polychlorinated-naphthalenes, -biphenyls, -dibenzo-p-dioxins, -dibenzofurans and p,p'-dde in bluefin tuna, swordfish, cormorants and barn swallows from italy.concentrations of p,p'-dde, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (pcbs), polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), -dibenzofurans (pcdfs) and -naphthalenes (pcns) were measured in bluefin tuna, swordfish, common cormorants, and barn swallows collected from italy. average concentrations of pcbs in livers of tuna, swordfish, cormorant, and swallows were 930, 745, 1420 and 1230 ng pcbs g-1, w.w. respectively. p,p'-dde was found in tuna, swordfish, cormorant, and swallow livers at mean concentrations ...200212164129
offspring sexual dimorphism and sex-allocation in relation to parental age and paternal ornamentation in the barn swallow.we analysed the morphology of nestling barn swallows (hirundo rustica) in relation to their sex, and laying and hatching order. in addition, we studied sex-allocation in relation to parentage, parental age and expression of a secondary sexual character of fathers. molecular sexing was conducted using the sex chromosome-linked avian chd1 gene. sex of the offspring was not associated with laying or hatching order. none of nine morphological, serological and immunological variables varied in relati ...200212144672
how do birds' tails work? delta-wing theory fails to predict tail shape during flight.birds appear to use their tails during flight, but until recently the aerodynamic role that tails fulfil was largely unknown. in recent years delta-wing theory, devised to predict the aerodynamics of high-performance aircraft, has been applied to the tails of birds and has been successful in providing a model for the aerodynamics of a bird's tail. this theory now provides the conventional explanation for how birds' tails work. a delta-wing theory (slender-wing theory) has been used, as part of a ...200212028763
heterogeneity in the rate and pattern of germline mutation at individual microsatellite loci.there is a lack of information on how individual microsatellite loci differ with respect to their mutation properties. such variation will have an important bearing on our understanding of the ubiquitous occurrence of simple repeat sequences in eukaryotic genomes and on deriving proper mutation models that can be incorporated into genetic distance estimates. we genotyped approximately 100 families of the bird barn swallow (hirundo rustica) for two hypervariable (heterozygosity >95%) microsatelli ...200211972338
state-dependent behaviour in breeding barn swallows (hirundo rustica): consequences for reproductive theory offers an explanation for the intraspecific variation in reproductive effort; increased levels of current reproductive success, for example, may trade off against residual reproductive value. even where such trade-offs have been demonstrated, however, much variation in effort remains unexplained and the underlying causes are usually obscure. we examined body state, i.e. energy reserves, as a factor, which could moderate reproductive effort. specifically, overnight heating and ...200211886629
the effects of temperature, altitude and latitude on the arrival and departure dates of the swallow hirundo rustica in the slovak republic.the (barn) swallow hirundo rustica is a traditional harbinger of spring in many countries of the northern hemisphere. this paper uses information on the arrival and departure dates of the swallow in the slovak republic for the 30 years 1961-1985 and 1996-2000. records were taken at 19 locations throughout the republic representing an altitude range from 105 m to 760 m. monthly temperature data were constructed from six meteorological stations. with the use of regression techniques, trends toward ...200111769323
enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota.the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the united states by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. nonracemic enantiomeric fractions (efs) were observed for pcbs 91, 95, 136, and 149 for aquatic and riparian biota from lake hartwell, sc, a reservoir heavily contaminated with pcbs, and for these congeners and pcbs 132, 174 ...200111432547
heritability of arrival date in a migratory bird.the behaviour of long-distance migratory birds is assumed to partly be under the influence of genes, as demonstrated by selection experiments. furthermore, competition for early arrival among males may lead to condition-dependent migration associated with fitness benefits of early arrival achieved by individuals in prime condition. here i present field data on the repeatability and the heritability of arrival date in a trans-equatorial migratory bird, the barn swallow hirundo rustica, and i test ...200111209892
survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. natural levels of infestation of barn swallow hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest own ...200028308772
horizontal flight of a swallow (hirundo rustica) observed in a wind tunnel, with a new method for directly measuring mechanical power.a swallow flying in the lund wind tunnel was observed from the side and from behind, by two synchronised high-speed video cameras. the side-view camera provided a record of the vertical position of a white mark, applied to the feathers behind and below the eye, from which the vertical acceleration was obtained. the rear-view camera provided measurements of the mean angle of the left and right humeri above horizontal. from these data, the force acting on the body, the moment applied by each pecto ...200010804165
