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antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary tunisian date varieties (phoenix dactylifera l.) by hydrothermal treatments.three common non-commercial tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. the concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (smeti, garen gazel, and eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. both thermal treatments increased t ...201626593573
effect of palm pollen on sperm parameters of infertile man.there is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. the aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered date palm pollen (dpp) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. forty infertile men participated in our study. they were treated by pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers ...201526506651
how far can the red palm weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) fly?: computerized flight mill studies with field-captured weevils.adult rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the al ahsaa directorate, kingdom of saudi arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (december), spring (march), and summer (may). of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. of those weev ...201526470385
influence of different drying treatments and extraction solvents on the metabolite profile and nitric oxide inhibitory activity of ajwa dates.this study aimed to examine the variation in the metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (no) inhibitory activity of ajwa dates that were subjected to 2 drying treatments and different extraction solvents. (1)h nmr coupled with multivariate data analysis was employed. a griess assay was used to determine the inhibition of the production of no in raw 264.7 cells treated with lps and interferon-γ. the oven dried (od) samples demonstrated the absence of asparagine and ascorbic acid as compared to the ...201526457883
the role of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) pollen in fertility: a comprehensive review of current evidence.date palm pollen (dpp) is the male reproductive dust of palm flowers used as dietary supplement especially as aphrodisiac and fertility enhancer in both women and men from ancient times. although there are few clinical trials evaluating the beneficial effects of dpp in humans, various experimental studies have been conducted on the reproductive effects of dpp. among the compounds isolated from dpp are amino acids, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, and estroles. the present review summarizes com ...201626438718
impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.the reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. in the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. a total of twenty- ...201526428278
the tunisian oasis ecosystem is a source of antagonistic bacillus spp. producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides.the use of microbial products has become a promising alternative approach to controlling plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. bacteria isolated from the date palm tree rhizosphere of the tunisian oasis ecosystem could provide new biocontrol microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions, such as drought, salinity and high temperature. the aim of this study was to screen bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree for their ability to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi, and t ...201626428248
therapeutic potential of date palm pollen for testicular dysfunction induced by thyroid disorders in male rats.hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. the present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (dpp) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. rats were divided into six groups. group i was normal control. group ii received oral dpp extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group iii (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of l-thyroxine (l-t4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group iv received l-t4 plus dpp extract, grou ...201526425844
comparative efficacy of co2 and ozone gases against ephestia cautella (lepidoptera: pyralidae) larvae under different temperature regimes.comparative efficacy of three different modified atmospheres: 100% co2, 75% co2 + 25% n2, and 22 ppm ozone were examined against larval mortality of the almond moth, ephestia cautella (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) at temperature regimes of 25°c and 35 ± 2°c and 60 ± 5% relative humidity, and 9:15 dark and light. wandering young larval instars, which are fast growing, large enough in size and considered as more tolerant to modified atmosphere, were collected directly from the rearing culture, ...201526382044
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.since the publication of this paper, it has become apparent that an error was made in the legend to fig. 3 and the colours referring to occidental and oriental are the wrong way round. the authors apologise for this error, and a correct version of the legend to fig. 3 is given below.201526378059
proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.).plants exposed to certain abiotic stress conditions tend to produce the amino acid proline, which acts as an active osmolyte, a metal chelator, an antioxidant, and a signaling molecule. there is increasing evidence that proline accumulates in plants due to a wide range of abiotic stress, in particular high soil salinity and drought. therefore, proline content is often used as a marker-assisted breeding tool aimed at improving drought and salinity tolerance. in this study, it was investigated whe ...201526345930
do skin prick test and in vitro techniques diagnose sensitization to peach lipid transfer protein and profilin equally well in allergy to plant food and pollen?to compare the skin prick test (spt) with in vitro techniques (single and multiplex fluorescence enzyme-immunoassay [feia]) for detecting sensitization to profilin and lipid transfer protein (ltp).201526310043
