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identification of phosphate granules occurring in seedling tissue of two palm species (phoenix dactylifera and washingtonia filifera).haustoria of two palm species, phoenix dactylifera l. (date) and washingtonia filifera (lindl.) wendl were carefully dissected from seeds, and the ultrastructural characteristics of the large, electron-opaque granules present in the cells of this tissue were compared using standard aldehyde and oso4 fixations. in washingtonia, the granules were smaller than those in date and were more variable in size and presence of non-opaque inclusions. all granules appeared to be membrane bounded although th ...198624240299
phoenix dactylifera l. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity.a green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. the processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. the size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (tem). the particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. fourier transform infrar ...201424247096
a new glucuronolactone glycoside phoenixoside b from the seeds of phoenix dactylifera.a new glucuronolactone glycoside, phoenixoside b (1), has been isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of seeds of phoenix dactylifera. the structure was characterized as 1-(1'-ethyl-beta-d-glucosyl)-4,5-diethyl-[alpha-d-glucofuranourono-6,3-lactone] on the basis of 1d and 2d-nmr spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.201324273868
control of size and viscoelastic properties of nanofibrillated cellulose from palm tree by varying the tempo-mediated oxidation time.the main objective of the present study was to control and optimize the preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose (nfc) from the date palm tree by monitoring the oxidation time (degree of oxidation) of the pristine cellulose and the number of cycles through the homogenizer. the oxidation was monitored by tempo (1-oxo-2,2,6,6-tétraméthylpipyridine 1-oxyle) mediated oxidation. evidence of the successful isolation of nfc was given by fe-sem observation revealing fibrils with a width in the range 20- ...201424274481
comparison of the essential oil content and composition of the spathe, buds and pollen of phoenix dactylifera.several medicinal applications have been reported for different components of date palm. the inflorescence of the male date tree is composed of spathe that surrounds many buds containing pollen. in this study, a comparison between the content and composition of the essential oils obtained from these three components of an inflorescence was made. after obtaining each oil using hydro-distillation method, the oil yield was measured as the weight ratio of the oil to the distilled sample (w/w %) and ...201424279318
characteristics of starch-based biodegradable composites reinforced with date palm and flax fibers.the aim of this work is to study the behavior of completely biodegradable starch-based composites containing date palm fibers in the range from 20 to 80 wt%. hybrid composites containing date palm and flax fibers, 25 wt% each, were also examined. the composites were preheated and then hot pressed at 5 mpa and 160°c for 30 min. sem investigation showed strong adhesion between fibers and matrix. density measurements showed very small void fraction (less than 0.142%) for composites containing up to ...201424299743
fungal diversity in adult date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especially in harsh environments, such as arid regions. this flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various troublesome host diseases. the present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of tunisian date palm trees (phoenix dactylifera). accordingly, 13 isolates from both root a ...201324302709
allelopathic effects ofcitrus aurantium l. : i. vegetational patterning.field observations on undisturbed stands of sour orange revealed thatcynodon dactylon, chenopodium album, avena sativa, andamaranthus retroflexus were not able to grow normally and complete their life cycles under its canopies, although the same species grow well under adjacent trees of date palm. investigations revealed that the failure of the test species to grow normally under sour orange was not due to competition for light, moisture and minerals or to differences in soil texture or ph. soil ...198524311244
oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.in this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (dfae) on trichloroacetic acid (tca)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. oral administration of tca as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/l) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (cat) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (sod) activity and malondial ...201424338383
risk levels of invasive fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivation under various climate change projections.global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by csiro-mk3.0 (cs) and miroc-h (mr) gcms, was modeled and combined with the future di ...201324340100
physicochemical properties and mineral contents of seven different date fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties growing from saudi arabia.the date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits (soukari, soulag, barhi, khulas, rozaiz, soughi and monaif) were evaluated with respect to some physical and chemical properties. while crude protein contents of fruits change between 1.51% (soulag) to 2.41% (soughi), crude fibre contents ranged between 1.91% (soukari) to 3.90% (barhi). vitamin c contents of date samples changed between 971.82 mg/kg (soughi) to 1,453.15 mg/kg (barhi). antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.07 ic50 (soukari) to ...201424346347
comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of some date seed varieties from iran.the genus phoenix is one of the most widely cultivated groups of palms around the world. the aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of 14 different varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l., arecaceae) seed extracts with 5 solvents [water, methanol, methanol (50%), dmso, and water: methanol: acetone: formic acid (20:40:40:0.1)]. ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and folin-ciocalteu reagent was used for determination of the antioxidant ...201024363720
