in vitro conservation of date palm shoot-tip explants and callus cultures under minimal growth palm fruit production has great economic significance for many countries. there is a fundamental necessity to conserve valuable date palm germplasm, but there are various problems with in vivo and ex situ conservation. in vitro storage has several advantages over conventional germplasm conservation methods. the in vitro technique offers a developed method of slow-growth storage, which is considered as an alternate solution for short- and medium-term storage of date palm germplasm under cont ...201728755213
in vitro cryopreservation of date palm caulogenic meristems.cryopreservation is the technology of choice not only for plant genetic resource preservation but also for virus eradication and for the efficient management of large-scale micropropagation. in this chapter, we describe three cryopreservation protocols (standard vitrification, droplet vitrification, and encapsulation vitrification) for date palm highly proliferating meristems that are initiated from vitro-cultures using plant growth regulator-free ms medium. the positive impact of sucrose precul ...201728755212
cryopreservation of date palm pro-embryonic masses using the d cryo-plate this chapter, we describe a cryopreservation (liquid nitrogen, -196 °c) protocol developed for long-term storage of date palm pro-embryonic masses (pems), which uses the recently established d cryo-plate technique. clumps of pems (3-5 mm in size) were dissected from pem cultures and placed on pretreatment medium containing 171 g/l sucrose for 3 days. clumps were placed in the wells of aluminum cryo-plates in which they were made to adhere using droplets of 3% calcium alginate. pems were treat ...201728755211
in vitro conservation of date palm tissue vitro technology offers a potential solution for the conservation of date palm germplasm. slow growth induced by low temperature allows storage from several months up to few years. otherwise, cryopreservation is suitable for long-term in vitro conservation, at between -79 and -196 °c. this chapter describes a protocol for cold storage at 5 °c and cryopreservation of date palm tissue cultures. for cold storage, 70% of shoot buds remain healthy after storing for 12 months at 5 °c, and callus cu ...201728755210
storage and viability assessment of date palm pollen.pollen storage and viability are very important for pollination, breeding, biodiversity, biotechnology, conservation, and other biological and non-biological studies of the date palm. optimizing procedures and duration of storage are important for effective and long-term date palm pollen storage and viability. here we describe pollen storage methods, such as room temperature (25-30 °c), refrigeration (4 °c), storage at 4 °c in desiccators, deep freezer (-20 °c), and cryopreservation (-196 °c). b ...201728755209
plant domestication: wild date palms illuminate a crop's sticky a new study, previously unknown populations of wild date palm have been identified in remote areas of oman. genomic analyses indicate date palm domestication occurred in the eastern portion of the arabian peninsula and reveal substantial subsequent gene flow with african palm populations.201728743015
the discovery of wild date palms in oman reveals a complex domestication history involving centers in the middle east and africa.for many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [1, 2] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication [3]. however, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. perennial crops generally present a weak domestication syndrome allowing cultivated individuals to establish feral populations difficult to distinguish from truly wild populations, and there is frequently ongoing gene flow between wi ...201728712568
antioxidant system response and cdna-scot marker profiling in phoenix dactylifera l. plant under salinity stress.many phoenix dactylifera (date palm) cultivars are grown in the arid and semiarid regions of the world, including saudi arabia. p. dactylifera is highly tolerant to salinity stress. to investigate the response of khalas cultivar of p. dactylifera, two-month-old plants were treated with sodium chloride (50, 100, and 150 mm nacl) for three months. our result showed that proline content was higher in all treated plants compared to control plants. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) were ...201728702461
the desert plant phoenix dactylifera closes stomata via nitrate-regulated slac1 anion palm phoenix dactylifera is a desert crop well adapted to survive and produce fruits under extreme drought and heat. how are palms under such harsh environmental conditions able to limit transpirational water loss? here, we analysed the cuticular waxes, stomata structure and function, and molecular biology of guard cells from p. dactylifera. to understand the stomatal response to the water stress phytohormone of the desert plant, we cloned the major elements necessary for guard cell fast ab ...201728670699
synthetic co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon.laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest oryctes agamemnon are reported. volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. a collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic p ...201728667548
cardiopreventive effect of ethanolic extract of date palm pollen against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats through the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme.the present study aimed to examine the putative preventive effect of the ethanolic extract date palm pollen (dpp, phoenix dactylifera l., family arecaceae) on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (mi) in rats. twenty four rats were randomly divided into four groups including control. they were treated with dpp extract (400mg/kg) and clopidogrel (0.2mg/kg) for 7days followed by myocardial injury induction using subcutaneous isoproterenol (100mg/kg) with an interval of 24h for two days (6th ...201728645882