identification of proteins modulated in the date palm stem infested with red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliv.) using two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.a state of the art proteomic methodology using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (maldi tof) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (rpw). our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with rpw infestation in date palm stem. to identify rpw infestation associated peptides (i), artificially wounded plants (w) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, ...201526287180
feasibility study of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.a feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three algerian raw materials, namely date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (oap) in lemon juice (lj) was performed by response surface methodology (rsm) based on central composite design (ccd). the textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. the cooking temperature (x1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time ...201526243917
metabolic analysis of various date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional quality.date palm is an important crop, especially in the hot-arid regions of the world. date palm fruits have high nutritional and therapeutic value and possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. in this study, we performed bioactivity analyses and metabolic profiling of date fruits of 12 cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional value. our results showed that the date extracts from different cultivars have different free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation ac ...201526225946
variations in hormones and antioxidant status in relation to flowering in early, mid, and late varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) of united arab emirates.the present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of nagal, lulu, and khalas date palm varieties in uae. the nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. the aba and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period an ...201526167536
proteome analysis for understanding abiotic stress (salinity and drought) tolerance in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).this study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. for this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar "sagie" were subjected to drought (27.5 g/l polyethylene glycol 6000) and salinity stress conditions (16 g/l nacl) for one month. dige analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. ...201526167472
diet rich in date palm fruits improves memory, learning and reduces beta amyloid in transgenic mouse model of alzheimer's disease.at present, the treatment options available to delay the onset or slow down the progression of alzheimer's disease (ad) are not effective. recent studies have suggested that diet and lifestyle factors may represent protective strategies to minimize the risk of developing ad. date palm fruits are a good source of dietary fiber and are rich in total phenolics and natural antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. these polyphenolic compounds have been s ...201726167001
correlation between mechanical properties with specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction of graphite/epoxy composites.the correlation between the mechanical properties of fillers/epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for neat epoxy (ne), graphite/epoxy composites (ge), and data palm fiber/epoxy with or without graphite composites (gfe and fe). the correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific we ...201528793431
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.date palms (phoenix dactylifera, arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. however, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the atlantic shores to southern asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. in order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geog ...201526113618
date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.the objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. an abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. to evaluate the antagonistic effects of th ...201626102058
determination of sucrose in date fruits (phoenix dactylifera l.) growing in the sultanate of oman by nir spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.a near infrared (nir) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the sultanate of oman. in this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. the sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one ...201526048559
salt tolerance research in date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.), past, present, and future perspectives.the date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. however, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. it is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. in this ...201526042137
tunisian date (phoenix dactylifera l.) by-products: characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.three tunisian date varieties, deglet nour, kentichi and allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating deglet nour and kentichi s ...201526041157
oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. at present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (pgp) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resis ...201526033617
production of date palm fruits free of acaricides residues by ozone technology as post-harvest treatment.distilled water and ozonated water as postharvest wash treatments for 15-60 min as dipping times were tested to remove two acaricides namely, dicofol and amitraz from different varieties of date fruits. recovered amount of the acaricides was extracted using solid phase extraction (spe) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). dicofol removal percentages in the presence of ozone increased in the order of nabtet aly > nabout seif > khalas > sakay, while amitraz removal in ...201526028713