carotenoid plasma concentration, immune profile, and plumage ornamentation of male barn swallows (hirundo rustica).carotenoids exert immunomodulating, immunostimulating, and antioxidant actions in mammals and are major determinants of coloration in animals. honest advertisement models of sexual selection propose that male ornaments, including coloration, are reliable indicators of male quality. because of their simultaneous effects on male coloration and immunity, carotenoids might mediate the hypothesized relationship between the expression of epigamic coloration and parasitism in vertebrates. we analyzed t ...199910523490
nest building is a sexually selected behaviour in the barn swallow.females may use male nest building to assess male parental quality, and nest size would then be a sexually selected trait. in the barn swallow, hirundo rustica, females select their partner by his tail length, a character believed to signal good genes. both sexes participate in nest building, although male participation is negatively related to his attractiveness as reflected by tail length. we tested the hypothesis that nest building is a sexually selected trait: females paired with males of hi ...19989933540
differences in begging behaviour between barn swallow, hirundo rustica, nestlings.recent models of parent-offspring communication suggest that nestling begging reliably reflects food requirements, and therefore should increase with nestling need. need may be affected by short-term variations in hunger, as well as by long-term factors such as relative size, growth rate and body condition. in the present study, the brood sizes of barn swallows were manipulated to create differences in nestling growth rate and body condition. the extent to which begging behaviour reflects these ...19989632469
an experimental study of paternity and tail ornamentation in the barn swallow (hirundo rustica).previous studies of the socially monogamous barn swallow (hirundo rustica) have shown that males that most frequently engage in extrapair copulations and whose partners are least involved in copulations with extrapair males are those with long tail ornaments. in this study, through the use of three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we analyze the relationships between length of tail ornaments of male barn swallows and proportion of nestlings fathered in own broods, number of offspring f ...199728565341
experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows (hirundo rustica).ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. however, the size of tail ornaments exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail length. an increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen uptake, for example during periods of intense locomotory activity. in this study, we analyzed the effect of ...199728307423
energetic cost of tail streamers in the barn swallow (hirundo rustica).different hypotheses stress the importance of natural or sexual selection to explain the evolution and maintenance of long outermost tail feathers in the barn swallow (hirundo rustica). since energy costs are predicted to arise from tail length manipulation, we measured the daily energy expenditure in three experimental groups (tail-shortened, tail-elongated, and control birds) with the doubly labelled water technique. though we did not directly measure flight cost, we assumed this to be positiv ...199628307836
sexual selection, viability selection, and developmental stability in the domestic fly musca domestica.associations between developmental stability, sexual selection, and viability selection were studied in the domestic fly musca domestica (diptera, muscidae). developmental stability of the wings and tibia of flies of both sexes, measured in terms of their level of fluctuating asymmetry, was positively associated with mating success in free ranging populations and in sexual selection experiments. mated individuals may have obtained indirect fitness benefits from sexual selection of two different ...199628568932
the differential-allocation hypothesis: does the evidence support it? 199528568542
resolving genetic relationships with microsatellite markers: a parentage testing system for the swallow hirundo rustica.eight polymorphic microsatellite markers from the swallow were isolated and characterized. extraordinary variability was revealed at the hru6 locus with 45 different alleles scored among 46 unrelated individuals. the probability that the same genotype combination would occur in two random and unrelated individuals at six selected loci was as low as 1.3 x 10(-8) and the combined exclusion probability was 0.9996. stable mendelian inheritance was observed in about 1000 meioses. no significant linka ...19958574445
differential costs of a secondary sexual character: an experimental test of the handicap principle.the evolution of reliable signaling can be explained by the handicap principle, which assumes that (1) the cost of a signal guarantees its reliability, and (2) cheating is prevented because the cost of a unit of display is greater for low-quality than for high-quality individuals. a test of these two assumptions was performed using manipulations of the length of the outermost tail feathers of male barn swallows hirundo rustica, a trait currently subject to a directional female mate preference. w ...199428568403
