium) is frequently encountered in the environment, but also causes infections in animals and immunocompromised patients. in contrast, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) is a slow-growing organism that is the causative agent of johne's disease in cattle and chronic granulomatous infections in a variety of other ruminant hosts. yet we show that despite their divergent phenotypes and the diseases they present, the genomes ...200312740027
a standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) method for typing mycobacterium avium isolates links is901 with virulence for birds.a standardised method for pvuii-psti-is901 restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) typing was developed and evaluated against 173 isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and m. avium subsp. silvaticum originating from birds (n=46) and their aviaries (n=5), pigs (n=85), cattle (n=18), reference serotype strains (n=9), humans (n=7), a horse (n=1), a nutria (n=1), and strain m. avium subsp. avium st 18 (formerly m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis st 18). pvuii-is1245 rflp typing was also ...200314499991
identification of mycobacterium avium subsp avium in an alpaca with lesions resembling paratuberculosis. 200315086098
real-time polymerase chain reaction testing for the detection of mycobacterium genavense and mycobacterium avium complex species in avian samples.diagnosis of avian mycobacteriosis, caused by mycobacterium genavense or species belonging to the mycobacterium avium complex (mac), is problematic. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) offers rapid and sensitive detection of minute quantities of dna, and conventional protocols have been used for evaluating avian specimens. the recent development of real-time pcr offers several advantages over conventional pcr. in attempts to improve diagnosing avian mycobacteriosis, a real-time taqman pcr assay was ...200314708989
mycobacterial proteome extraction: comparison of disruption methods.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has long been recognized as the causative agent of johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease of sheep, cattle and other ruminants. mycobacterial cells are extremely hardy, and proteomic analyses require the use of harsh conditions to effect their disruption. we compared the effectiveness of bead beating and sonication as cell lysis methods for the extraction of the proteomes of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium s ...200415048990
use of recombinant esat-6:cfp-10 fusion protein for differentiation of infections of cattle by mycobacterium bovis and by m. avium subsp. avium and m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.immunological diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle is often confounded by cross-reactive responses resulting from exposure to other mycobacterial species, especially mycobacterium avium. early secretory antigenic target 6 (esat-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (cfp-10) are dominant gamma interferon (ifn-gamma)-inducing antigens of tuberculous mycobacteria, and they are absent from many environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria. because m. avium exposure is the primary confoundi ...200415242948
blowflies calliphora vicina and lucilia sericata as passive vectors of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, m. a. paratuberculosis and m. a. hominissuis.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (actinomycetales: mycobacteriaceae) isolates of identical restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) type b-c1 were isolated from: intestinal mucosa of two cows showing clinical signs of paratuberculosis, a specimen of the blowfly calliphora vicina robineau-desvoidy (diptera: calliphoridae) captured while perched on these cattle intestines in a waste container at the site of the slaughter, and the blowflies c. vicina and lucilia caesar linnaeus ca ...200415189236
study of mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from cattle in the czech republic between 1996 and 2000.this study surveys 2,593,348 cattle slaughtered between 1996 and 2000, and further investigates 571 (0.02%) animals found to have tuberculous lesions. culture of 346 randomly selected tissue samples from animals younger (n = 215) and older (n = 131) than 2 years, isolated mycobacteria from 91 animals (26.3%). these included 74 mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates of is901+ and is1245+ genotype and serotype 2, 13m. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates of is901- and is1245+ genotype and serotype ...200415066726
comparative genomic hybridizations reveal genetic regions within the mycobacterium avium complex that are divergent from mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is genetically similar to other members of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac), some of which are nonpathogenic and widespread in the environment. we have utilized an m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis whole-genome microarray representing over 95% of the predicted coding sequences to examine the genetic conservation among 10 m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, two isolates each of mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum and mycobacterium avium sub ...200515774884
identification and characterization of an immunogenic 22 kda exported protein of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.an exported 22 kda putative lipoprotein was identified in an alkaline phosphatase gene fusion library of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and expressed in mycobacterium smegmatis. the full nucleic acid sequence of the gene encoding p22 was determined and the orf was cloned into a mycobacterial expression vector, enabling full-length p22 to be produced as a c-terminal polyhistidine-tagged protein in m. smegmatis. n-terminal sequencing of the recombinant protein confirmed cleavage of a ...200516192441
fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes for rapid detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in potable-water biofilms.here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (pna) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies m. avium subsp. avium, m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and m. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) method. there is evidence that m. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive and grow in drinking-water biofilms and possibly transmit via drinking water. ...200616391126
