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nitrate removal using different carbon substrates in a laboratory model.agricultural fields have been frequently identified as major contributors of nitrate leaching into surface and ground waters. tile drains can act as direct pathways, transferring leached nitrate to surface water. bioreactor filters are useful for the removal of nitrate from drainage waters; however, these filters require an external carbon supply to sustain denitrification. in this study, four organic carbon sources including wood, barley straw, rice husks, and date palm leaf, were used to enhan ...201122049767
assessing molecular signature for some potential date (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia, based on chloroplast dna sequences rpob and psba-trnh.phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm), being economically very important, is widely cultivated in the middle east and north africa, having about 400 different cultivars. assessment of date cultivars under trading and farming is a widely accepted problem owing to lack of a unique molecular signature for specific date cultivars. in the present study, eight different cultivars of dates viz., khodry, khalas, ruthana, sukkari, sefri, segae, ajwa and hilali were sequenced for rpob and psba-trnh genes and ...201122072924
brittle leaf disease induces an oxidative stress and decreases the expression of manganese-related genes in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).in tunisia, date orchards are being decimated by a disease called brittle leaf disease of unknown origin. previous studies reported that affected soils, roots and leaves were manganese deficient. in this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular response of mfc-affected date palms to the oxidative stress generated by manganese deficiency. both the malondialdehyde (mda) content which is indicative of lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidant enzyme were measured in affected ...201222099513
evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipaemic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of phoenix dactylifera palm leaves and its fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.the antidiabetic and antilipaemic effects of phoenix dactylifera leaf extract (pde) and its fractions were investigated in various rat models.201022135555
Date fruit extract is a neuroprotective agent in diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a multimodal analysis.Background. To study the effects of an aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) diet on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. The effects of a date fruit extract (DFE) diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with a nondiabetic control group, diabetic control group (sham), and vehicle group with respect to the following parameters: open field behavioral test, motor nerve conducti ...201122191015
anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (phoenix dactylifera) on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats.abstract: background: atypical prostatic hyperplasia (aph) is a pseudoneoplastic lesion that can mimic prostate adenocarcinoma because of its cytologic and architectural features. suspension of date palm pollen (dpp) is an herbal mixture that is widely used in folk medicine for male infertility. the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of dpp suspension and extract on aph-induced rats. methods: aph was induced in adult castrated wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone ( ...201122195697
dna-based assays to distinguish date palm (arecaceae) gender.date palm (phoenix dactylifera) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is critical to the development of arid land. the date palm is a dioecious monocot with separate male and female trees. this presents a challenge in development as it is impossible to distinguish trees until they flower approximately five to eight years after planting.201222203652
the use of date palm as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment: a review.in tropical countries, the palm tree is one of the most abundant and important trees. date palm is a principal fruit grown in many regions of the world. it is abundant, locally available and effective material that could be used as an adsorbent for the removal of different pollutants from aqueous solution.201222207239
date fruits (phoenix dactylifera linn): an emerging medicinal food.date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. in the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. in recent years, an explosion of interest in t ...201222214443
palm cryobanking.we describe the development of an efficient cryopreservation protocol for proembryogenic masses (pems) of date palm variety 'barhee'. proembryos were induced by inoculating small pieces of juvenile leaves on ms medium supplemented with 0.3 mg per liter 2,4-d. application of these in vitro conditions led to true-to-type plants as observed after plant fructification. when compared to the standard vitrification protocol, the ultra-rapid droplet-vitrification technique proved to be superior. sucrose ...201322227705
comparative demography of the spider mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four date palm varieties in southwestern tunisia.the date palm mite, oligonychus afrasiaticus (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, phoenix dactylifera l. (arecales: arecaceae)(varieties: deglet noor, alig, kentichi, and besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °c, 60 ± 10% rh. total development time of immature female was shorter on deglet noor fruits than on the other cultivars. o. afrasiaticus on deglet noor ...201122233420
profilin as an aeroallergen by means of conjunctival allergen challenge with purified date palm profilin.the role of profilin as a food allergen is well established, but little research has been done about its ability to elicit respiratory disease. profilin is considered more of a confounding allergen on skin testing with whole pollen extracts than other airborne allergens. our aim was to find out whether or not profilin can cause symptoms in sensitized individuals, which would be compatible with its role as an airborne allergen.201222269607
high-throughput sequencing-based gene profiling on multi-staged fruit development of date palm (phoenix dactylifera, l.).date palm provides both staple food and gardening for the middle east and north african countries for thousands of years. its fruits have diversified significantly, such as nutritional content, size, length, weight color, and ripping process. dates palm represent an excellent model system for the study of fruit development and diversity of fruit-bearing palm species that produce the most versatile fruit types as compared to other plant families. using roche/454 gs flx instrument, we acquired 7.6 ...201222351158