antibacterial activities of diospyros blancoi, phoenix dactylifera and morus nigra against dental caries causing pathogens: an in vitro study.the study was undertaken to determine the in-vitro antibacterial potential of diospyrosblancoi, phoenix dactylifera and morusnigra leaf extracts in hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethyl-acetate and aqueous extracts against dental caries causing bacteria. disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial efficacy; the extracts were further separated using thin layer chromatography and the anti-biofilm activity of the extracts was also determined. the preliminary phytochemical screening o ...201728603127
apparent metabolizable energy value of whole date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and its possible use as a feedstuff for aged laying hens.this study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of whole date palm (wdp) with and without enzyme supplementation on aged laying hen's performance. apparent metabolizable energy value of wdp was determined by the total collection method using ten adult leghorn cockerels. wdp was substituted with a corn-soybean meal basal diet at 40% level, and then the metabolizable energy of this experimental diet and basal diet was determined. after that, a total number of 256 bovanz 95-week-old hens wer ...201728597141
detecting early signs of heat and drought stress in phoenix dactylifera (date palm).plants adapt to the environment by either long-term genome evolution or by acclimatization processes where the cellular processes and metabolism of the plant are adjusted within the existing potential in the genome. here we studied the adaptation strategies in date palm, phoenix dactylifera, under mild heat, drought and combined heat and drought by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. in transcriptomics data, combined heat and drought resembled heat response, whereas in metabolomics data it ...201728570677
impact of environmental variables on dubas bug infestation rate: a case study from the sultanate of palm cultivation is economically important in the sultanate of oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. however, a global infestation of dubas bug (ommatissus lybicus bergevin) has impacted the middle east region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. in this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations be ...201728558069
charting novel allergens from date palm pollen (phoenix sylvestris) using homology driven proteomics.pollen grains from phoenix sylvestris (date palm), a commonly cultivated tree in india has been found to cause severe allergic diseases in an increasing percentage of hypersensitive individuals. to unearth its allergenic components, pollen protein were profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with date palm pollen sensitive patient sera. allergens were identified by maldi-tof/tof employing a layered proteomic approach combining conventional database dependent se ...201728535932
the use of high throughput dna sequence analysis to assess the endophytic microbiome of date palm roots grown under different levels of salt palms are able to grow under diverse abiotic stress conditions including in saline soils, where microbial communities may be help in the plant's salinity tolerance. these communities able to produce specific growth promoting substances can enhance date palm growth in a saline environment. however, these communities are poorly defined. in the work reported here, the date palm endophytic bacterial and fungal communities were identified using the pyrosequencing method, and the microbial differ ...201628494084
ethnobotanical survey of phoenix dactylifera l. pollen used for the treatment of infertility problems in algerian oases.the phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm) is known for its traditional medicinal properties across the history of native population in algerian sahara. there is a large trend of consumption of date palm pollen preparations in many human infertility cases in our country. however, the validity has not been scientifically tested. there has been no direct scientific research on this application. this study was undertaken to identify cultivars with greater potential in the traditional medicine uses. to ...201728480429
date stones of phoenix dactylifera and jujube shells of ziziphus lotus as potential biosorbents for anionic dye removal.this study investigated the biosorption of congo red (cr) from aqueous solution by date stones (ds) of phoenix dactylifera and jujube shells (js) of ziziphus lotus. batch operations were carried out in the liquid phase to observe the effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, ph, temperature, and initial dye concentration on removal of cr. the characteristics of the ds and js were also examined by fourier transform infrared analysis. the biosorption data of cr on ds and js s ...201728463549
hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed green and woody lignocellulosics from arid regions.utilization of multi-specie feedstocks is imperative for application of lignocellulosic biorefineries in arid regions. different lignocellulosic residues vary in composition and anatomical features. pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are two processes at the front end of any lignocellulosics biorefinery applying biochemical pathway, and have to efficiently deal with the variance in the feedstock composition and properties. however, there is limited knowledge about effect of mixing different l ...201728456045
somatic embryogenesis from bud and leaf explants of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. efficient regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm cv. najda. adventitious bud and proximal leaf segments cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins induced embryogenesis after at least 6 months of culture. somatic embryogenesis induction seemed correlated with the type of the explant, the induction period and the auxin used. the highest rate of somatic embryogenesis (86.0%) was obtained on b ...201728444601
date palm waste biochars alter a soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and heavy metal mobility in contaminated mined soil.a 30-day incubation experiment was conducted using a heavy metal-contaminated mined soil amended with date palm feedstock (fs) and its derivative biochars (bcs) at three pyrolysis temperatures of 300 (bc-300), 500 (bc-500), and 700 °c (bc-700) with different application rates (0.0, 5, 15, and 30 g kg-1) to investigate their short-term effects on soil respiration (co2-c efflux), microbial biomass carbon (mbc), soil organic carbon (soc), mobile fraction of heavy metals (cd, cu, pb, zn, mn, and fe) ...201728424945