a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections (johne's disease) in cattle.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the diagnosis of johne's disease (jd), caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, were developed using whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde (called welisa) or surface antigens obtained by treatment of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli with formaldehyde and then brief sonication (called selisa). elisa plates were coated with either whole bacilli or sonicated antigens and tested for reactivity against serum obtained from jd-posi ...200616682472
disseminated mycobacteriosis due to mycobacterium avium in captive bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 2-year-old captive female bengal tiger (panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the gwangju uchi park zoo, gwangju, republic of korea. necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. periodic acid-schiff stain and gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. ...200616789727
comparative macrorestriction and rflp analysis of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from man, pig, and cattle.in germany, tuberculous lesions in slaughtered pigs due to infection with members of the mycobacterium avium complex are increasingly reported. contaminated food originating from pig or other livestock is discussed as potential source of human infection. m. avium isolates from man (n=45), pig (n=29), and cattle (n=13) were characterised by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) with respect to insertion sequences is1245 and is901 as well as by xbai-based pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ...200616797885
short-sequence-repeat analysis of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates collected from animals throughout the united states reveals both stability of loci and extensive diversity.we analyzed the multilocus short sequence repeats (ssrs) of 211 and 56 isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and m. avium subsp. avium, respectively. the m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates could be differentiated into 61 genotypes. the m. avium subsp. avium isolates showed limited diversity. these ssrs are stable and suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.200616891519
isolation of high-affinity single-chain antibodies against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins from sheep with johne's disease.johne's disease, caused by infection with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. improved investigative and diagnostic tools-necessary to understand disease processes and to identify subclinical infection-are much sought after. here, we describe the production of single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins. single-chain antibodies (scfv) were generated from sheep ...200616960114
development of elisa to detect antibodies specific to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with truncated 34 kda proteins.to develop elisa to detect antibodies specific to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis), the carboxyl termini of the 34 kda proteins of m. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (m. avium) were expressed in escherichia coli expression system. antibodies specific to m. paratuberculosis were detected with the truncated 34 kda protein of m. paratuberculosis in elisa after pre-absorption of serum samples with the truncated 34 kda protein of m. avium. all th ...200617201195
mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) herd.between 2 august and 22 september 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the grizzly island wildlife area, california, usa, for evidence of paratuberculosis. elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that discriminates among members of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac). histopathologic evaluations were c ...200617255437
role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the differential response of bovine monocytes to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.we compared the kinetics of activation and antimicrobial activities of mapk-p38 and mapk-erk in bovine monocytes infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa). monocytes were incubated with map or maa organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the mapk-p38 pathway (sb203580), and mapk phosphorylation and antimicrobial functions of monocytes were evaluated. at early time points mapk-p38 phosphorylation was greater in map-infected ...200718035573
comparative evaluation of positive tests to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinically healthy sheep and goats in south-west greece using molecular techniques, serology, and culture.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the cause of paratuberculosis, which affects mainly ruminants although there is a growing concern about its possible implication in crohn's disease in humans especially in connection with environmental spread and risks to the food chain. retail cheese may represent a significant source of human exposure to map and the aim of this study was to assess map status in clinically healthy sheep and goats in greece, comparing techniques routinely used ...200717084095
extracellular atp is cytotoxic to mononuclear phagocytes but does not induce killing of intracellular mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. atp has been reported to induce cell death of macrophages and killing of mycobacterium species in human and murine macrophages. in this study we investigated the short-term effect of atp on the viability of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine mononuclear phagocytes and the bacilli within them. addition of 5 mm atp to m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis- ...200717634511