nipah virus infection: current scenario.the emergence of nipah virus (niv) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. in malaysia, a major niv outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from september 1998 to april 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. about 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. the disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in india in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2 ...201324426305
characterization of ten date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia using aflp and issr markers.date palm is the most economically important plant in the middle east due to its nutritionally valuable fruit. the development of accurate dna fingerprints to characterize cultivars and the detection of genetic diversity are of great value for breeding programs. the present study explores the usefulness of issr and aflp molecular markers to detect relationships among 10 date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia. thirteen issr primers and six aflp primer combinations were exa ...201424439547
occupational lung diseases among soldiers deployed to iraq and afghanistan.military personnel deployed to iraq and afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel jp-8. depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. additional env ...201324443711
the chloroplast dna locus psbz-trnfm as a potential barcode marker in phoenix l. (arecaceae).the genus phoenix (arecaceae) comprises 14 species distributed from cape verde islands to se asia. it includes the economically important species phoenix dactylifera. the paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of phoenix species difficult. in this context, the development of reliable dna markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chlo ...201324453552
integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation of saline-sodic soils: effects of voltage gradient and contaminant concentration on soil electrical conductivity.in this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique which couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. natural saline-sodic clay soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, cr, cd, cu, zn, pb, and hg), was used in this study to investigate the effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant conc ...201324459439
characterization of novel intermediate food products from spanish date palm (phoenix dactylifera l., cv. confitera) co-products for industrial use.the nutritive, physicochemical and technological characteristics of several intermediate food products (ifps) from spanish confitera fresh date co-products were investigated. three ifps were obtained, two from unblanched dates in different ripening stages (khalal and rutab), and a third one from blanched khalal fruits. the ifps were rich in dietary fibre (13-16%, dry matter), phenolics (0.56-4.26g gae/100g dry matter) and sugars (55-82%, dry matter), with glucose and fructose as the predominant ...201424518342
phenotyping date palm varieties via leaflet cross-sectional imaging and artificial neural network application.true date palms (phoenix dactylifera l.) are impressive trees and have served as an indispensable source of food for mankind in tropical and subtropical countries for centuries. the aim of this study is to differentiate date palm tree varieties by analysing leaflet cross sections with technical/optical methods and artificial neural networks (ann).201424564551
circadian release of male-specific components of the greater date moth, aphomia (arenipses) sabella, using sequential spme/gc/ms analysis.the greater date moth (gdm), aphomia sabella hampson (lepidoptera: pyralidae: galleriinae), is a serious pest of date palms, phoenix dactylifera. the release of volatiles from both males and females was investigated using sequential spme/gc/ms analysis. males release a complex mixture of compounds in a circadian rhythm during the night between 03:00 and 05:00 hr. six compounds were identified: benzaldehyde, sulcatol (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol), geranyl acetone [(e)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-on ...201424567046
aqueous date fruit extract protects against lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in the liver of rats subchronically exposed to trichloroacetic acid.trichloroacetic acid (tca) is a prominent by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. it induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective role of the aqueous date extract (ade) against tca-induced liver injury. forty-eight male wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight: group i served as the control; group ii was given ade by gavage; groups iii and iv received tca as dri ...201424573459
influence of fresh date palm co-products on the ripening of a paprika added dry-cured sausage model system.date palm co-products are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used as a new ingredient for the meat industry. an intermediate food product (ifp) from date palm co-products (5%) was incorporated into a paprika added dry-cured sausage (pads) model system and was analysed for physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation and sensory attributes during ripening. addition of 5% ifp yielded a product with physicochemical properties similar to the traditional one. instrumental colour differences ...201424576770
effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (phoenix dactylifera l.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.the current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (git) activity in healthy adult rats. in this respect, male wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (nacl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 ml/kg, b.w.). two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respecti ...201424611963