diversity of algerian oases date palm (phoenix dactylifera l., arecaceae): heterozygote excess and cryptic structure suggest farmer management had a major impact on palm (phoenix dactyliferal.) is the mainstay of oasis agriculture in the saharan region. it is cultivated in a large part of the mediterranean coastal area of the sahara and in most isolated oases in the algerian desert. we sampled 10 oases in algeria to understand the structure of date palm diversity from the coastal area to a very isolated desert location. we used 18 microsatellite markers and a chloroplast minisatellite to characterize 414 individual palm trees corresponding to 114 named ...201728410422
identification and evaluation of antibacterial agents present in lipophilic fractions isolated from sub-products of phoenix this study, the dried powder of seeds and pollen of phoenix dactylifera was extracted using soxhlet extractor and biochemical composition of lipophilic extracts was analysed by gcms. then, we have tested the antibacterial effect of fatty acids and volatile compounds found in these sub-products. the results revealed that the main fatty acids found in deglet nour seeds is are oleic acid (42.06%) followed by capric acid (24.16%), takerbucht seeds extract contains mostly oleic acid (40.59%) and p ...201728403631
effect of various levels of date palm kernel on growth performance of broilers.the aim of this study was the assessment of various levels of date palm kernel (dpk) on the growth performance of broilers.201728344407
date palm waste-derived biochar composites with silica and zeolite: synthesis, characterization and implication for carbon stability and recalcitrant potential.engineered organo-mineral composites were synthesized from date palm waste biochar and silica or zeolite via mechanochemical treatments. date palm tree rachis (leaves) waste biomass was pre-treated with silica or zeolite minerals via ball milling and sonication prior to pyrolysis at 600 °c. the resultant organo-mineral composites and pristine materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential thermal (tg-dta), fourier transform infrared, scanning electron micros ...201728337620
genome-wide expression profiling in leaves and roots of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) exposed to palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in north african and west asian countries including oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown.201728330456
toxicity and detoxification mechanism of black pepper and its major constituent in controlling rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (curculionidae: coleoptera).the survival, feeding response, and detoxification mechanism of rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier, a key pest responsible for destruction of date palm, was examined with different extracts of piper nigrum and its major constituent (piperine) identified by gc-ms. in the present study, toxicity of different extracts of black pepper was evaluated by incorporating diffferent doses of extracts into the artificial diet of red palm weevil larvae. all extracts showed dose-dependent insecticidal activity ...201728326461
prevalence of skin sensitization to pollen of date palm in marrakesh, morocco.background. date palm's pollen has been identified as a source of allergy; the rate of sensitization of this pollen is between 6 and 29%. objective. to determine the prevalence of sensitization to date palm in marrakesh and to identify the clinical profile. patients and methods. this study is based on a questionnaire and the prick test on 7 allergens, in population aged 5 years and above with clinical symptoms suggesting allergic diseases, from november 2012 to february 2013 in marrakech. result ...201728270850
tentative characterization of polyphenolic compounds in the male flowers of phoenix dactylifera by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and dft.phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. these phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (lc/ms/ms) with negative ion detection. negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (ms), and in different ms/ms modes. for the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (cosa) and caffeoy ...201728257091
endophytic fungi associated with roots of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in coastal dunes.symbiotic interactions with fungal endophytes are argued to be responsible for the tolerance of plants to some stresses and for their adaptation to natural conditions.201728254367
short-term effects of date palm extract (phoenix dactylifera) on ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by testicular torsion/detorsion in rats.antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and have beneficial effects on human health.201728250657
the phytochelatin synthase gene in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.): phylogeny, evolution and expression.we studied date palm phytochelatin synthase type i (pdpcs1), which catalyzes the cytosolic synthesis of phytochelatins (pcs), a heavy metal binding protein, in plant cells. the gene encoding pdpcs1 (pdpcs) consists of 8 exons and 7 introns and encodes a protein of 528 amino acids. pcs gene history was studied using notung phylogeny. during evolution, gene loss from several lineages was predicted including proteobacteria, bilateria and brassicaceae. in addition, eleven gene duplication events app ...201728231507
batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (phoenix dactylifera l.) stones by koh chemical activation.granular activated carbon (kac) was prepared from abundant phoenix dactylifera l. stones by microwave- assisted koh activation. the characteristics of kac were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (sem) and fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (ftir). the adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (lev) antibiotic on kac with surface area of 817m2/g and pore volume of 0.638cm3/g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. the equilibrium data collected by batch experiments wer ...201728189062