male ornament size as a reliable cue to enhanced offspring viability in the barn swallow.many extravagant secondary sexual characters are assumed to have evolved as a result of female choice, either because they attract females or because they reliably reflect the quality of males. females mating with the most ornamented individuals with a superior genotype are expected to benefit by producing more viable offspring. a viability advantage associated with mate choice can be demonstrated only if (i) parent ornament size reliably reflects parent viability and (ii) offspring viability is ...19948041723
sexual selection in the barn swallow (hirundo rustica). iv. patterns of fluctuating asymmetry and selection against asymmetry.the patterns of variation in fluctuating asymmetry were studied in four morphological characters of the barn swallow hirundo rustica. the level of absolute and relative asymmetry was larger in the secondary sexual character "outer tail length" than in three nonsexual morphological traits (wing, central tail, and tarsus length). the extent of individual asymmetry in outer tail length was negatively correlated with tail-ornament size, whereas the relationship between asymmetry of all other morphol ...199428568275
reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east texas, usa.reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between barn swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated martin lake, texas, usa, and swallows nesting at a reference site. nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at martin lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. nest success was significantly higher at martin lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. selenium concentration ...199415091724
female reproductive effort depends on the degree of ornamentation of their mates.sexual selection theory assumes that secondary sexual characters do not influence female reproductive effort. female animals may invest relatively more in reproduction if they acquire mates of high phenotypic quality, because offspring sired by preferred males may be relatively more viable than offspring sired by less preferred males. here we report for the first time in a field study that females of the monogamous barn swallow hirundo rustica adjust their reproductive effort to the attractivene ...199328564285
sexual selection in the barn swallow hirundo rustica. iii. female tail ornaments.male secondary sexual characters are often expressed in females, and the maintenance of the character in females can be due to either direct selection on females favoring the maintenance of the trait, or a correlated response to selection in males. here i report on determinants of and phenotypic selection on tail length of female barn swallows hirundo rustica. the homologous trait in males is under strong directional sexual selection. female tail length was positively associated with several rep ...199328568711
female swallow preference for symmetrical male sexual ornaments.many secondary sexual characters are supposed to have evolved as a response to female choice of the most extravagantly ornamented males, a hypothesis supported by studies demonstrating female preferences for the most ornamented males. comparative studies of elaborate feather ornaments in birds have shown that (1) ornaments have larger degrees of fluctuating asymmetry (small, random deviations from bilateral symmetry caused by an inability of individuals to cope with environmental and genetic str ...19921589021
sexual selection in the monogamous barn swallow (hirundo rustica). i. determinants of tail ornament size.the proportion of phenotypic variance in the length of the sexually selected tail of the monogamous barn swallow hirundo rustica that is attributable to genetic variance was studied in the field in denmark during a seven-year period. tail length was on average 20% greater in males than in females. tail length correlated with wing length, but not with other morphological traits. tail length increased with the first molt, but remained constant during subsequent years. changes in tail length betwee ...199128563968
effects of a haematophagous mite on the barn swallow (hirundo rustica): a test of the hamilton and zuk hypothesis.i tested three assumptions of the hamilton and zuk hypothesis (1982), which suggests that the extravagant male plumage of many bird species allows females to choose mates that are resistant to the parasites exploiting the host population at a given time. by choosing such males as mates, females will rear offspring carrying the genes for resistance. i tested three necessary conditions for the hamilton and zuk model: (1) whether parasites affect the fitness of their hosts; (2) whether there is her ...199028569014
radionuclide uptake and growth of barn swallows nesting by radioactive leaching ponds.populations of barn swallows (hirundo rustica) nested seasonally near the test reactor area (tra) radioactive leaching ponds on the idaho national engineering laboratory (inel). these birds utilized leaching pond arthropods as a food source and contaminated mud for nest construction and thus accumulated radioactive materials. over 20 fission and activation products were detected in immature and adult tra birds. the radionuclide exhibiting the highest mean concentration in adult birds was 51cr, w ...19902323925
acoustic adaptations for parent-offspring recognition in swallows.we have used field and laboratory studies to investigate acoustic adaptations for parent-offspring recognition in two closely related pairs of swallows: (a) bank swallow (riparia riparia) and northern rough-winged swallow (stelgidopteryx serripennis), and (b) cliff swallow (hirundo pyrrhonota) and barn swallow (hirundo rustica). cross-fostering and playback experiments show that bank swallow and cliff swallow parents recognize their offspring by voice while rough-winged swallow and barn swallow ...19863525221