effect of potassium nitrate on antioxidants production of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) in vitro.antioxidants present in dates are necessary for all physiological processes of humans and animals. in saudi arabia date palm is a national fruit tree, produces millions of tons of dates for consumption and is considered a major source of antioxidants. the main aim of this study was to determine the role of potassium nitrate (kno3) in the formation of antioxidants from explants collected from date palm cultivars in al-ahsa oasis, kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) and to monitor the extent of its effe ...201426027167
a genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two major subpopulations in phoenix dactylifera.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. there are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of north africa to india. the origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. we conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar ...201525957276
physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents.we have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (scba), date palm seed carbon (dpsc), and rice husk ash (rha) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent magnesol xl for improving the quality of waste frying oil (wfo) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. we measured moisture content, refractive index (ri), density, acid value (av), iodine value (iv), peroxide value (pv), and saponification value (sv), as well as fatty ...201527877789
identification of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon.laboratory and field investigations aimed to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm pest oryctes agamemnon. live males or extracts of male effluvia attracted conspecifics in an olfactometer, whereas female effluvia attracted only males. volatile emissions from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analysed by gas chromatography (gc) and gc/mass spectrometry (gc/ms). males emitted a blend of 1) ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, 2) 4-methyloctanoic acid, 3) 4-methyloctanyl a ...201525900246
physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.) .the oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in saudi arabia. the results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. the refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. the iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the ...201525895270
genetic diversity of qatari date palm using ssr markers.the genetic diversity in the date palm germplasm of 59 female accessions representing 12 cultivars from different locations in qatar was investigated using 14 loci of simple-sequence repeat (ssr) primers. a total of 94 alleles, with a mean of 6.7 alleles per locus, were scored. the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 (primer mpdcir090) to 11 (primers mpdcir010 and mpdcir015). the amplified ssr band sizes ranged from 104 to 330 bp. the mean gene diversity was 0.66 and ranged from 0.39 (locu ...201525867305
projected future distribution of date palm and its potential use in alleviating micronutrient deficiency.micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long-ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin a are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. consumption of a 100 g portion of date flesh from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micron ...201625847224
effect of phoenix dactyliferia (date palm) pit powder on nicotine induced spermatotoxicty in adult albino mice.to study the effect of phoenix dactyliferia pit powder on nicotine-induced spermatotoxicty in adult albino mice.201525831673
date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.dramatic growth in date (phoenix dactylifera l.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. in this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.201525829568
bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: a comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface.novel bio-based polyurethane (pu) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and polycaprolactone (pcl) diol based pu were prepared by casting/evaporation. two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (cnfs) and cellulose nanocrystals (cncs). the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by dma, dsc, and tensile tests and the morphology was investigated by sem. bionanocomposites presented good mechanical ...201525817660
antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'amari' and 'hallawi' date (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties.date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'amari' and 'hallawi', by solid phase extraction on c18. the fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by rp-hplc and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of cu(2+)-induced ldl oxidation, and enhancement of hdl-mediated chole ...201525765921
study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.edible parts of two varieties of date palm (mazfati and kalute varieties) (phoenix dactylifera) fruits (dpf) from iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (aa). antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph), reducing power and total antioxidant method. the total phenolic content (tpc) of the dpf was measured using folin-ciocalteau method. the samples used in this study included samples were gathered at ...201525745262
a simplified protocol to induce callogenesis in protoplasts of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars.in algeria, date palm is currently confronted to the bayoud disease. biotechnological tools such as protoplastsfusion can appear as an alternative to ensure rapid multiplication and improvement of this species.201528959278
effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.in this study, the antioxidant effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l., arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °c was determined. butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) was used as positive control in the experiment. all extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to bha up to 21 days. when antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with bha, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarka ...201525694743