extraction optimization and in vitro and in vivo anti-postprandial hyperglycemia effects of inhibitor from phoenix dactylifera l. parthenocarpic fruit.phoenix dactylifera l. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological tunisian sectors. some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named sish. the aqueous ethanolic extract from p. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates demonstrated a potent inhibition of the enzymes related to type ii diabetes. in this work, extraction optimization of amylase inhibitors was carried out using box-behnken design. bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract was performed to identif ...201728167450
dietary supplementation of phoenix dactylifera seeds enhances performance, immune response, and antioxidant status in broilers.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. this proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (dps) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (bio-mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. an aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages a ...201628127417
evaluation of the efficacy of insecticidal coatings based on teflutrin and chlorpyrifos against rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.), an important economic resource for many nations worldwide, has recently been threatened by the presence of different insect pests, like the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus.201728094903
fingerprinting of strong spermatogenesis steroidal saponins in male flowers of phoenix dactylifera (date palm) by lc-esi-ms.a fingerprint of steroid saponins, the major constituent in 80% methanolic fraction from the male flowers of phoenix dactylifera has been established. under esi-ms/ms conditions, the fragmentation patterns of [m - h]- ions exclusively displayed signals corresponding to the cleavage of the glycosidic bonds, thus allowing a rapid identification of 21 steroidal saponins. moreover, two unique among them conjugated with histidine were detected by lc-esi (-)-ms and dft and were given tentative names o ...201728049352
adsorption of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon in fixed bed column.carbonization of phoenix dactylifera l stones followed by microwave k2co3 activation was adopted for preparation of granular activated carbon (kac). high yield and favorable pore characteristics in terms of surface area and pore volume were reported for kac as follows: 44%, 852m2/g, and 0.671cm3/g, respectively. the application of kac as adsorbent for attraction of ciprofloxacin (cip) and norfloxacin (nor) was investigated using fixed bed systems. the effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed hei ...201728040619
phoenix dactylifera mediated green synthesis of cu2o particles for arsenite uptake from this study, an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and single-step procedure is used for the synthesis of polycrystalline cu2o particles with controlled morphologies. simple sugars are extracted from date fruit pulp (phoenix dactylifera) and used as a reducing agent for the formation of cu2o particles in aqueous medium. the feasibility of this solution is compared with the standard glucose solution. the cu2o particles are characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical ...201627933116
transfer factors for natural radioactivity into date palm pits.palm pits are used in various human and animal feed products. in this study, the natural radioactivity levels from soil and date palm pits of 9 samples collected from major date palm farms in three different regions (buraidah, al-zulfi and al-majmaah) of saudi arabia were determined by using the high purity germanium (hpge) gamma-ray spectrometer. the mean activity concentrations of 226ra, 232th, 137cs and 40k in soil samples were 12.8 ± 2.2, 10.2 ± 2.1, 0.28 ± 0.10 and 329 ± 87 bg kg-1, respect ...201727894743
proteome analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) under severe drought and salt palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. this study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/l nacl) and drought (82.5 g/l peg or no irrigation) conditions for one month. using a protein 2d electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. atp synthase cf1 alpha chains were significantly upregu ...201627840818
identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time pcr in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) subjected to drought and palm is an important crop plant in the arid and semi-arid regions supporting human population in the middle east and north africa. these areas have been largely affected by drought and salinity due to insufficient rainfall and improper irrigation practices. date palm is a relatively salt- and drought-tolerant plant and more recently efforts have been directed to identifying genes and pathways that confer stress tolerance in this species. quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) is a promising tech ...201627824922
zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.we investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps; 1000mgkg-1 soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg-1 soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. the decrease in cfu could be related to ...201727810328
discrimination and nitric oxide inhibitory activity correlation of ajwa dates from different grades and origin.this study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different ajwa grades and farm origins. it is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (no) inhibitory activity. identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹h-nmr spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. the no inhibitory activity was determined using a griess assay. multivariate data analy ...201627801841
comparative study of neuropharmacological, analgesic properties and phenolic profile of ajwah, safawy and sukkari cultivars of date palm (phoenix dactylifera).in addition to the rich nutritional value, date palm is also used in various ethnobotanical practices for the treatment of various disease conditions. present investigation was undertaken to examine the neuropharmacological and antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of three date cultivars growing in saudi arabia, namely ajwah, safawy and sukkari. neuropharmacological effect was observed by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole board test. antinociceptive activity was ...201627746708