new probes used for is1245 and is1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolates of human and animal origin in norway.mycobacterium avium is an environmental mycobacterium that can be divided into the subspecies avium, hominissuis, paratuberculosis and silvaticum. some m. avium subspecies are opportunistic pathogens for animals and humans. they are ubiquitous in nature and can be isolated from natural sources of water, soil, plants and bedding material. isolates of m. avium originating from humans (n = 37), pigs (n = 51) and wild birds (n = 10) in norway were examined by is1245 and is1311 rflp using new and spe ...200717335590
disseminated mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in a pet korean squirrel (sciuris vulgaris coreae).a disseminated mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection was diagnosed in a pet korean squirrel. grossly, multiple small nodules in the lung, liver, spleen, and skin were observed. adrenal glands were very enlarged. the only tissue exhibiting necrosis and calcification was a very enlarged bronchial lymph node. the remaining lymph nodes were slightly enlarged. moderate ascites was also observed. microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous lymphocytes was seen. acid-f ...200717197638
granulomatous lesions in lymph nodes of slaughter pigs bacteriologically negative for mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and positive for rhodococcus equi.the prevalence of granulomatous lesions in lymph nodes of pigs was studied. from january till august 2004 in two slaughterhouses in the netherlands 2,116,536 pigs were examined for the presence of granulomatous lesions in the sub-maxillary lymph nodes. in 15,900 (0.75%) of these pigs, lesions could be detected. nine farms with the highest incidence of lesions were selected for a more detailed pathological and bacteriological examination. on these farms, the prevalence of lesions in sub-maxillary ...200717126501
avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the ardeideae and threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, is901 rflp typing, and virulence for poultry.avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families ardeideae (n = 20) and threskiornithidae (n = 18). mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa, serotype 1, genotype is901+ and is1245+) was more often (p = 0.01) detected in tissue and/or faecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the ardeideae family: little egret (egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (bubulcus ibis), great white egret (egretta alba), and bittern (botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from t ...200717056210
gross and microscopic findings and investigation of the aetiopathogenesis of mycobacteriosis in a captive population of white-winged ducks (cairina scutulata).the white-winged duck (cairina scutulata) is critically endangered. breeding collections of this duck are established in the united kingdom and the usa. infection with mycobacterium avium avium serotype 1 is a major cause of mortality in the uk collection. in this study, the aetiopathogenesis of deaths occurring in the us collection was studied. all ducks (n=21) that died over a 21-month period were examined. mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 20 ducks, killing 19 of them. multifocal to diffuse gr ...200717899467
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium intracellulare in captive birds.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium intracellulare are primary causes of mycobacteriosis in captive birds throughout the world, but little is known about how they are transmitted. to define the local epidemiology of infection, we strain-typed 70 m. avium subsp. avium and 15 m. intracellulare culture isolates obtained over a 4-year period from captive birds. typing was performed using randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) pcr, amplified fragment length polymorphic (aflp) fragme ...200817689893
comparison of three dna extraction methods for mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.to compare three methods for dna extraction from mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.200818498320
genetic resistance of mice to mycobacterium paratuberculosis is influenced by slc11a1 at the early but not at the late stage of infection.we have recently described the development of a luminescent mycobacterium paratuberculosis strain of bovine origin expressing the luxab genes of vibrio harveyi. with this luminescent isolate, fastidious and costly enumeration of cfu by plating them on agar can be replaced by easy and rapid luminometry. here, we have reevaluated the effect of slc11a1 (formerly nramp1) polymorphism on susceptibility to m. paratuberculosis, using this luminometric method. a series of inbred mouse strains were infec ...200818285491
experimental infection of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) with five mycobacterium species.the aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) to infections with different mycobacterium species. for inoculations the following mycobacterium species were used: mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis, mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. tuberculosis, mycobacterium intracellulare and m. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum. the bacterial suspension was administrated intramuscularly and all the birds were monitored for 70 ...200818202951
lipopentapeptide induces a strong host humoral response and distinguishes mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from m. avium subsp. avium.many non-tuberculous mycobacteria synthesize abundant glycopeptidolipids (gpls). these surface-located gpls are involved in pathogenicity by interfering with the host immune system. in mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (mav), gpls consist of a lipopeptide core composed of a tetrapeptide o-linked to mono- and oligo-saccharides. the biosynthesis pathway of the simplest gpls is now relatively well understood and involves probably more than fifteen genes. whereas it is very obvious that most, if not ...200818068277
bovine monocyte tlr2 receptors differentially regulate the intracellular fate of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.pathogenic mycobacterial organisms have the capacity to inhibit macrophage activation and phagosome maturation. although the mechanism is complex, several studies have incriminated signaling through tlr2 receptors with subsequent activation of the mapk pathway p38 (mapkp38) and overproduction of il-10 in the survival of pathogenic mycobacterial organisms. in the present study, we compared the response of bovine monocytes with infection by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), th ...200817913973