profiling microrna expression during multi-staged date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit development.micrornas (mirnas) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. in this study, we first identified 238 conserved mirnas in date palm (phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (fda) mirnas, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel p. dactylifera-sp ...201525638647
chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two algerian date palm cultivars (phoenix dactylifera).the fatty acid composition of date seed oil from two different date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars, locally known as degla-baïdha and tafezouine, were investigated. gc analysis revealed the presence of five dominant fatty acids: oleic c18:1 (46.51; 39.15%), lauric c12:0 (22.1; 28.5%), myristic c14:0 (10.7; 11.4%), palmitic c16:0 (9.6; 8.7%) and linoleic c18:2 (6.9; 6.1%). the oils was characterised by a low content of tocopherols (0.53; 1.41 μg/g). the antioxidant activity of the oils w ...201425632483
phoenix dactylifera seeds ameliorate early diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.in arabic folk medicine, the seeds of phoenix dactylifera l. (arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of p. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored.201525612778
modeling the effects of climate on date palm scale (parlatoria blanchardi) population dynamics during different phenological stages of life history under hot arid conditions.the date palm scale (dps) parlatoria blanchardi is a serious pest due to the damage it inflicts on its host tree (phoenix dactylifera). to develop an effective control against dps in arid regions, it is essential to know its bio-ecology including population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the duration and timing of life history and also the densities of different phenological stages (crawlers, first and second instars nymphs, adult males, and adult females). monitoring of biological cy ...201525601782
proanthocyanidin-rich date seed extract protects against chemically induced hepatorenal toxicity.a hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of phoenix dactylifera l. var. khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. the proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as dtx) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) analyses. the total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of dtx were estimated by folin-ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) assays, respectively. the hepatorenal protecti ...201525569813
antioxidant potential of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a ph range of 2-12. the hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp; 0.3%, w/w). incorporat ...201525553507
seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in the north saharan oases ecosystems.the rhinoceros borer oryctes agamemnon burmeister (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including tunisia, the united arab emirates (uae), oman, and saudi arabia. the aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. experiments were performed on a date palm of rjim maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). field survey using light traps shows that o. agamemno ...201425527574
dna barcoding for species identification in the palmae family.dna barcoding is a promising tool for species identification at the molecular level. the barcoding system is well established for species differentiation in animals, while it is less common in plants. we evaluated 2 barcoding regions, maturase k (matk) and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcl), to compare species of palmae according to amplification success, discrimination power, and inter- and intra-specific divergence. both regions appear to have potential to discriminate most species of pa ...201425501246
antioxidant activity of various mauritanian date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits at two edible ripening stages.the increasing interest in plant phenolics and flavonoids outlined the necessity of determining their contents and biological activity in mauritanian date palm fruits. methanolic extracts of fruit of six date palm cultivars commonly grown in mauritania were screened for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and flavonoid content at two edible ripening stages. polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in theblah stage, corresponding tokhalal in the standard iraqi arabic nomenclature, compared ...201425493188
chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of sudanese date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits.the aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in sudan. the results showed that sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (p < 0.05) amounts of moisture, ash, fiber, oil, and carbohydrates, but have almost similar amounts of protein. moreover, results revealed that date varieties contained significantly varied (p < 0.05) amounts of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, w ...201425473506
effects of date palm pollen (phoenix dactylifera l.) and astragalus ovinus on sperm parameters and sex hormones in adult male rats.date palm pollen (dpp) and astragalus genus are used in some countries for the treatment of infertility.201425469129
koh-based porous carbon from date palm seed: preparation, characterization, and application to phenol adsorption.the date palm seed being one of the major forms of biomass produced from the date industry in uae, its potential to be an appropriate precursor for the preparation of porous carbon utilizing koh as an activating agent is assessed in the present work. the porous carbon is prepared at an activation temperature of 600 °c, impregnation ratio of 2, and activation duration of 1 hour, in an inert atmosphere using a conventional horizontal furnace. the resultant porous carbon has a brunauer-emmett-telle ...201425429451