dna barcoding based on plastid matk and rna polymerase for assessing the genetic identity of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars.the cultivated date palm is the most agriculturally important species of the arecaceae family. the standard chloroplast dna barcode for land plants recommended by the consortium for the barcode of life plant working group needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. therefore, we assessed the potential of the matk and rpoc1 markers for the authentication of date cultivars. there is not one universal method to authenticate date cultivars. in this study, 11 different date cultivars wer ...201424615105
foodborne transmission of nipah virus in syrian hamsters.since 2001, outbreaks of nipah virus have occurred almost every year in bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. epidemiological data suggest that in bangladesh, nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. to experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of nipah virus infection, we determined the via ...201424626480
the effect of date seed (phoenix dactylifera) extract on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats.paraoxonase 1 (pon1) is a high- density lipoprotein (hdl)-associated enzyme, displaying esterase and lactonase activity. the pon1 is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, metabolizing toxic oxidized lipids and detoxifying of organophosphorus insecticide compounds and nerve agents.201424644436
chamaerops humilis l. var. argentea andré date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.chamaerops humilis l. var. argentea andré (c. humilis) date palm seeds are an underutilized source of vegetable oil, and no studies describing their physicochemical characteristics to indicate the potential uses of this seed or seed oil have been reported. the oil content of the seeds is about 10%, mainly composed of oleic acid (38.71%), lauric acid (21.27%), linoleic acid (15.15%), palmitic acid (9.96%), and stearic acid (7.17%). the tocol (tocopherols and tocotrienols) content is 74 mg/100 g, ...201424666023
whole mitochondrial and plastid genome snp analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.date palm is a very important crop in western asia and northern africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. the huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. one of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. whole mitochondrial and plast ...201424718264
sensitivity analysis of climex parameters in modeling potential distribution of phoenix dactylifera l.using climex and the taguchi method, a process-based niche model was developed to estimate potential distributions of phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm), an economically important crop in many counties. development of the model was based on both its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out in terms of its extensive distribution in iran. to identify model parameters having greatest influence on distribution of date palm, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. changes in su ...201424722140
phytochemicals in date co-products and their antioxidant activity.the date agro-industry needs to find appropriate techniques to give value to their co-products. this study analyzes twelve intermediate food products (ifps) from date co-products, medjool and confitera cv. at several ripening stages, blanched and unblanched, for their content in bioactive compounds (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, carotenoids and anthocyanins) and the antioxidant activity (aa). ifps from the more unripe stages had the highest aa and phytochemicals content, mainly phenols, up to 1. ...201424731377
a first genetic map of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) reveals long-range genome structure conservation in the palms.the date palm is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. it is critical in many ways to cultures in arid lands by providing highly nutritious fruit while surviving extreme heat and environmental conditions. despite its importance from antiquity, few genetic resources are available for improving the productivity and development of the dioecious date palm. to date there has been no genetic map and no sex chromosome has been identified.201424735434
therapeutic effects of date fruits (phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.the current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. in this vista, natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. dates are main fruit in the arabian peninsula and are considered to be one of the mo ...201424753740
piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in bangladesh.drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of nipah virus transmission to humans in bangladesh. bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. we conducted a study from november 2008 to march 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). we spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity in ...201424755262
r848, a toll-like receptors 7 and 8 agonist, a potential therapy for allergic rhinitis patients.there is a growing interest in the targeting of toll-like receptors (tlrs) for the treatment of allergic diseases. tlrs7/8 ligands are future candidates of therapeutic value in allergic rhinitis (ar). this study focus on tlrs7/8 ligand; resiquimod (r848) as an adjuvant to immunotherapy (it) in ar patient.201424773332
three new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi discovered at one location in a desert of oman: diversispora omaniana, septoglomus nakheelum and rhizophagus arabicus.three new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi (glomeromycota) were isolated from soil samples collected from a hyperarid sandy plain of south arabia. morphological characteristics of the spores clearly differentiated them from closely related am species. molecular analyses were performed on rdna sequences obtained from single spores including a ~1700 bp region comprising partial ssu, its, partial lsu and the ~600 bp its region only. the phylogenetic trees based on these regions showed t ...201724782493