humoral response to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in naturally infected ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria).creation of a reliable and easy to use serologic test would greatly improve ante mortem diagnosis of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and aid in the control of avian mycobacteriosis, particularly in captive birds. in order to determine whether serodiagnostics could be of value in testing ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria) for m. a. avium infection, western blot analysis was used to assess the humoral response of ring-neck doves exposed to m. a. avium, and to evaluate whether an association c ...200818639937
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium distribution studied in a naturally infected hen flock and in the environment by culture, serotyping and is901 rflp methods.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) of serotype 2 and genotype is901+ and is1245+ was cultured from 21 naturally infected hens (gallus domesticus) from one smallholder aviary. from a total of 330 samples taken from hens, 124 mycobacteria were detected. out of which maa was detected in 103 (35.7%) of 288 tissues, in 4 (19.0%) of 21 swabs of cloacae and in 9 (42.9%) of 21 faeces samples, 8 other conditionally pathogenic mycobacterial species were also isolated. tuberculous (tb) lesions were fou ...200817870256
mycobacteriosis in naturally infected ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria): investigation of the association between feather colour and susceptibility to infection, disease and lesions type.prevalence of infection and disease, the degree of organ involvement and the nature of the lesions were investigated in 11 white and 18 non-white ring-neck doves coming from a flock naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. lesions were common in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestines, ovary and bone marrow. overall, 18 out of 29 (62%) birds were considered infected with a sequevar of m. avium subsp. avium that contains serotypes 2, 3, 4 and 9. the prevalence of infection in ...200818622863
comparison of three immunological diagnostic tests for the detection of avian tuberculosis in naturally infected red deer (cervus elaphus).cases of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in 52 adult red deer (cervus elaphus) from a farm were studied using different diagnostic techniques. immunological probes consisted of the comparative cervical tuberculin (cct) skin test, the interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) assay, and 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) employing either avian purified protein derivatives or protoplasmatic antigen (ppa-3) as antigens. three of the animals were euthanized due to severe weakness, ...200919139508
mycobacterium avium-avium-associated typhlitis mimicking appendicitis in an immunocompetent host.mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (mac) primarily causes respiratory infection in patients with underlying lung disease or disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. we report a unique case of mac disease in the terminal ileum of a healthy patient, mimicking appendicitis. this case emphasizes the need to further explore mac pathogenesis in immunocompetent hosts.200919204556
infection with mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in a 10 year old freiberger mare.in this case report a 10 year old freiberger mare with a mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection is presented. this infection leads to a tuberculosis like disease with granulomatous alterations particularly of the intestines and lungs and is only sporadically reported in horses of central europe. diarrhoea, mastitis and neck stiffness as well as dyspnoea and chronic cough are more specific symptoms of the infection, while weight loss, weakness and lethargy are nonspecific signs. as these clin ...200919722133
what is your diagnosis? mycobacterium avium subsp avium. 200919999768
virulence-related mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis mav_2928 gene is associated with vacuole remodeling in macrophages.mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (previously mycobacterium avium subsp avium) is an environmental organism associated with opportunistic infections in humans. mycobacterium hominissuis infects and replicates within mononuclear phagocytes. previous study characterized an attenuated mutant in which the ppe gene (mav_2928) homologous to rv1787 was inactivated. this mutant, in contrast to the wild-type bacterium, was shown both to have impaired the ability to replicate within macrophages and to ...201020359357
[avian mycobacteriosis in humans remains a threat in the czech republic].the members of mycobacterium avium complex belong to the most common agents causing mycobacterioses in humans. they are classified as a potentially patogenic mycobacteria, although mycobacterium avium subsp. avium represent veterinary and economic risks in birds (mainly poultry) as well as mammals (pigs etc.). infected animals and their products (mainly eggs) often come from small household production and pose a risk for human health. the second member of this complex, mycobacterium avium subsp. ...201020401832
miru-vntr typing of mycobacterium avium in animals and humans: heterogeneity of mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis versus homogeneity of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains.epidemiological studies on mycobacterium avium are requisite for revealing infection sources and disease transmission. they are based upon genotyping methods like rflp and miru-vntr. in our study, miru-vntr typing was applied to 121 previously rflp typed m. avium field isolates to compare the discriminatory power of both methods. the applicability of miru-vntr typing was studied for isolates from a limited geographic area, namely 41 m. avium subsp. avium and 80 m. avium subsp. hominissuis isolat ...201021047662