morphogenesis and comparative morphology of the nasal apparatus in the swallow (hirundo rustica l.) (morphogenesis of the nasal capsule, the epithelial nasal tube and the organ of jacobson in sauropsida xv). 19854029829
energetics of free existence in swallows and martins (hirundinidae) during breeding: a comparative study using doubly labeled metabolism of three sympatric swallows (hirundinidae) was investigated during the breeding season using doubly labeled water ((2)h2(18)o). interspecific and intraspecific differences in energy metabolism were examined in relation to the habits, size and environment of the birds. to facilitate comparisons we expressed energy metabolism (m) as the ratio of average daily metabolic rate (admr, cm(3)co2g(-1)h(-1)) to basal metabolic rate (bmr). we observed adults during incubation and when fee ...198428310891
time and energy constraints on the brood size of swallows, hirundo rustica, and sand martins, riparia riparia.the daily energy requirements of swallow hirundo rustica and sand martin riparia riparia adults with broods of different sizes were compared with the energy (food) gain rates of adults. energy requirements of broods were obtained from food delivery rates, growth rates and from published data. the energy requirements of adults were obtained from d2o(18) measurements and from time budgets. energy gain rates were measured from food delivery rates to collared nestlings. these energy gain rates were ...198328310254
homing experiments on birds. part xv. the influence of radio waves on the homing of swallows (hirundo rustica l.). 19807428978
homing experiments on birds. part xii. influence of training and change in transport direction on homeward orientation of swallows hirundo rustica l. 1979535636
homing experiments on birds. part xiv. the influence of the route of transportation on the speed of return in the swallow (hirundo rustica l.). 1979499608
homing experiments on birds. part xiii. the influence of terrestrial magnetism on homing ability in the swallow, hirundo rustica l. 1978738464
demographic inference in barn swallows using whole-genome data shows signal for bottleneck and subspecies differentiation during the holocene.accounting for historical demographic features is vital for many types of evolutionary inferences, including the estimation of divergence times between closely related populations. in barn swallow, hirundo rustica, inferring historical population sizes and subspecies divergence times can shed light on the recent co-evolution of this species with humans. pairwise sequentially markovian coalescent uncovered population growth beginning on the order of one million years ago-which may reflect the rad ...201830176075
monitoring of heavy metal burden in wild birds at eastern/north-eastern part of hungary.concentrations of different heavy metals (as, cd, cr, cu, hg, pb, zn) were examined in the contour feathers of long-eared owl (asio otus), little owl (athene noctua), tawny owl (strix aluco), barn owl (tyto alba), eurasian sparrowhawk (accipiter nisus), rook (corvus frugilegus), hooded crow (corvus cornix), carrion crow (corvus corone), common buzzard (buteo buteo) and barn swallow (hirundo rustica). the samples were collected from the hortobágyi madárpark (bird hospital foundation) in hungary. ...201829249025
migration, pathogens and the avian microbiome: a comparative study in sympatric migrants and residents.animals generally benefit from their gastrointestinal microbiome, but the factors that influence the composition and dynamics of their microbiota remain poorly understood. studies of nonmodel host species can illuminate how microbiota and their hosts interact in natural environments. we investigated the role of migratory behaviour in shaping the gut microbiota of free-ranging barn swallows (hirundo rustica) by studying co-occurring migrant and resident subspecies sampled during the autumn migrat ...202033001530
heterochiasmy and sexual dimorphism: the case of the barn swallow (hirundo rustica, hirundinidae, aves).heterochiasmy, a sex-based difference in recombination rate, has been detected in many species of animals and plants. several hypotheses about evolutionary causes of heterochiasmy were proposed. however, there is a shortage of empirical data. in this paper, we compared recombination related traits in females and males of the barn swallow hirundo rustica (linnaeus, 1758), the species under strong sexual selection, with those in the pale martin riparia diluta (sharpe and wyatt, 1893), a related an ...202032987748
mercury exposure to swallows breeding in canada inferred from feathers grown on breeding and non-breeding grounds.aerial insectivorous birds such as swallows have been the steepest declining groups of birds in north america over the last 50 years but whether such declines are linked to contaminants has not been examined. we sampled feathers from five species of swallow at multiple locations to assess total mercury [thg] exposure for adults during the non-breeding season, and for juveniles on the breeding grounds. we assessed hg exposure to juvenile birds in crop- and grass-dominated landscapes to determine ...202032656653
divergent sexual signals reflect costs of local parasites.many closely related populations are distinguished by variation in sexual signals and this variation is hypothesized to play an important role in reproductive isolation and speciation. within populations, there is considerable evidence that sexual signals provide information about the incidence and severity of parasite infections, but it remains unclear if variation in parasite communities across space could play a role in initiating or maintaining sexual trait divergence. to test for variation ...202032385910