two culture approaches used to determine the co-composting stages by assess of the total microflora changes during sewage sludge and date palm waste co-composting.indigenous microflora community changes during six months of co-composting of activated sewage sludge and date palm waste was investigated using two different culture approaches. in order to evaluate the co-composting process evolution for mixture a and b, growth standard media (gsm) and compost time extract agar (ctea) are used. enumeration for indigenous flora abundance on gsm medium shows that the colony-forming unit (cfu) total number was 100 fold higher than on ctea. the thermophilic phase ...201425419463
biology, predation, and life table of cydnoseius negevi and neoseiulus barkeri (acari: phytoseiidae) on the old world date mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus (acari: tetranychidae).the old world date mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the middle east and north africa. considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against o. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of cydnoseius negevi (swirski and amitai) and neoseiulus barkeri hughes (acari: phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35 ...201425368087
effect of date palm coproducts and annatto extract on lipid oxidation and microbial quality in a pork liver pâté.dates are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, and coproducts from the date industry are of potential use in the manufacturing of meat products. in the present research, spreadable pork liver pâtés were made using fresh date coproducts (2.5% and 7.5%) as a potential functional ingredient and an ethanolic annatto extract (128 mg/kg) as colorant. the effect of these 2 ingredients on the lipid oxidation and microbial quality of the pâtés was assessed during 21 d of storage. the pâtés conta ...201425349917
direct in vivo evidence of immense stem water exploitation in irrigated date palms.during the summer, evaporative demand at midday often exceeds the transport capacity of most desert plants. however, date palms maintain their ecological dominance with sustained and uniquely high rates of transpiration. this high rate of flow cannot be attributed to soil water supply alone. in order to quantify intra-plant water allocation in irrigated date palms, three water-sensing techniques have been incorporated: heat dissipation, gravimetric sampling, and time domain reflectrometry. each ...201525336690
nutritional assessment and antioxidant analysis of 22 date palm (phoenix dactylifera) varieties growing in sultanate of oman.to assess the nutritional values and antioxidant analysis of 22 varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) fruit collected from various regions of the sultanate of oman.201425312188
in silico mining of microsatellites in coding sequences of the date palm (arecaceae) genome, characterization, and transferability. 201425202594
genetic transformation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l. cv. 'estamaran') via particle bombardment.in this study, an efficient transformation system for gene delivery in date palm was established. the effects of different physical and biological parameters were optimized for transient transformation of uida gene in somatic embryos of estamaran cultivar. the tissues were bombarded with constructs harboring the uida gene driven by camv 35s or rice act1 promoter. efficiency of expression was estimated by comparison of the number of blue spots resulted from gus assay. optimal transient expression ...201425200434
study on life parameters of the invasive species octodonta nipae (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.in southeastern china, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid octodonta nipae (maulik) (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of o. nipae. o. nipae could not complete its development on the majestic palm (ravenea rivularis jumelle & perrier), and females did not lay eggs on chinese fan palm (livistona chinensis r. brown). however, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on ...201425195440
the complete plastid genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius (asparagaceae: lomandroideae).the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius was firstly determined in subfamily lomandriodeae of family asparagaceae. it was 159,736 bp and contained a large single copy region (82,403 bp) and a small single copy region (13,607 bp) which were separated by two inverted repeat regions (31,863 bp). in total, 132 genes were identified and they were consisted of 83 coding genes, 8 rrna genes, 38 trna genes, 3 pseudogenes. rpl23 and clpp were pseudogenes due to sequence dele ...201625186113
date palm pollen as a preventative intervention in radiation- and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a pilot study.the objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of date palm pollen (dpp) in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation and chemotherapy.201425148841
tissue and cellular localization of tannins in tunisian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.a histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (tem) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (phoenix dactylifera l.). light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (dmaca) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (tem), results sho ...201424987926
a report on biocompounds from palm fossil of india.the occurrence of a large number of fossil woods having resemblance in anatomical features with the modern palm genus, phoenix l in deccan intertrappean fossil flora of maastrichtian-danian age (i. e. late cretaceous and earliest tertiary (65-67 my)) indicates the most primitive record of date palm. present discovery of biocompounds from fossil wood of phoenix collected from deccan intertrappean having affinity with the biocompounds known from modern plant further exemplify the earliest document ...201424966541