comparison of sampling methods, culture, acid-fast stain, and polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria).even when different diagnostic modalities are available, mycobacteriosis is difficult to diagnose in a live bird. to investigate the diagnostic value of sampling different tissues and using different diagnostic methods, we evaluated results of mycobacterial culture, ziehl-neelsen (zn) staining, and single-amplification polymerase chain reaction assay (pcr) of 18 ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria) with confirmed natural infection with mycobacterium avium avium. results of testing liver biopsy ...201021302756
disseminated mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in a cat, the netherlands. 201020541336
experimental infection of eurasian wild boar with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.the eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) is increasingly relevant as a host for several pathogenic mycobacteria. we aimed to characterize the first experimental mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) infection in wild boar in order to describe the lesions and the immune response as compared to uninfected controls. twelve 1-4-month-old wild boar piglets were housed in class iii bio-containment facilities. four concentrations of maa suspension were used: 10, 10(2) and 10(4) mycobacteria (2 animals each ...201020116184
distribution of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and m. a. hominissuis in artificially infected pigs studied by culture and is901 and is1245 quantitative real time pcr.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) and m. a. hominissuis (mah) belong to the mycobacterium avium complex (mac) and are frequently associated with diseases in animals and humans. the aim of this study was to develop a system for rapid and accurate real time quantitative pcr (qpcr) identification and quantification of maa and mah. this study included 22 per os infected pigs, of which 10 were infected with maa, 10 with mah and 2 were present as a negative control group. from each animal, 21 dif ...201020227841
outbreak of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in one flock of domestic pigeons.an outbreak of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection was diagnosed in one breed of domestic pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) in the czech republic. nodular granulomatous lesions were found in 42 (9.7%) pigeons of the 435 examined; histopathologic examination of livers with gross lesions of mycobacteriosis from 15 randomly selected pigeons revealed granulomatous inflammation typical for avian mycobacteriosis in all samples. direct ziehl-neelsen (zn) microscopy and conventional culture we ...201122017056
real-time quantitative pcr detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies in meat products.the aim of this work was to examine various purchased meat products and to find out if any traces of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, m. avium subsp. hominissuis, and m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis could be detected in these samples. analysis of the meat products (raw, cooked, and fermented) was performed using a real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) method for the detection of specific insertion sequences: duplex qpcr for the detection of is900 specific for m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and ...201121477480
cell-mediated immune response in swine infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.the zoonotic characteristic of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) represents a veterinary and economic problem in infected pigs. in this study, we analysed cell-mediated immunity six months after experimental infection by measuring interferon-γ (ifn-γ) production and by performing lymphocyte transformation tests after in vitro re-stimulation with the maa-derived antigen. at the same time, ifn-γ-producing cells were characterised by flow cytometry. in maa-infected animals, the production of i ...201121592586
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium var. copenhagen phage type dt2 in pigeons.abstract we report on a coinfection of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium var. copenhagen phage type dt2 in pigeons from one flock, from which squabs were occasionally consumed by humans. triplex quantitative real-time pcr and culture methods were used for m. a. avium detection in livers and culture method was used for the detection of salmonella sp. in samples of liver and caecum of 33 examined birds. m. a. avium was detected in a total of 31 (93.9%) a ...201121612426
disseminated infection due to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in an asian elephant (elephas maximus).a disseminated infection caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (maa) was diagnosed in a 57-yr-old male asian elephant (elephas maximus) housed at the seoul zoo, gyeonggi, republic of korea. an apparent granulomatous inflammation with central caseous necrosis was evident in the lung sections. to confirm mycobacterial infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme polymorphism analysis (pcr-rflp) of the rpob and hsp65 genes was performed from multiple organs and cultured bacteria ...201122204075
effect of lipoarabinomannan from mycobacterium avium subsp avium in freund's incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle.the aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (lam), in combination with freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (ova) in cattle. twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either ova plus fia, ova plus fia and lam from mycobacterium avium subsp avium, fia plus lam, or fia alone. lymphoproliferation, ifn-γ production and cell s ...201222286534
different immune response of pigs to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (mah) are the most common mycobacterial species isolated from granulomatous lesions in swine in countries with controlled bovine tuberculosis. this study is focused on the immunological aspect of maa and mah infection in pigs. we detected induction of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in experimentally infected pigs. specific antibodies were analyzed in serum by elisa and the ifn-γ release assay was used for evalu ...201222520833
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and subsp. hominissuis give different cytokine responses after in vitro stimulation of human blood mononuclear cells.mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. it is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. genetic typing of m. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include m. avium subsp. hominissuis. isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies.201222506018