processing and utilization of palm date fruits for edible applications.the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifra l., family: palmaceae) is perhaps the oldest and most important fruit crop in the middle east and north africa. from this region, the tree spread to other parts of the world and is cultivated in some parts of usa. about 6-7 million tons of date fruits, belonging to a large variety of cultivars with different characteristics, are produced annually. the date fruit is mainly composed of sugars (invert sugars and/or sucrose) and fiber and, as such, can find a w ...201222360635
the culturable bacterial community of frass produced by larvae of rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae) in the canary island date palm.larvae of the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus olivier (coleoptera: curculionidae) feed inside palm stem tissues, making galleries and producing a wet fermenting frass. we characterized the culturable bacteria associated with frass produced by tunnelling larvae inside the canary island date palms and investigated the role of frass and gut bacteria in plant polymers breakdown.201222404299
the potential role of phoenix dactylifera on eimeria papillata-induced infection in mice.coccidiosis is a common infectious disease in poultry causing major economic losses. here, we investigated the effect of khodary date fruit aqueous extract (4 ml/kg) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by eimeria papillata in swiss albino mice. date fruit extract was able to decrease the intracellular development by lowering the faecal output of e. papillata oocysts from 8.7 ± 0.5 × 10(3) to 6.6 ± 0.4 × 10(3) oocysts per gram faeces. also, date extract caused a great diminish in body weight of ...201222411635
a new megastigmane glycoside, phoenixoside a, from phoenix dactylifera.a new megastigmane glycoside, phoenixoside a (1), has been isolated from the n-butanol--soluble fraction of seeds of phoenix dactylifera. the structure was characterized as (6s,7z,9r)-hydroxy-3-oxo-ionol-9-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1" --> 6')-beta-d-glucopyranoside on the basis of 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and cd spectroscopy.201222428228
dietary fiber from tunisian common date cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.): chemical composition, functional properties, and antioxidant capacity.the dietary fibers (df) of 10 date varieties from tunisian oases have been investigated. further knowledge on the content, composition, and technological applications of those fibers could support their genetic variability and promote the socioeconomical development of growing areas. the composition, water- and oil-holding capacities, solubility, and antiradical activity have been determined. the df content ranged from 4.7% (matteta, rochdi) to >7% (deglé nour, garen gaze, smeti). composition va ...201222443221
adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures.intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. to evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of northern oman. goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations ...201122445414
immunological markers in allergic rhinitis patients treated with date palm immunotherapy.allergic rhinitis (ar) is regulated by the local production and release of several cytokines. allergen specific immunotherapy (it) has been widely used for many years as a specific treatment of allergic diseases. this study aimed to investigate the changes in clinical and immunological markers before and after phoenix dactylifera it in ar patients.201222456954
the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) micropropagation using completely mature female flowers.this study describes an efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro date palm propagation using mature female flowers. it focuses on the promising proliferation capacity exhibited by a number of female flower tissues taken at the final developmental stage. this capacity resided in the ability to preserve minuscule zones in a juvenile state located at the floral organ armpits (sepals and petals). the originality of this method lies in the possibility of propagation of very rare varieties, pa ...201222464427
use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by fusarium oxysporum in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) seedlings.the bayoud, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (foa), is the most destructive disease of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) in morocco and algeria, with no effective control strategy yet available. in this work, two bacteria, bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain ag1 (ag) and burkholderia cepacia strain cs5 (cs), were examined for their potential to control this disease. both bacterial strains inhibited both growth and sporulation of foa. they released compounds into the culture medium, wh ...201222480991
characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.).oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. to better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. the oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. the genome ...201222487870
structural and biochemical changes in salicylic-acid-treated date palm roots challenged with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (sa) then inoculated with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (foa). flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of sa-treated plants after challenge by foa. these reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to foa. host reactions induced after inoculation of sa-treated plants with foa includ ...201122567327
molecular characterization of syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like dna markers.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the near east and north african countries. this tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "bayoud" disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. in this study, 18 syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like dnas. a pcr strategy that employs plasmid-like dnas-specific primer pa ...201222568006
mycobiota and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin) associated with some saudi date palm fruits.this study aimed to determine the mycological profile of the retail date fruits distributed in different markets at taif, saudi arabia. the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a was also measured. twenty-two fungal species belonging to 12 genera were isolated from 50 different date samples. aspergillus flavus, a. niger, penicillium chrysogenum, and rhizopus stolonifer were the most prevalent species among isolated fungi. eighty isolates of a. flavus and 36 of a. niger were detected for their a ...201222568750