chemical characterisation and the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial properties of date fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.).date fruit, phoenix dactylifera l. has traditionally been used as a medicine in many cultures for the treatment of a range of ailments such as stomach and intestinal disorders, fever, oedema, bronchitis and wound healing.201627729284
analysis of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide content in palm date fruit of the united arab emirates: a baseline study.the purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the united arab emirates (uae) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. an investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the uae was performed. palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the uae were collected and analyzed. the study targeted the naturally occurring r ...201627682905
evaluation of anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral activities of bioactive compounds from phoenix dactylifera l's leaf: in vitro and in vivo approach.among various chronic disorders, cancer and diabetes mellitus are the most common disorders. this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of phoenix dactylifera l. leaves (hepdl) in animal models of type ii diabetes in vitro/in vivo and in a human melanoma-derived cell line (igr-39). a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in this plant. the physicochemic ...201627668542
metabolome based volatiles profiling in 13 date palm fruit varieties from egypt via spme gc-ms and chemometrics.dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) are distributed worldwide as major food complement providing a source of sugars and dietary fiber as well as macro- and micronutrients. although phytochemical analyses of date fruit non-volatile metabolites have been reported, much less is known about the aroma given off by the fruit, which is critical for dissecting sensory properties and quality traits. volatile constituents from 13 date varieties grown in egypt were profiled using spme-gcms coupled to multivaria ...201727664623
mitochondrial dna variation among populations of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) from pakistan.the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. in recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the middle east. this has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive rpw populations. for example, in parts of the middle east, rpw is commonly referred to as the "pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. we sought evidence to support or refute this belief. first reports of r ...201627651423
chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. for ensiling, fresh alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) with different levels of waste date (phoenix dactylifera l.) were mixed together an ...201727600493
effect of red and blue light emitting diodes "crb-led" on in vitro organogenesis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. alshakr.the objective of the present study is to determine the effect of light source on enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activities of in vitro cultures of date palm cv. alshakr. in vitro-grown buds were cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium and incubated under a conventional white fluorescent light (control), and combinations of red + blue light emitting diode (18:2) (crb-led). results revealed that the treatment of crb-led showed a significant ...201627562594
cultivar-level phylogeny using chloroplast dna barcode psbk-psbi spacers for identification of emirati date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties.the efficacy of genetic material for use as dna barcodes is under constant evaluation and improvement as new barcodes offering better resolution and efficiency of amplification for specific species groups are identified. in this study, the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbk-psbi was evaluated for the first time as a dna barcode for distinguishing date palm cultivars. nucleotide sequences were aligned using mega 6.0 to calculate pairwise divergence among the cultivars. the analyzed data illustrat ...201627525916
soil salinisation and irrigation management of date palms in a saharan environment.the continuance of agricultural production in regions of the world with chronic water shortages depends upon understanding how soil salinity is impacted by irrigation practises such as water salinity, irrigation frequency and amount of irrigation. a two-year field study was conducted in a saharan oasis of tunisia (lazala oasis) to determine how the soil electrical conductivity was affected by irrigation of date palms with high saline water. the study area lacked a saline shallow water table. fie ...201627476071
ajwa date (phoenix dactylifera l.) extract inhibits human breast adenocarcinoma (mcf7) cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.phoenix dactylifera l (date palm) is a native plant of the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) and other middle eastern countries. ajwa date has been described in the traditional and alternative medicine to provide several health benefits including anticholesteremic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects, but most remains to be scientifically validated. herein, we evaluated the anticancer effects of the methanolic extract of ajwa date (mead) on human breast adenocarcinoma (mcf7) cells i ...201627441372
genic and intergenic ssr database generation, snps determination and pathway annotations, in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third version of the date palm genome and develop a new ssr primers database. in addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) that are located within the ssr flanking regions were recognized. moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by ssr primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. a total of 172,075 ss ...201627434138
palm weevil pheromones - discovery and use.male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. the weevils are large, have ...201627430563