molecular characterization of swallow haemoproteids, with description of one new haemoproteus species.haemoproteus species (haemosporida, haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan bird blood parasites, which often cause relatively benign infections in adapted avian hosts, but severe and even lethal haemoproteosis might develop due to internal organ damage if these pathogens inhabit non-adapted (wrong) hosts. haemoproteids of swallows (hirundinidae) remain fragmentarily investigated, with only two haemoproteid species reported in this bird family, which members are cosmopolitan, diverse and inhabit variou ...202032330450
integrating stable isotopes, parasite, and ring-reencounter data to quantify migratory connectivity-a case study with barn swallows breeding in switzerland, germany, sweden, and finland.ecosystems around the world are connected by seasonal migration. the migrant animals themselves are influenced by migratory connectivity through effects on the individual and the population level. measuring migratory connectivity is notoriously difficult due to the simple requirement of data conveying information about the nonbreeding distribution of many individuals from several breeding populations. explicit integration of data derived from different methods increases the precision and the rel ...202032128151
lack of fine-tuned egg rejection adjustment in barn swallows with variable local abundance of common cuckoos.tracking variation in hosts' responses to parasitism across space in a metapopulation is critical to assess the current status of parasitism/anti-parasitism in a host-parasite system, which is also helpful to infer its coevolutionary history. the barn swallow hirundo rustica is a tractable bird species to understand potential fine-tuned adaptations to avian brood parasitism across small geographic scales, both in the context of variation in its foreign-egg rejection pattern, and its widespread d ...202032088295
barn swallow nest predation by a recent urban invader, the taiwan whistling thrush - implications for the evolution of urban avian communities.urban areas become a new habitat for an increasing number of species as they gradually adapt to the expanding, human-associated environment. the barn swallow (hirundo rustica) has constructed nests on human buildings that provide good protection against bad weather and predators over centuries. in contrast, the taiwan whistling thrush (myophonus insularis) is one of new urban-invading species. the interactions between old and new urban avian species can determine the structure of this growing av ...201931966302
effects of agricultural intensification on nestling condition and number of young fledged of barn swallows (hirundo rustica).farmland bird populations have declined with increasing agricultural intensification possibly due to putative reductions in prey insects and effects of pesticide exposure. presence of agriculture may be especially relevant for aerial insectivorous songbirds whose primary diet is flying insects. here, we investigated the effects of agricultural land use on nestling body condition, an important determinant of post-fledging survival, for barn swallows (hirundo rustica), an aerial insectivore breedi ...202031887506
migratory divides coincide with reproductive barriers across replicated avian hybrid zones above the tibetan plateau.migratory divides are proposed to be catalysts for speciation across a diversity of taxa. however, it is difficult to test the relative contributions of migratory behaviour vs. other divergent traits to reproductive isolation. comparing hybrid zones with and without migratory divides offers a rare opportunity to directly examine the contribution of divergent migratory behaviour to reproductive barriers. we show that across replicate sampling transects of two pairs of barn swallow (hirundo rustic ...202031746098
selection on multiple sexual signals in two central and eastern european populations of the barn swallow.variation in intensity and targets of sexual selection on multiple traits has been suggested to play a major role in promoting phenotypic differentiation between populations, although the divergence in selection may depend on year, local conditions or age. in this study, we quantified sexual selection for two putative sexual signals across two central and east european barn swallow (hirundo rustica rustica) populations from czech republic and romania over multiple years. we then related these di ...201931641472
a new eimerian (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the barn swallow, hirundo rustica (aves: passeriformes: hirundinidae), in southeastern oklahoma: the fourth eimerian species from new world passeriformes.barn swallows (hirundo rustica) are the most widespread swallow species in the world. however, little is known about the coccidian parasites of h. rustica. feces from a single h. rustica nesting in mccurtain county, oklahoma, were collected in may 2018 and examined for coccidia; the swallow was found to be passing a new species of eimeria. oocysts of eimeria hochatownensis n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth bi-layered wall, measure (l × w) 25.5 × 15.2 μm, and have a length/width (l/w) ratio of ...201931580788