review: ajwa date (phoenix dactylifera)- an emerging plant in pharmacological research.date fruits are consumed in arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. phoenix dactylifera belongs to family arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. besides these, dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, rbcs, hb, pcv, reticulocytes and plate ...201424811825
identification of pheromone synergists for rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.trapping systems for the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. the identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. canary islands date palms (phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for r. ferrugineus in europe; thus, the volatile pr ...201424930773
determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in saudi arabian date fruits.whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (aas) in edible fruits of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) aas and amino components are scarce. with emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, hplc employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and gc-ms of total hydrolysates using the chira ...201424938763
the protective effect of phoenix dactylifera l. seeds against ccl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.in traditional egyptian medicine, phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm) seeds are listed in folk remedies for the management of diabetes, liver diseases and gastrointestinal disorders. the present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of phoenix dactylifera l. seeds aqueous suspension against the chemically-induced hepatic injury in rats.201424945397
effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.).antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. at present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (shewanella putrefaciens pdp11 and bacillus sp), single or in combination with tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. the expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes ...201424952087
effect of dietary supplementation of dates in alzheimer's disease appsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.oxidative stress may play a key role in alzheimer's disease (ad) neuropathology. changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ad transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from oman. the 4-month-old mice with double swedish app mutation (appsw/tg2576) were purchased from taconic farm, ny, usa; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet ...201524954036
a report on biocompounds from palm fossil of india.the occurrence of a large number of fossil woods having resemblance in anatomical features with the modern palm genus, phoenix l in deccan intertrappean fossil flora of maastrichtian-danian age (i. e. late cretaceous and earliest tertiary (65-67 my)) indicates the most primitive record of date palm. present discovery of biocompounds from fossil wood of phoenix collected from deccan intertrappean having affinity with the biocompounds known from modern plant further exemplify the earliest document ...201424966541
tissue and cellular localization of tannins in tunisian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.a histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (tem) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (phoenix dactylifera l.). light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (dmaca) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (tem), results sho ...201424987926
enzyme activity and biochemical changes of three date palm cultivars with different softening pattern during ripening.the physicochemical composition changes during palm ripening were studied. the activities of invertase and cell wall-modifying enzymes, namely pectin methylesterase (pme), β-galactosidase (β-gal), endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase (egase), and cellulase were monitored during growth and ripening of shahani, piarom and deiry cultivars with different textures. also, we estimated the concentrations of six organic acids by hplc. reducing sugars, most of organic acid, ph and tss increased up to the full-ripe sta ...201225005944
date palm pollen as a preventative intervention in radiation- and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a pilot study.the objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of date palm pollen (dpp) in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation and chemotherapy.201425148841
the complete plastid genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius (asparagaceae: lomandroideae).the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius was firstly determined in subfamily lomandriodeae of family asparagaceae. it was 159,736 bp and contained a large single copy region (82,403 bp) and a small single copy region (13,607 bp) which were separated by two inverted repeat regions (31,863 bp). in total, 132 genes were identified and they were consisted of 83 coding genes, 8 rrna genes, 38 trna genes, 3 pseudogenes. rpl23 and clpp were pseudogenes due to sequence dele ...201625186113
in vitro cytotoxicity effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen on neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells.there is a fast growing tendency in the use of herbal remedies in developing countries. one of the traditional medicines used for male infertility treatment is date palm (phoenix dactylifera) pollen (dpp). isolated spermatogonial stem cells and sertoli cells using enzymatic digestion were grown in dulbecco's modified eagle's medium supplemented with 4% foetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of 0.06, 0.25 and 0.62 mg/ml concentrations of aqueous extract of dpp for 2 weeks. the assessment ...201525189835
comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the red palm weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) treated by entomopathogenic nematodes.the red palm weevil, rhynocophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: curculionidae) has become the most important pest of the date palm trees in the world. it has been reported in the kingdom of saudi arabia since 1987 and in egypt since 1992. studies were conducted to compare preferences among red palm weevil life stages for infection by 12 entomopathogenic nematodes (epns), under no choice and five stage choice experiments, and curative trials by some of epns isolates. all epn isolates proved ...201425195420