usability of a gamma interferon release assay in the diagnosis of naturally infected pigs with mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis.in the current study, the results of an intradermal tuberculin test and a gamma interferon (ifn-γ) release assay were compared. ifn-γ release assay is based on the detection of ifn-γ production after in vitro stimulation with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium-specific antigen for the discrimination of pigs naturally infected with m. avium subsp. hominissuis. fifty-five clinically healthy pigs were used in the study. three of these were proven by culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain ...201222362535
a comparative study of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in experimentally infected pigs.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) and mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (mah) are opportunistic pathogens that may infect several species, including humans and pigs. mah is however more frequently isolated from pigs than maa, and it is unclear if this is due to difference in virulence or in exposure to the two organisms. clinical isolates of each subspecies were administered perorally to ten domestic pigs, respectively. the animals were sacrificed at six and 12 weeks after inoculation. ...201222284630
production and proteomic characterisation of purified protein derivative from mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.effective diagnosis of johne's disease (jd), particularly at the stage of early subclinical infection, remains one of the greatest challenges for the control of jd worldwide. the ifn-γ test of cell mediated immunity is currently one of the most suitable diagnostics for subclinical infections, however a major limitation of this test is the lack of a standardised purified protein derivative (ppd) antigen (also referred to as johnin ppd or ppdj). while attempting to replace ppdj with more specific ...201222443541
pathology of mycobacteriosis in birds. 201222244112
comparison of chlorine dioxide and dichloroisocyanurate disinfectants for use in the dental setting.the aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of a slow release noncorrosive chlorine dioxide with those of sodium dichloroisocyanurate to establish their possible use in the dental settings.201223951794
serum protein profiles in domestic pigeons naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.avian tuberculosis is an important disease affecting all species of birds and is most often caused by mycobacterium avium or mycobacterium genavense. blood proteins are important diagnostic constituents in gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and infectious diseases.201323577895
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium found in raptors exposed to infected domestic fowl.we report a case of a falcon breeding facility, where raptors (both diurnal and nocturnal) were raised in contact with domestic fowl (gallus gallus f. domesticus) infected by mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. fecal and environmental samples from 20 raptors and four common ravens (corvus corax) were collected. mycobacterium a. avium dna was detected in feces of four raptors (bald eagle [haliaeetus leucocephalus], eagle owl [bubo bubo], barn owl [tyto alba], and little owl [athene noctua]) using t ...201324283140
comparison of four different culture media for growth of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons.diagnosis of avian tuberculosis by conventional culture method is still considered as the "gold standard" technique. the main objective of this study was to compare growth of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium on four specific mycobacterial cultures such as glycerinated lowenstein-jensen medium, pyruvate-enriched lowenstein-jensen medium, mycobactin j-supplemented herrold-egg yolk medium and plain herrold-egg yolk medium.201325848508
disseminated avian mycobacteriosis in a free-living grey heron (ardea cinerea).wild birds share with humans the capacity for moving fast over large distances. during migratory movements, birds carry pathogens that can be transmitted between species. one of these concerning pathogens is mycobacterium spp. a necropsy was performed in a grey heron (ardea cinerea) that had been medically treated for a polyarthritic process. grossly, firm white-yellowish nodules of various size, resembling granulomas, were observed in right carpal joint, both patellar joints, neck musculature, ...201324283143
mannosylated lipoarabinomannans from mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis alters the inflammatory response by bovine macrophages and suppresses killing of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium organisms.analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (man-lam) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. we evaluated the effects of man-lam derived from mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) on bovine macrophages. man-lam induced a rapid an ...201324098744
novel feature of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, highlighted by characterization of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (c) and sheep (s) groups. recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups c and s, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. in this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (hbha) for both groups. in mycobacterium tuberculo ...201323974028
infection due to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in a free-ranging common seal (phoca vitulina) in scotland.we describe the first reported case of mycobacterial infection in a free-ranging pinniped in the northern hemisphere. acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated histologically in the liver of an adult female common seal (phoca vitulina), and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was cultured from the liver.201323778632