effect of dietary supplementation of dates in alzheimer's disease appsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.oxidative stress may play a key role in alzheimer's disease (ad) neuropathology. changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ad transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from oman. the 4-month-old mice with double swedish app mutation (appsw/tg2576) were purchased from taconic farm, ny, usa; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet ...201524954036
the protective effect of phoenix dactylifera l. seeds against ccl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.in traditional egyptian medicine, phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm) seeds are listed in folk remedies for the management of diabetes, liver diseases and gastrointestinal disorders. the present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of phoenix dactylifera l. seeds aqueous suspension against the chemically-induced hepatic injury in rats.201424945397
determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in saudi arabian date fruits.whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (aas) in edible fruits of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) aas and amino components are scarce. with emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, hplc employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and gc-ms of total hydrolysates using the chira ...201424938763
identification of pheromone synergists for rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.trapping systems for the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. the identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. canary islands date palms (phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for r. ferrugineus in europe; thus, the volatile pr ...201424930773
review: ajwa date (phoenix dactylifera)- an emerging plant in pharmacological research.date fruits are consumed in arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. phoenix dactylifera belongs to family arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. besides these, dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, rbcs, hb, pcv, reticulocytes and plate ...201424811825
three new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi discovered at one location in a desert of oman: diversispora omaniana, septoglomus nakheelum and rhizophagus arabicus.three new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi (glomeromycota) were isolated from soil samples collected from a hyperarid sandy plain of south arabia. morphological characteristics of the spores clearly differentiated them from closely related am species. molecular analyses were performed on rdna sequences obtained from single spores including a ~1700 bp region comprising partial ssu, its, partial lsu and the ~600 bp its region only. the phylogenetic trees based on these regions showed t ...201724782493
r848, a toll-like receptors 7 and 8 agonist, a potential therapy for allergic rhinitis patients.there is a growing interest in the targeting of toll-like receptors (tlrs) for the treatment of allergic diseases. tlrs7/8 ligands are future candidates of therapeutic value in allergic rhinitis (ar). this study focus on tlrs7/8 ligand; resiquimod (r848) as an adjuvant to immunotherapy (it) in ar patient.201424773332
therapeutic effects of date fruits (phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.the current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. in this vista, natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. dates are main fruit in the arabian peninsula and are considered to be one of the mo ...201424753740
a first genetic map of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) reveals long-range genome structure conservation in the palms.the date palm is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. it is critical in many ways to cultures in arid lands by providing highly nutritious fruit while surviving extreme heat and environmental conditions. despite its importance from antiquity, few genetic resources are available for improving the productivity and development of the dioecious date palm. to date there has been no genetic map and no sex chromosome has been identified.201424735434
phytochemicals in date co-products and their antioxidant activity.the date agro-industry needs to find appropriate techniques to give value to their co-products. this study analyzes twelve intermediate food products (ifps) from date co-products, medjool and confitera cv. at several ripening stages, blanched and unblanched, for their content in bioactive compounds (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, carotenoids and anthocyanins) and the antioxidant activity (aa). ifps from the more unripe stages had the highest aa and phytochemicals content, mainly phenols, up to 1. ...201424731377
sensitivity analysis of climex parameters in modeling potential distribution of phoenix dactylifera l.using climex and the taguchi method, a process-based niche model was developed to estimate potential distributions of phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm), an economically important crop in many counties. development of the model was based on both its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out in terms of its extensive distribution in iran. to identify model parameters having greatest influence on distribution of date palm, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. changes in su ...201424722140
whole mitochondrial and plastid genome snp analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.date palm is a very important crop in western asia and northern africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. the huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. one of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. whole mitochondrial and plast ...201424718264
chamaerops humilis l. var. argentea andré date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.chamaerops humilis l. var. argentea andré (c. humilis) date palm seeds are an underutilized source of vegetable oil, and no studies describing their physicochemical characteristics to indicate the potential uses of this seed or seed oil have been reported. the oil content of the seeds is about 10%, mainly composed of oleic acid (38.71%), lauric acid (21.27%), linoleic acid (15.15%), palmitic acid (9.96%), and stearic acid (7.17%). the tocol (tocopherols and tocotrienols) content is 74 mg/100 g, ...201424666023