study on life parameters of the invasive species octodonta nipae (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.in southeastern china, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid octodonta nipae (maulik) (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of o. nipae. o. nipae could not complete its development on the majestic palm (ravenea rivularis jumelle & perrier), and females did not lay eggs on chinese fan palm (livistona chinensis r. brown). however, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on ...201425195440
genetic transformation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l. cv. 'estamaran') via particle bombardment.in this study, an efficient transformation system for gene delivery in date palm was established. the effects of different physical and biological parameters were optimized for transient transformation of uida gene in somatic embryos of estamaran cultivar. the tissues were bombarded with constructs harboring the uida gene driven by camv 35s or rice act1 promoter. efficiency of expression was estimated by comparison of the number of blue spots resulted from gus assay. optimal transient expression ...201425200434
in silico mining of microsatellites in coding sequences of the date palm (arecaceae) genome, characterization, and transferability. 201425202594
nutritional assessment and antioxidant analysis of 22 date palm (phoenix dactylifera) varieties growing in sultanate of oman.to assess the nutritional values and antioxidant analysis of 22 varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) fruit collected from various regions of the sultanate of oman.201425312188
direct in vivo evidence of immense stem water exploitation in irrigated date palms.during the summer, evaporative demand at midday often exceeds the transport capacity of most desert plants. however, date palms maintain their ecological dominance with sustained and uniquely high rates of transpiration. this high rate of flow cannot be attributed to soil water supply alone. in order to quantify intra-plant water allocation in irrigated date palms, three water-sensing techniques have been incorporated: heat dissipation, gravimetric sampling, and time domain reflectrometry. each ...201525336690
effect of date palm coproducts and annatto extract on lipid oxidation and microbial quality in a pork liver pâté.dates are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, and coproducts from the date industry are of potential use in the manufacturing of meat products. in the present research, spreadable pork liver pâtés were made using fresh date coproducts (2.5% and 7.5%) as a potential functional ingredient and an ethanolic annatto extract (128 mg/kg) as colorant. the effect of these 2 ingredients on the lipid oxidation and microbial quality of the pâtés was assessed during 21 d of storage. the pâtés conta ...201425349917
biology, predation, and life table of cydnoseius negevi and neoseiulus barkeri (acari: phytoseiidae) on the old world date mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus (acari: tetranychidae).the old world date mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the middle east and north africa. considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against o. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of cydnoseius negevi (swirski and amitai) and neoseiulus barkeri hughes (acari: phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35 ...201425368087
two culture approaches used to determine the co-composting stages by assess of the total microflora changes during sewage sludge and date palm waste co-composting.indigenous microflora community changes during six months of co-composting of activated sewage sludge and date palm waste was investigated using two different culture approaches. in order to evaluate the co-composting process evolution for mixture a and b, growth standard media (gsm) and compost time extract agar (ctea) are used. enumeration for indigenous flora abundance on gsm medium shows that the colony-forming unit (cfu) total number was 100 fold higher than on ctea. the thermophilic phase ...201425419463
koh-based porous carbon from date palm seed: preparation, characterization, and application to phenol adsorption.the date palm seed being one of the major forms of biomass produced from the date industry in uae, its potential to be an appropriate precursor for the preparation of porous carbon utilizing koh as an activating agent is assessed in the present work. the porous carbon is prepared at an activation temperature of 600 °c, impregnation ratio of 2, and activation duration of 1 hour, in an inert atmosphere using a conventional horizontal furnace. the resultant porous carbon has a brunauer-emmett-telle ...201425429451
enzymatic activities in different strains isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves: study of amylase production conditions.the present study aimed to investigate and compare the enzymatic production of endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves (pectinase, cellulase, lipase, and amylase). the findings revealed that the enzymatic products from the bacterial isolates of healthy date palm leaves were primarily 33% amylolytic enzyme, 33 % cellulase, 25 % pectinase, and 25 % lipase. the isolates from brittle leaf disease date palm leaves, on the other hand, were noted to ...201525432343
effects of date palm pollen (phoenix dactylifera l.) and astragalus ovinus on sperm parameters and sex hormones in adult male rats.date palm pollen (dpp) and astragalus genus are used in some countries for the treatment of infertility.201425469129
cultivation of oyster mushroom pleurotus ostreatus on date-palm leaves mixed with other agro-wastes in saudi arabia.promoting the use of agricultural waste is one of the newly prepared water and environment friendly agriculture strategies in the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa). the objective of this research was to study the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom (pleurotus ostreatus) on date palm wastes mixed with other agricultural wastes available in ksa. four agricultural wastes were mixed with date palm leaves at different ratios, with two supplements and three spawn rates were used. wheat straw mixed w ...201425473372
chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of sudanese date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits.the aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in sudan. the results showed that sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (p < 0.05) amounts of moisture, ash, fiber, oil, and carbohydrates, but have almost similar amounts of protein. moreover, results revealed that date varieties contained significantly varied (p < 0.05) amounts of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, w ...201425473506
antioxidant activity of various mauritanian date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits at two edible ripening stages.the increasing interest in plant phenolics and flavonoids outlined the necessity of determining their contents and biological activity in mauritanian date palm fruits. methanolic extracts of fruit of six date palm cultivars commonly grown in mauritania were screened for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and flavonoid content at two edible ripening stages. polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in theblah stage, corresponding tokhalal in the standard iraqi arabic nomenclature, compared ...201425493188
dna barcoding for species identification in the palmae family.dna barcoding is a promising tool for species identification at the molecular level. the barcoding system is well established for species differentiation in animals, while it is less common in plants. we evaluated 2 barcoding regions, maturase k (matk) and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcl), to compare species of palmae according to amplification success, discrimination power, and inter- and intra-specific divergence. both regions appear to have potential to discriminate most species of pa ...201425501246
seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in the north saharan oases ecosystems.the rhinoceros borer oryctes agamemnon burmeister (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including tunisia, the united arab emirates (uae), oman, and saudi arabia. the aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. experiments were performed on a date palm of rjim maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). field survey using light traps shows that o. agamemno ...201425527574
antioxidant potential of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a ph range of 2-12. the hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp; 0.3%, w/w). incorporat ...201525553507
inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on spores and mycotoxin production of aspergillus niger contaminating date palm fruits.aspergillus niger has been reported as a potentially dangerous pathogen of date-palm fruits in saudi arabia due to the production of fumonisin b2 (fb2 ) and ochratoxin a (ota). in a trial to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (dapacp) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxin production of the pathogen.201525557283
genome-wide survey of the seagrass zostera muelleri suggests modification of the ethylene signalling network.seagrasses are flowering plants which grow fully submerged in the marine environment. they have evolved a range of adaptations to environmental challenges including light attenuation through water, the physical stress of wave action and tidal currents, high concentrations of salt, oxygen deficiency in marine sediment, and water-borne pollination. although, seagrasses are a key stone species of the costal ecosystems, many questions regarding seagrass biology and evolution remain unanswered. genom ...201525563969
proanthocyanidin-rich date seed extract protects against chemically induced hepatorenal toxicity.a hydroacetone extract was prepared from seeds of phoenix dactylifera l. var. khalas, which is an industrial by-product of date processing. the proanthocyanidin nature of the extract (coded as dtx) was characterized by phytochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) analyses. the total phenol/proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity of dtx were estimated by folin-ciocalteu, vanillin-sulfuric acid, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) assays, respectively. the hepatorenal protecti ...201525569813
modeling the effects of climate on date palm scale (parlatoria blanchardi) population dynamics during different phenological stages of life history under hot arid conditions.the date palm scale (dps) parlatoria blanchardi is a serious pest due to the damage it inflicts on its host tree (phoenix dactylifera). to develop an effective control against dps in arid regions, it is essential to know its bio-ecology including population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the duration and timing of life history and also the densities of different phenological stages (crawlers, first and second instars nymphs, adult males, and adult females). monitoring of biological cy ...201525601782
phoenix dactylifera seeds ameliorate early diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.in arabic folk medicine, the seeds of phoenix dactylifera l. (arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of p. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored.201525612778
chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seed oil of two algerian date palm cultivars (phoenix dactylifera).the fatty acid composition of date seed oil from two different date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars, locally known as degla-baïdha and tafezouine, were investigated. gc analysis revealed the presence of five dominant fatty acids: oleic c18:1 (46.51; 39.15%), lauric c12:0 (22.1; 28.5%), myristic c14:0 (10.7; 11.4%), palmitic c16:0 (9.6; 8.7%) and linoleic c18:2 (6.9; 6.1%). the oils was characterised by a low content of tocopherols (0.53; 1.41 μg/g). the antioxidant activity of the oils w ...201425632483