feather steroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, and molting time in a long-distance migratory birds, concentrations of testosterone (t) and corticosterone (cort) are closely connected with many morphological, behavioral, and other physiological traits, including reproduction, metabolism, immunity, and fitness. the direction of the effect of these hormones on above-mentioned traits, and the potential feedback between hormones are in general unclear; in addition, knowledge on how age and sex can affect t and cort concentrations is still inconsistent. our study used a novel method to ana ...201931463000
age-dependent carry-over effects in a long-distance migratory bird.migratory birds usually respond to climate change by modifying breeding and/or wintering areas, as well as by reproducing earlier. in addition, changes in winter habitat use or breeding phenology could have important carry-over effects on subsequent breeding success. here, we studied age- and sex-dependent carry-over effects from wintering to the breeding stage of a small aerial insectivorous long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallows (hirundo rustica) breeding in denmark during 1984-2013. ...201931427594
first detection and genomic insight into mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene in escherichia coli st101 isolated from the migratory bird species hirundo rustica in thailand.background: this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene in escherichia coli isolated from migratory birds in thailand. materials and methods: a total of 178 cloacal swabs from migratory birds was sampled and isolated from 2016 to 2017 in nan, trang, and bangkok, thailand. the multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to screen the resistance genes. after screening, a disk diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration we ...201931334682
isolation of highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza viruses in 2009-2013 in vietnam.routine surveillance and surveillance in response to influenza outbreaks in avian species in vietnam in 2009-2013 resulted in the isolation of numerous h5n1 influenza viruses of clades 1.1.2,,,, and consistent with other studies, we found that viruses of clade were dominant in vietnam in 2013 and circulated in the northern, central, and southern parts of the country. phylogenetic analysis revealed reassortment among viruses of clades, ...201931293548
parallel declines in abundance of insects and insectivorous birds in denmark over 22 in most western countries have increased use of fertilizer and pesticides with impact on wild animals and plants, including the abundance of insects and their predators.i used 1,375 surveys of insects killed on car windscreens as a measure of insect abundance during 1997-2017 at two transects in denmark. i cross-validated this method against three other methods for sampling insect abundance, and i investigated the effects of this measure of insect abundance on the abundance of breeding i ...201931236245
reconstruction of long-distance bird migration routes using advanced machine learning techniques on geolocator data.geolocators are a well-established technology to reconstruct migration routes of animals that are too small to carry satellite tags (e.g. passerine birds). these devices record environmental light-level data that enable the reconstruction of daily positions from the time of twilight. however, all current methods for analysing geolocator data require manual pre-processing of raw records to eliminate twilight events showing unnatural variation in light levels, a step that is time-consuming and mus ...201931213173
small, variable sperm in a barn swallow population with low extra-pair paternity.sperm competition can theoretically affect sperm morphology; however, it remains unclear whether and how sperm morphology tracks the intensity of sperm competition in each population. the barn swallow hirundo rustica is a model species used in the study of sexual selection, and exhibits considerable variation in extra-pair paternity (percentage extra-pair young, ca. 3-30%) among populations. in the joetsu population of the barn swallow, extra-pair paternity is virtually absent (< 3%), providing ...201931120651
cloacal microbiomes and ecology of individual barn swallows.microbiomes can be considered as 'second genomes' for the host, and can deeply affect its physiology, behaviour and fitness. we investigated the cloacal microbiomes (cms) of adult and nestling barn swallows (hirundo rustica), a small insectivorous migratory passerine bird, in order to assess whether cm structure was related to major ecological traits of individuals. illumina sequencing of the v5-v6 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16s rrna gene showed that barn swallow cms were dominated b ...201931069386
inter-generational resemblance of methylation levels at circadian genes and associations with phenology in the barn swallow.regulation of gene expression can occur via epigenetic effects as mediated by dna methylation. the potential for epigenetic effects to be transmitted across generations, thus modulating phenotypic variation and affecting ecological and evolutionary processes, is increasingly appreciated. however, the study of variation in epigenomes and inter-generational transmission of epigenetic alterations in wild populations is at its very infancy. we studied sex- and age-related variation in dna methylatio ...201931019206