the effect of date seed (phoenix dactylifera) extract on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats.paraoxonase 1 (pon1) is a high- density lipoprotein (hdl)-associated enzyme, displaying esterase and lactonase activity. the pon1 is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, metabolizing toxic oxidized lipids and detoxifying of organophosphorus insecticide compounds and nerve agents.201424644436
dna barcoding based on plastid matk and rna polymerase for assessing the genetic identity of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars.the cultivated date palm is the most agriculturally important species of the arecaceae family. the standard chloroplast dna barcode for land plants recommended by the consortium for the barcode of life plant working group needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. therefore, we assessed the potential of the matk and rpoc1 markers for the authentication of date cultivars. there is not one universal method to authenticate date cultivars. in this study, 11 different date cultivars wer ...201424615105
effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (phoenix dactylifera l.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.the current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (git) activity in healthy adult rats. in this respect, male wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (nacl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 ml/kg, b.w.). two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respecti ...201424611963
aqueous date fruit extract protects against lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in the liver of rats subchronically exposed to trichloroacetic acid.trichloroacetic acid (tca) is a prominent by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. it induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective role of the aqueous date extract (ade) against tca-induced liver injury. forty-eight male wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group i served as the control; group ii was given ade by gavage; groups iii and iv received tca as dri ...201424573459
circadian release of male-specific components of the greater date moth, aphomia (arenipses) sabella, using sequential spme/gc/ms analysis.the greater date moth (gdm), aphomia sabella hampson (lepidoptera: pyralidae: galleriinae), is a serious pest of date palms, phoenix dactylifera. the release of volatiles from both males and females was investigated using sequential spme/gc/ms analysis. males release a complex mixture of compounds in a circadian rhythm during the night between 03:00 and 05:00 hr. six compounds were identified: benzaldehyde, sulcatol (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol), geranyl acetone [(e)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-on ...201424567046
phenotyping date palm varieties via leaflet cross-sectional imaging and artificial neural network application.true date palms (phoenix dactylifera l.) are impressive trees and have served as an indispensable source of food for mankind in tropical and subtropical countries for centuries. the aim of this study is to differentiate date palm tree varieties by analysing leaflet cross sections with technical/optical methods and artificial neural networks (ann).201424564551
characterization of novel intermediate food products from spanish date palm (phoenix dactylifera l., cv. confitera) co-products for industrial use.the nutritive, physicochemical and technological characteristics of several intermediate food products (ifps) from spanish confitera fresh date co-products were investigated. three ifps were obtained, two from unblanched dates in different ripening stages (khalal and rutab), and a third one from blanched khalal fruits. the ifps were rich in dietary fibre (13-16%, dry matter), phenolics (0.56-4.26g gae/100g dry matter) and sugars (55-82%, dry matter), with glucose and fructose as the predominant ...201424518342
integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation of saline-sodic soils: effects of voltage gradient and contaminant concentration on soil electrical conductivity.in this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique which couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. natural saline-sodic clay soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, cr, cd, cu, zn, pb, and hg), was used in this study to investigate the effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant conc ...201324459439
the chloroplast dna locus psbz-trnfm as a potential barcode marker in phoenix l. (arecaceae).the genus phoenix (arecaceae) comprises 14 species distributed from cape verde islands to se asia. it includes the economically important species phoenix dactylifera. the paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of phoenix species difficult. in this context, the development of reliable dna markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chlo ...201324453552
characterization of ten date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia using aflp and issr markers.date palm is the most economically important plant in the middle east due to its nutritionally valuable fruit. the development of accurate dna fingerprints to characterize cultivars and the detection of genetic diversity are of great value for breeding programs. the present study explores the usefulness of issr and aflp molecular markers to detect relationships among 10 date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia. thirteen issr primers and six aflp primer combinations were exa ...201424439547
genetic characterization of libyan date palm resources by microsatellite markers.molecular typing of 377 female date palm trees belonging to 18 libyan cultivars and representing common genotypes in the central libyan oasis of al jufrah was performed using 16 highly polymorphic microsatellite or ssr loci. a total of 110 alleles with an average of 6.88 alleles per locus were scored indicating the high level of polymorphism existing among the cultivars thus allowing their genetic fingerprinting. moreover 28 alleles out of 110 were fixed. all the cultivars were characterized by ...201428324455
dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening.date palm (phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the middle east and north africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. a total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05) ...201426504545
the impact of date palm fruits and their component polyphenols, on gut microbial ecology, bacterial metabolites and colon cancer cell proliferation.the fruit of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a rich source of dietary fibre and polyphenols. we have investigated gut bacterial changes induced by the whole date fruit extract (digested date extract; dde) and its polyphenol-rich extract (date polyphenol extract; dpe) using faecal, ph-controlled, mixed batch cultures mimicking the distal part of the human large intestine, and utilising an array of microbial group-specific 16s rrna oligonucleotide probes. fluorescence microscopic enumera ...201426101614
physicochemical properties and mineral contents of seven different date fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties growing from saudi arabia.the date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits (soukari, soulag, barhi, khulas, rozaiz, soughi and monaif) were evaluated with respect to some physical and chemical properties. while crude protein contents of fruits change between 1.51% (soulag) to 2.41% (soughi), crude fibre contents ranged between 1.91% (soukari) to 3.90% (barhi). vitamin c contents of date samples changed between 971.82 mg/kg (soughi) to 1,453.15 mg/kg (barhi). antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.07 ic50 (soukari) to ...201424346347
oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.in this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (dfae) on trichloroacetic acid (tca)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. oral administration of tca as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/l) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (cat) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (sod) activity and malondial ...201424338383
fungal diversity in adult date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especially in harsh environments, such as arid regions. this flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various troublesome host diseases. the present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of tunisian date palm trees (phoenix dactylifera). accordingly, 13 isolates from both root a ...201324302709
characteristics of starch-based biodegradable composites reinforced with date palm and flax fibers.the aim of this work is to study the behavior of completely biodegradable starch-based composites containing date palm fibers in the range from 20 to 80 wt%. hybrid composites containing date palm and flax fibers, 25 wt% each, were also examined. the composites were preheated and then hot pressed at 5 mpa and 160°c for 30 min. sem investigation showed strong adhesion between fibers and matrix. density measurements showed very small void fraction (less than 0.142%) for composites containing up to ...201424299743
comparison of the essential oil content and composition of the spathe, buds and pollen of phoenix dactylifera.several medicinal applications have been reported for different components of date palm. the inflorescence of the male date tree is composed of spathe that surrounds many buds containing pollen. in this study, a comparison between the content and composition of the essential oils obtained from these three components of an inflorescence was made. after obtaining each oil using hydro-distillation method, the oil yield was measured as the weight ratio of the oil to the distilled sample (w/w %) and ...201424279318
control of size and viscoelastic properties of nanofibrillated cellulose from palm tree by varying the tempo-mediated oxidation time.the main objective of the present study was to control and optimize the preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose (nfc) from the date palm tree by monitoring the oxidation time (degree of oxidation) of the pristine cellulose and the number of cycles through the homogenizer. the oxidation was monitored by tempo (1-oxo-2,2,6,6-tétraméthylpipyridine 1-oxyle) mediated oxidation. evidence of the successful isolation of nfc was given by fe-sem observation revealing fibrils with a width in the range 20- ...201424274481
a new glucuronolactone glycoside phoenixoside b from the seeds of phoenix dactylifera.a new glucuronolactone glycoside, phoenixoside b (1), has been isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of seeds of phoenix dactylifera. the structure was characterized as 1-(1'-ethyl-beta-d-glucosyl)-4,5-diethyl-[alpha-d-glucofuranourono-6,3-lactone] on the basis of 1d and 2d-nmr spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.201324273868
phoenix dactylifera l. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity.a green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. the processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. the size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (tem). the particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. fourier transform infrar ...201424247096
coupled electrokinetics-adsorption technique for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organics from saline-sodic soil.in situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. in this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electro ...201324235885
influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.in semiarid mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm). in this study, we focused on sonchus tenerrimus l. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in p. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in these peculiar habitats and ...201324038687
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