coexistence of granulomatous enteric inflammation and neoplasia in an adult sheep.a 7-year-old dairy sheep suffering from chronic loss of weight without diarrhea or anorexia was euthanized after failing to respond to any treatment (antibiotic and antiparasitic). the main findings at the necropsy of this animal were multifocal miliary nodules in several organs, mainly in the peyer's patches of the small intestine, and a segmental thickening of the jejunal wall. histologic examination of the samples taken at the necropsy showed a multifocal chronic granulomatous inflammation, w ...201323456963
genetic is901 rflp diversity among mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks.is901 rflp analysis of 36 mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) isolates from 15 pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. using this method, six different is901 rflp types (e, f, g, m, q, and v) were identified. the distribution of is901 rflp profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. matching is901 rflp profiles observed in the present study indicate maa transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. ...201323388436
analysis of sediments and plants from the system of five fishponds in the czech republic using culture and pcr methods.nontuberculous mycobacteria (ntm) are ubiquitous organisms that have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources. several ntm species are responsible for diseases in humans and/or animals known as mycobacterioses. the aim of this study was to determine the levels of ntm in the sediments and plants of five fish ponds in the czech republic using culture and quantitative real time pcr (qpcr). additionally, we investigated if there was any link between environmental samples from the fish p ...201424342091
evaluation of multidrug therapy with azithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol for the treatment of mycobacterium avium subsp avium in ring-neck doves (streptopelia risoria): an uncontrolled clinical study.an uncontrolled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a multidrug protocol in 16 ring-neck doves ( streptopelia risoria ) from a flock naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp avium. the doves were considered infected on the basis of a high prevalence of infection in a group of 29 birds that were euthanatized from the same flock and clinical signs and pathologic results consistent with infection in the remaining birds. all birds were treated with azithromycin (43 mg/k ...201425843465
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in four veal calves: differentiation from intestinal tuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (mac). reservoirs of mac are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. in adult bovine, mac infections are typically caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of th ...201424689051
intracellular growth of mycobacterium avium subspecies and global transcriptional responses in human macrophages after infection.mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa) and m. avium subsp. hominissuis (mah) are environmental mycobacteria and significant opportunistic pathogens. mycobacterium avium infections in humans and pigs are mainly due to mah. it is not known whether this is caused by a difference in virulence or difference in exposure to the two subspecies. the aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the m. avium subspecies to replicate intracellularly and to characterise the gene expression progr ...201424450835
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in lymph nodes and diaphragms of pigs from one infected herd in the czech republic.this study was performed on 40 finished pigs from one herd naturally infected with mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. the aim was to investigate the presence and amount of m. a. avium in samples of lymph nodes and diaphragm tissues collected during routine postmortem inspection using the triplex quantitative real time pcr (qpcr) method. we collected, in total, 107 samples: various lymph nodes affected by gross tuberculosis (tb)-like lesions from 17 pig carcasses, as well as samples of head and me ...201424406012
mycobacteriosis outbreak caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. avium detected through meat inspection in five porcine fattening farms. 201424336794
characterization of a mycobacterium avium subsp. avium operon associated with virulence and drug detoxification.the lprg-p55 operon of mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. p55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while lprg is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. the knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. in order to gain insight into the function of ...201424967408
mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and mycobacterium neoaurum detection in an immunocompromised patient.non-tuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly described as infectious agents in immunocompromised patients. a 17-year-old male patient suffering from secondary non-hodgkin's lymphoma and treated with chemotherapeutic agents was admitted to hospital due to pleuropneumonia. mycobacterium neoaurum was cultured repeatedly from his sputum and, mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (m. a. avium) was detected by is901 qpcr from detached fragments of his intestinal mucosa. we attempted to determine the possi ...201423842543
genetic characterization of german mycobacterium avium strains isolated from different hosts and specimens by multilocus sequence typing.infections caused by mycobacterium avium and its subspecies are reported as emerging disease in many countries worldwide. in our study we applied the multilocus sequence typing technology to 98 german m. avium strains originating from different hosts and specimens to examine the degree of the genetic diversity. by mlst, 80% of strains were identified as subspecies 'm. avium hominissuis', and 20% as subspecies m. avium avium/m. avium silvaticum. distinctly different mlst profiles were identified ...201425091874
experimental inoculation of bfdv-positive budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) with two mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.beak and feather disease virus- (bfdv-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (pavo cristatus). during a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for bfdv and mycobacterium avium testing with pcr. birds were euthanized ...201424738057
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