plumage brightness and uropygial gland secretions in barn swallows.the uropygial gland has been hypothesized to play a role in sexual signaling through a "make-up" function derived from the effects of secretions from the gland on the appearance of the plumage and bare parts of the body. here we show that plumage brightness of dorsal feathers of individual barn swallows hirundo rustica was greater in mated than in unmated individuals. in addition, plumage brightness increased with colony size. furthermore, plumage brightness was positively correlated with the am ...201930936906
eumelanin levels in rufous feathers explain plasma testosterone levels and survival in swallows.pigment-based plumage coloration and its physiological properties have attracted many researchers to explain the evolution of such ornamental traits. these studies, however, assume the functional importance of the predominant pigment while ignoring that of other minor pigments, and few studies have focused on the composition of these pigments. using the pheomelanin-based plumage in two swallow species, we studied the allocation of two pigments (the predominant pigment, pheomelanin, and the minor ...201930891214
vagrant birds as a dispersal vector in transoceanic range expansion of vascular plants.birds are thought to be important vectors underlying the disjunct distribution patterns of some terrestrial biota. here, we investigate the role of birds in the colonisation by ochetophila trinervis (rhamnaceae), a vascular plant from the southern andes, of sub-antarctic marion island. the location of o. trinervis on the island far from human activities, in combination with a reconstruction of island visitors' travel history, precludes an anthropogenic introduction. notably, three bird species o ...201930874602
males with more pheomelanin have a lower oxidative balance in asian barn swallows (hirundo rustica gutturalis).pheomelanin-based plumage pigmentation has been suggested to be an honest signal of individual quality to conspecifics. it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress is an important agent linking pheomelanic pigmentation to individual quality. using the asian barn swallow hirundo rustica gutturalis, a wild passerine, we tested whether the pheomelanin pigmentation in the red throat patch of adult males, a sexually selected trait, is associated with the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathi ...201830520358
smrt long reads and direct label and stain optical maps allow the generation of a high-quality genome assembly for the european barn swallow (hirundo rustica rustica).the barn swallow (hirundo rustica) is a migratory bird that has been the focus of a large number of ecological, behavioral, and genetic studies. to facilitate further population genetics and genomic studies, we present a reference genome assembly for the european subspecies (h. r. rustica).201930496513
feather holes and flight performance in the barn swallow hirundo rustica.feather holes are small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) deformities that appear on the vanes of flight feathers. such deformities were found in many bird species, including galliforms and passerines. holey flight feathers may be more permeable to air, which could have a negative effect on their ability to generate aerodynamic forces. however, to date the effects of feather holes on flight performance in birds remained unclear. in this study we investigated the relationship between the number of feather h ...201830460089
recapture probability, flight morphology, and microorganisms.microorganisms on and within organisms are ubiquitous and interactions with their hosts range from mutualistic over commensal, to pathogenic. we hypothesized that microorganisms might affect the ability of barn swallows hirundo rustica to escape from potential predators, with positive associations between the abundance of microorganisms and escape ability implying mutualistic effects, while negative associations would imply antagonistic effects. we quantified escape behavior as the ability to av ...201830402068
fecal microbiota associated with phytohaemagglutinin-induced immune response in nestlings of a passerine bird.the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a diverse community of bacteria, the so-called gut microbiota (gm). research on captive mammalian models has revealed tight mutual interactions between immune functions and gm. however, our knowledge of gm versus immune system interactions in wild populations and nonmammalian species remains poor. here, we focus on the association between gm community structure and immune response measured via the phytohaemagglutinin (pha) skin swelling test ...201830386575
effectiveness of morphological sex determination in the east asian barn swallow (hirundo rustica gutturalis) on spring migration.hyun-young nam, seung-yeon lee, sook-young cho, chang-yong choi, se-young park, gi-chang bing, chang-uk park, seul-gi seo, and yang-mo kim (2018) information on sexual dimorphism helps explain a species' evolution in sexual selection and conservation issues such as sex-specific response in environmental changes. the barn swallow (hirundo rustica) is a well-known sexually dimorphic species in which males have longer tail streamers than females. however, when compared with the european-african or ...201831966283
intestinal parasites among migrant barn swallows (hirundo rustica) in the central region of mazandaran province, northern iran.swallows are a family of migratory birds found worldwide except antarctica. annually, a number of species of swallows migrate to iran. as they make their nests close to human living places, this may be a potential risk for public health. conversely, no study has been conducted on intestinal parasitic infections of these birds so far. therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in migratory swallows (hirundo rustica) in the central region of maza ...201830250381