molecular identification of sex in phoenix dactylifera using inter simple sequence repeat markers.early sex identification of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) at seedling stage is an economically desirable objective, which will significantly increase the profits of seed based cultivation. the utilization of molecular markers at this stage for early and rapid identification of sex is important due to the lack of morphological markers. in this study, a total of two hundred inter simple sequence repeat (issr) primers were screened among male and female date palm plants to identify putative se ...201627419132
natural history of javeta pallida baly, 1858 on phoenix palms in india (chrysomelidae, cassidinae, coelaenomenoderini).members of the old world hispine tribe, coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of arecaceae, cyperaceae, and zingiberales. a few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in africa. the host plants and natural history of javeta pallida baly, 1858, the only indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. these beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, phoenix sylvestris (l.) roxb. (arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, phoenix dactylifera ...201627408585
execution of strands thinning improves the phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit is a rich and quick source of phytochemicals and sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) which playing a vital role to nourish the human beings worldwide. the present study therefore, was conducted to explore the role of strands thinning on phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (cvs. hillawi and khadrawi). the experiment was comprised of different strand thinning treatments viz. @ 20% rcs (removal of central strands), 30% rcs, 20% stt (shortening of terminal tips), 30% stt, 20% ...201627393433
biochemical, transcriptional, and bioinformatic analysis of lipid droplets from seeds of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and their use as potent sequestration agents against the toxic pollutant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin.contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (pops), is a major ecological issue. dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. lipid droplets (lds) purified from date palm, phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. the bioaffinity of date palm lds ...201627375673
date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. it was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by ...201627333954
corrigendum to "macroporous natural capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery" [int. j. pharm. 504 (2016) 39-47]. 201627282433
identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-date palm waste using pyrolysis-gc/ms technique.the behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using py-gc/ms. the main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. the first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, ...201627197656
removal of zn2+ and so42- from aqueous solutions on acidic and chelating dehydrated carbon.the agricultural waste, date palm leaflets, was carbonized chemically using sulfuric acid treatment. produced dehydrated carbon (dc) was subjected to surface functionalization using ethylene diamine producing chelating dehydrated carbon (cdc). in the process, ∼80 % of the carboxylic content on dc was converted to amide successfully. dc acts as a cation exchanger because of the high content of carboxylic groups on its surface showing acidic nature. however, cdc possesses amine and amide groups sh ...201727155837
in vivo evaluation of anti diabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidative activities of saudi date seed extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. in folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. the date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene.201627134893
evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious phoenix species.understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. the genus phoenix, belonging to the arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. phylogenetic data suggest that the genus phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. we have investi ...201627118680
somatic embryogenesis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) through cell suspension palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is the oldest and most economically important plant species distributed in the hot arid regions of the world. propagation of date palm by seeds produces heterogeneous offspring with inferior field performance and poor fruit quality. traditionally, date palm is propagated by offshoots, but this method is inefficient for mass propagation because of limited availability of offshoots. plant regeneration through tissue culture is able to provide technologies for the ...201627108330
in vitro effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen on colonization of neonate mouse spermatogonial stem palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen (dpp) is widely used as a folk remedy for male infertility treatment, and has well known medicinal effects.201627084457
phoenix dactylifera l. sap enhances wound healing in wistar rats: phytochemical and histological assessment.the sap of the date palm "lagmi" is a clear liquid, rich in sugars and minerals, with a pleasant flavour. folk remedies based on the use of "lagmi" for wound healing are still practiced. however, no studies investigated the relevance of "lagmi" for wound healing. therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the in vivo healing properties of "lagmi" on mechanically wounded wistar rats. injured rats were divided into three groups: a first group treated by "lagmi", a second reference group proc ...201627064088
effect of increasing levels of wasted date palm on digestion, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of wasted date (wd) in sheep (initial body weight 50 ± 2.3 kg) diets on apparent diet digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. the experimental diets contained 0 (0 wd), 9% (9 wd), 18% (18 wd) or 27% (27 wd) of wasted dates. these diets were evaluated through a 4 × 4 latin square design with four 28-day periods. sheep were individually housed in metabolic cages and were fed diets ad libitum. to keep t ...201727039841