profiling microrna expression during multi-staged date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit development.micrornas (mirnas) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. in this study, we first identified 238 conserved mirnas in date palm (phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (fda) mirnas, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel p. dactylifera-sp ...201525638647
effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.in this study, the antioxidant effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l., arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °c was determined. butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) was used as positive control in the experiment. all extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to bha up to 21 days. when antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with bha, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarka ...201525694743
study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.edible parts of two varieties of date palm (mazfati and kalute varieties) (phoenix dactylifera) fruits (dpf) from iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (aa). antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph), reducing power and total antioxidant method. the total phenolic content (tpc) of the dpf was measured using folin-ciocalteau method. the samples used in this study included samples were gathered at ...201525745262
african palm ethno-medicine.this study is the first to demonstrate the breadth and patterns of the medicinal applications of african palms. it sheds light on species with the potential to provide new therapeutic agents for use in biomedicine; and links the gap between traditional use of palms and pharmacological evaluation for the beneficial effects of palm products on human health. last but not least, the study provides recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys.201525749399
antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'amari' and 'hallawi' date (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties.date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'amari' and 'hallawi', by solid phase extraction on c18. the fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by rp-hplc and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of cu(2+)-induced ldl oxidation, and enhancement of hdl-mediated chole ...201525765921
bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: a comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface.novel bio-based polyurethane (pu) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and polycaprolactone (pcl) diol based pu were prepared by casting/evaporation. two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (cnfs) and cellulose nanocrystals (cncs). the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by dma, dsc, and tensile tests and the morphology was investigated by sem. bionanocomposites presented good mechanical ...201525817660
date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.dramatic growth in date (phoenix dactylifera l.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. in this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.201525829568
effect of phoenix dactyliferia (date palm) pit powder on nicotine induced spermatotoxicty in adult albino mice.to study the effect of phoenix dactyliferia pit powder on nicotine-induced spermatotoxicty in adult albino mice.201525831673
cholesterol overload impairing cerebellar function: the promise of natural products.the cerebellum is the part of the brain most involved in controlling motor and cognitive function. the surface becomes convoluted, forming folia that have a characteristic internal structure of three layers including molecular, purkinje cell, and granular layer. this complex neural network gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability. cholesterol is a major constituent, derived by de novo synthesis and the blood-brain barrier. cholesterol is tightly regulated between neurons and glia-tha ...201525837204
projected future distribution of date palm and its potential use in alleviating micronutrient deficiency.micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long-ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin a are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. consumption of a 100 g portion of date flesh from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micron ...201625847224
isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera bacillus and enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory ...201525860542
the date palm tree rhizosphere is a niche for plant growth promoting bacteria in the oasis ecosystem.in arid ecosystems environmental factors such as geoclimatic conditions and agricultural practices are of major importance in shaping the diversity and functionality of plant-associated bacterial communities. assessing the influence of such factors is a key to understand (i) the driving forces determining the shape of root-associated bacterial communities and (ii) the plant growth promoting (pgp) services they provide. desert oasis environment was chosen as model ecosystem where agriculture is p ...201525866759
genetic diversity of qatari date palm using ssr markers.the genetic diversity in the date palm germplasm of 59 female accessions representing 12 cultivars from different locations in qatar was investigated using 14 loci of simple-sequence repeat (ssr) primers. a total of 94 alleles, with a mean of 6.7 alleles per locus, were scored. the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 (primer mpdcir090) to 11 (primers mpdcir010 and mpdcir015). the amplified ssr band sizes ranged from 104 to 330 bp. the mean gene diversity was 0.66 and ranged from 0.39 (locu ...201525867305
physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.) .the oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in saudi arabia. the results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. the refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. the iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the ...201525895270
diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. in saudi arabia, both larvae and adults of oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to development of new inse ...201525899000
identification of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon.laboratory and field investigations aimed to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm pest oryctes agamemnon. live males or extracts of male effluvia attracted conspecifics in an olfactometer, whereas female effluvia attracted only males. volatile emissions from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analysed by gas chromatography (gc) and gc/mass spectrometry (gc/ms). males emitted a blend of 1) ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, 2) 4-methyloctanoic acid, 3) 4-methyloctanyl a ...201525900246
controlling nipah virus encephalitis in bangladesh: policy options.nipah virus (niv) encephalitis is endemic in bangladesh, with yearly seasonal outbreaks occurring since 2003. niv has a notable case fatality rate, 75-100 per cent depending on the strain. in bangladesh, primary transmission to humans is believed to be because of consumption of bat-contaminated date palm sap (dps). both the disease and the virus have been investigated extensively, however efforts to implement preventive strategies have met social and cultural challenges. here we present a variet ...201525925087
antioxidants as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for cadmium.epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. because numerous effects to cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prev ...201625944010
a genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two major subpopulations in phoenix dactylifera.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. there are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of north africa to india. the origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. we conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar ...201525957276
effect of potassium nitrate on antioxidants production of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) in vitro.antioxidants present in dates are necessary for all physiological processes of humans and animals. in saudi arabia date palm is a national fruit tree, produces millions of tons of dates for consumption and is considered a major source of antioxidants. the main aim of this study was to determine the role of potassium nitrate (kno3) in the formation of antioxidants from explants collected from date palm cultivars in al-ahsa oasis, kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) and to monitor the extent of its effe ...201426027167
production of date palm fruits free of acaricides residues by ozone technology as post-harvest treatment.distilled water and ozonated water as postharvest wash treatments for 15-60 min as dipping times were tested to remove two acaricides namely, dicofol and amitraz from different varieties of date fruits. recovered amount of the acaricides was extracted using solid phase extraction (spe) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). dicofol removal percentages in the presence of ozone increased in the order of nabtet aly > nabout seif > khalas > sakay, while amitraz removal in ...201526028713
oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. at present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (pgp) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resis ...201526033617
tunisian date (phoenix dactylifera l.) by-products: characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.three tunisian date varieties, deglet nour, kentichi and allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating deglet nour and kentichi s ...201526041157
salt tolerance research in date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.), past, present, and future perspectives.the date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. however, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. it is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. in this ...201526042137
determination of sucrose in date fruits (phoenix dactylifera l.) growing in the sultanate of oman by nir spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.a near infrared (nir) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the sultanate of oman. in this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. the sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one ...201526048559
the impact of date palm fruits and their component polyphenols, on gut microbial ecology, bacterial metabolites and colon cancer cell proliferation.the fruit of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a rich source of dietary fibre and polyphenols. we have investigated gut bacterial changes induced by the whole date fruit extract (digested date extract; dde) and its polyphenol-rich extract (date polyphenol extract; dpe) using faecal, ph-controlled, mixed batch cultures mimicking the distal part of the human large intestine, and utilising an array of microbial group-specific 16s rrna oligonucleotide probes. fluorescence microscopic enumera ...201426101614
date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.the objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. an abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. to evaluate the antagonistic effects of th ...201626102058
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.date palms (phoenix dactylifera, arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. however, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the atlantic shores to southern asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. in order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geog ...201526113618
evolving epidemiology of nipah virus infection in bangladesh: evidence from outbreaks during 2010-2011.drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of nipah virus (niv) transmission from bats to people in bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. during december 2010 to march 2011, we investigated niv epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. we identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory- ...201626122675
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