matching geographical assignment by stable isotopes with african non-breeding sites of barn swallows hirundo rustica tracked by geolocation.knowledge on whereabouts within the annual cycle of migratory species is prerequisite for many aspects in ecology and biological conservation. spatial assignments of stable isotopes archived in tissues allows for later inference on sites where the specific tissue had been grown. it has been rarely tested whether spatial assignments match directly tracked non-breeding residences, especially for migratory songbirds. we here compare assignments of stable isotopes from feathers of palaearctic barn s ...201830216347
microclimate and host body condition influence mite population growth in a wild bird-ectoparasite system.parasite populations are never evenly distributed among the hosts they infect. avian nest ectoparasites, such as mites, are no exception, as their distribution across the landscape is highly aggregated. it remains unclear if this pattern is driven by differences in transmission events alone, or if the environment that parasites inhabit after transmission also plays a role. here, we experimentally examined the influence of the post-transmission microclimate, nest characteristics, and host conditi ...201830128287
barn swallows long-distance migration occurs between significantly temperature-correlated areas.organisms are routinely confronted with crucial decisions on the best time and place to perform fundamental activities. however, unpredictable spatio-temporal variation in ecological factors makes life-history optimization difficult particularly for long-distance migrants, which are putatively blind of conditions thousands of kilometers and weeks ahead along their journey. here we challenge, on a hierarchy of geographical scales, the common wisdom that migratory birds have no clue to ecological ...201830120379
mineralogical and textural characteristics of nest building geomaterials used by three sympatric mud-nesting hirundine species.many hirundine species construct their nests by carrying mud particles from adjacent areas. this study aimed to investigate for the first time the materials that mud-nesting hirundines choose for nest construction from a mineralogical and sedimentological perspective. for this purpose, we sampled nests of three sympatric species, namely the barn swallow (hirundo rustica), the red-rumped swallow (cecropis daurica) and the house martin (delichon urbicum), from southeastern europe. our results show ...201830038225
inferring social structure from continuous-time interaction data.relational event data, which consist of events involving pairs of actors over time, are now commonly available at the finest of temporal resolutions. existing continuous-time methods for modeling such data are based on point processes and directly model interaction "contagion," whereby one interaction increases the propensity of future interactions among actors, often as dictated by some latent variable structure. in this article, we present an alternative approach to using temporal-relational p ...202029962902
experimental manipulation of size and shape of tail spots and sexual selection in barn swallows.barn swallows hirundo rustica have white spots on their tail feathers, and they have been hypothesized to be a handicap because white spots are prone to feather breakage, ectoparasites are disproportionately common in white spots, and size of white spots increases with tail length. here i test for attractiveness of narrow and long tail spots by manipulation of their shape while using complete painting of spots and an absence of treatment as a control. female barn swallows are known to differenti ...201729492016
[intestinal microbiota in migrating barn swallows around osaka].migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. the populations of barn swallow (hirundo rustica) migrate from southeast asia to the japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to southeast asia during autumn. this migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. however, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the ...201829311457
immunoglobulin plasma concentration in relation to egg laying and mate ornamentation of female barn swallows (hirundo rustica).in vertebrates, offspring have a relatively inefficient immune system soon after birth. female birds transmit immunoglobulins to the egg, which can confer protection against parasites to their offspring after hatching, but allocation of immune factors can depend on the reproductive value of the offspring as affected, for example, by the quality of their father. we analyse the variation in immunoglobulin levels of female barn swallows (hirundo rustica) during the breeding cycle in relation to the ...200129280578
begging and parental care in relation to offspring need and condition in the barn swallow (hirundo rustica).parents are selected to maximize their fitness by allocating care among their progeny in relation to the differential reproductive value of offspring. nestlings have been hypothesized to signal need for parental care reliably through their begging behavior, but offspring condition as reflected by their reproductive value may likewise affect begging and hence provisioning. we assessed the relative importance of need and condition in determining begging behavior and feeding rate of nestling barn s ...200029592546
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