the domestication syndrome in phoenix dactylifera seeds: toward the identification of wild date palm populations.investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) belongs to the genus phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. it has been cultivated for millennia in the middle east and in north africa and constitutes the keystone of o ...201627010707
susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species phoenix dactylifera, chamaerops humilis and washingtonia filifera against rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier, 1790) (coleoptera: curculionidae).rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the red palm weevil (rpw), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. however, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. in europe, the rpw is a major pest of phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. the aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of p. dactylifera, chamaerops ...201626976073
effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.this study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. all the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °c respectively and present similar thermal profiles. results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. these di ...201626948603
macroporous natural capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery.macroporous natural sporopollenin exine capsules (sec) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and coated by natural polymer composite (carboxymethyl cellulose with epichlorohydrin). the polymer coated exine capsules (pcec) were used in in-vitro investigations for controlled delivery of paracetamol. sec, pcec, and drugs loaded capsules (pcec-par) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (sem), surface area (bet), fourier-transform infrared (ft-ir), x-ray diffraction (xrd ...201626945735
evaluation of pollen germination of some palm males and pollination impact on bunch weight and fruit quality in kadary date palm cultivar (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2013-2014) at the research and agriculture experiment station, dirab, college of food and agricultural sciences, king saud university, riyadh. pollen grains, used in this trial, were collected from eleven male, namely succary, menify, sallag, dikhiny, nabout zamel, serry, khalas, shagra, safry, maktumi and kadary in order to pollinate female kadary date palm cultivar. results indicated that pollens of safry male followed by succary ...201626930872
exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).the ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (phoenix dactylifera l. cv deglet nour) was investigated. two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg cdcl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mm) added through the irrigation water. different levels of cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content a ...201626901506
endemic insular and coastal tunisian date palm genetic diversity.the breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. the tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. we have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited tunisian date palm genetic pool. eighteen microsatellite loci of phoenix dactylifera l. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal a ...201626895027
delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l.sporopollenin macroporous capsules (smcs) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). the polymer coated macroporous capsules smc@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. the materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (sem), x-ray diffraction (xrd), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. the ibu loading and releasing was stu ...201626872877
artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. the efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture a ...201626868843
insecticidal potency of rnai-based catalase knockdown in rhynchophorus ferrugineus (oliver) (coleoptera: curculionidae).palm trees around the world are prone to notorious rhynchophorus ferrugineus, which causes heavy losses of palm plantations. in middle eastern countries, this pest is a major threat to date palm orchards. conventional pest control measures with the major share of synthetic insecticides have resulted in insect resistance and environmental issues. therefore, in order to explore better alternatives, the rnai approach was employed to knock down the catalase gene in fifth and tenth larval instars wit ...201626822903
would phoenix dactyflera pollen (palm seed) be considered as a treatment agent against males' infertility? a systematic review.oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. in the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male's ability to impregnate a female. currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. the antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and ...201526816585
how far can the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus (coleoptera: curculionidae), fly?the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to southeast asia and was recovered from an infested canary islands date palm in laguna beach, california, usa, in 2010. the detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. a key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can r. vuln ...201626791820
metabolite profiling in 18 saudi date palm fruit cultivars and their antioxidant potential via uplc-qtof-ms and multivariate data palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera) is not only one of the most economically significant plants in the middle east, but also valued for its nutritional impact, and for which development of analytical methods is ongoing to help distinguish its many cultivars. this study attempts to characterize the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of 18 date cultivars from saudi arabia. a total of 44 metabolites extracted from the fruit peel were evaluated in a uplc-qtof-ms based metabolomics analysis ...201626781334
'ajwa' dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) extract ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy through downregulation of oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic molecules in rodent model.ajwa, a special variety of saudi arabian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a rich source of nutrients, fibers and bioactive molecules. while previous studies have shown the therapeutic value of dates phytoconstituents in liver and kidney diseases etc., its cardioprotective potential remains elusive. we therefore, investigated the cardioprotective effect of lyophilized ajwa extract (ajle) ex vivo as well as in vivo.201626776662
nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily arecoideae (arecaceae).palms (arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. the focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. a targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the arecoideae tribes and the ...201626748268
acoustic detection of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) and oryctes elegans (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in phoenix dactylifera (arecales: arecacae) trees and offshoots in saudi arabian orchards.rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of r. ferrugineus, but until now ha ...201626743218
optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. mejhoul.the effects of major mineral salts, l-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. mejhoul were evaluated. different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (nh4no3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/l), potassium nitrate (kno3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/l), calcium chloride dehydrate (cacl2·2h2o; 147, 220 or 440 mg/l), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (kh2po4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/l), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (mgso4·7h2o; 123, 185 or 370 mg/l), l-gluta ...201628330181
development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (ssrs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). a total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of ...201628330092
date (phoenix dactylifera) polyphenolics and other bioactive compounds: a traditional islamic remedy's potential in prevention of cell damage, cancer therapeutics and beyond.this review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. this allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage ...201526694370
antinociceptive effect of palm date spathe hydroalcoholic extract on acute and chronic pain in mice as compared with analgesic effect of morphine and persian traditional medicine, palm date spathe (pds) is introduced as an analgesic. therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of pds on acute and chronic pain in mice in comparison with diclofenac and morphine.201526693469
metabolomics of dates (phoenix dactylifera) reveals a highly dynamic ripening process accounting for major variation in fruit composition.dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. in this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome.201526674306
the major proteins of the seed of the fruit of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.): characterisation and emulsifying properties.proteins were extracted from the seeds of the fruit of the date palm. proteomic analysis and sds-page electrophoresis of the extracted proteome suggested it is composed predominantly of the storage proteins glycinin and β-conglycinin, although over 300 proteins were detected, 91 of which were identified with confidence. in terms of protein type, the largest numbers of proteins were associated, not unexpectedly, with metabolism and energy functions, which reflected the requirements of the germina ...201626617019
a genome-wide identification of the mirnaome in response to salinity stress in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).although date palm is relatively salt-tolerant, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to its salt tolerance. only recently, investigators have uncovered microrna-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation, which is critical for typical plant development and adaptation to stress conditions such as salinity. to identify conserved and novel mirnas in date palm and to characterize mirnas that could play a role in salt tolerance, we have generated srna libraries ...201526594218
antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary tunisian date varieties (phoenix dactylifera l.) by hydrothermal treatments.three common non-commercial tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. the concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (smeti, garen gazel, and eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. both thermal treatments increased t ...201626593573
in vitro response of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) to k/na ratio under saline conditions.salinity is a serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural plants. one of the potential problems for plants growing under saline conditions is the inability to up take enough k(+). the addition of k(+) may considerably improve the salt tolerance of plants grown under salinity. it is assumed that increasing the k(+) supply at the root zone can ameliorate the reduction in growth imposed by high salinity. the present study aims to determine whether an increase in the k/na ratio in the e ...201526558511
whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree palms (phoenix dactylifera) are the most significant perennial crop in arid regions of the middle east and north africa. here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of approximately seven million single nucleotide polymorphisms in date palms based on whole genome re-sequencing of a collection of 62 cultivars. population structure analysis indicates a major genetic divide between north africa and the middle east/south asian date palms, with evidence of admixture in cultivars from egypt and su ...201526549859
in silico characterization and molecular modeling of double-strand break repair protein mre11 from phoenix dactylifera v deglet nour.dna double-strand breaks (dsbs) are highly cytotoxic and mutagenic. mre11 plays an essential role in repairing dna by cleaving broken ends through its 3' to 5' exonuclease and single-stranded dna endonuclease activities.201526541955
prevalence and clinical relevance of ige sensitization to profilin in childhood: a multicenter study.little is known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of hypersensitivity to the plant panallergen profilin in children.201526528861
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