in vitro study on influence of some streptomyces strains isolated from date palm rhizosphere soil on some toxigenic fungi.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is considered the main crop in deserts and arid areas such as saudi arabia. five streptomyces species and other fungal species were isolated from date palm rhizosphere soil of several cultivars, such as barhi, khalas, sullaj, and sukkari, in the ghat and el-gouf regions. streptomyces strains were isolated on biolog universal growth agar medium and were identified following biolog methods. the predominant streptomyces isolated from this present survey was s. pli ...201222571643
new microsatellite markers for assessment of genetic diversity in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).new primer pairs of genomic dna microsatellite markers were tested to assess the genetic diversity of eleven date palm genotypes. the results indicated that out of thirty, only seven primers (23.3%) failed to amplify the expected pcr fragments, while thirteen primers (43.3%) amplified monomorphic banding patterns and the remaining ten primers (33.4%) generated polymorphic banding patterns. a total of 77 alleles have been observed with a mean of 7.7 alleles per locus. the average of gene diversit ...201122582150
influence of growth regulators on callogenesis and somatic embryo development in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) sahelian cultivars.this study provides a physiological analysis of somatic embryogenesis in four elite cultivars of date palms: ahmar, amsekhsi, tijib, and amaside, from the initial callogenesis to establishment and proliferation of embryogenic suspension cultures. somatic embryos development and in vitro plants rooting were also studied. for each step, auxins and cytokinins concentrations were optimised. the primary callogenesis from leaf explants of seedlings appeared highly dependent on genotype. ahmar (80%) an ...201222629211
a complete sequence and transcriptomic analyses of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) mitochondrial genome.based on next-generation sequencing data, we assembled the mitochondrial (mt) genome of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) into a circular molecule of 715,001 bp in length. the mt genome of p. dactylifera encodes 38 proteins, 30 trnas, and 3 ribosomal rnas, which constitute a gene content of 6.5% (46,770 bp) over the full length. the rest, 93.5% of the genome sequence, is comprised of cp (chloroplast)-derived (10.3% with respect to the whole genome length) and non-coding sequences. in the non-co ...201222655034
piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in bangladesh.people in bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. fruit bats (pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding nipah virus through saliva and urine. in a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). we conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. we used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all ...201322669914
pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of date palm biomass using thermogravimetric analysis.the present research work is probably the first attempt to focus on the kinetics of pyrolysis and combustion process for date palm biomass wastes like seed, leaf and leaf stem by using thermogravimetric analysis (tga) technique. the physical properties of biomass wastes were also examined. proximate and ultimate analysis of the date palm biomass was investigated. ft-ir analysis was conducted to determine possible chemical functional groups in the biomass. results showed that date palm seed and l ...201222705960
a rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus.diospyros lotus ("wild date palm of trabzon or persimmon"), which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the black sea and northeast anatolia regions of turkey. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of diospyros lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature.201222721161
large-scale collection and annotation of gene models for date palm (phoenix dactylifera, l.).the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.), famed for its sugar-rich fruits (dates) and cultivated by humans since 4,000 b.c., is an economically important crop in the middle east, northern africa, and increasingly other places where climates are suitable. despite a long history of human cultivation, the understanding of p. dactylifera genetics and molecular biology are rather limited, hindered by lack of basic data in high quality from genomics and transcriptomics. here we report a large-scale effo ...201222736259
epidemiology of henipavirus disease in humans.all seven recognized human cases of hendra virus (hev) infection have occurred in queensland, australia. recognized human infections have all resulted from a hev infected horse that was unusually efficient in transmitting the virus and a person with a high exposure to infectious secretions. in the large outbreak in malaysia where nipah virus (niv) was first identified, most human infections resulted from close contact with niv infected pigs. outbreak investigations in bangladesh have identified ...201222752412
bioactivity of diosmetin glycosides isolated from the epicarp of date fruits, phoenix dactylifera, on the biochemical profile of alloxan diabetic male rats.the new natural flavonoid compounds - diosmetin 7-o-β-l-arabinofuranosyl (1 → 2) β-d-apiofuranoside (1) and diosmetin 7-o-β-d-apiofuranoside (2) - were isolated from the acetone extract of date fruits epicarp belonging to family arecaceae (palmae). elucidation of their chemical structures was determined by different spectroscopic methods in addition to the chemical and physical methods of analysis. these compounds were assessed for their biological activity on alloxan diabetic rats. a dose of 1. ...201322761049
the large carpenter bees of central saudi arabia, with notes on the biology of xylocopa sulcatipes maa (hymenoptera, apidae, xylocopinae).the large carpenter bees (xylocopinae, xylocopa latreille) occurring in central saudi arabia are reviewed. two species are recognized in the fauna, xylocopa (koptortosoma) aestuans (linnaeus) and xylocopa (ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes maa. diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central saudi arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. females and males of both species are figured and biological notes ...201222768000
allergy to kiwi: is component-resolved diagnosis in routine clinical practice really impossible?kiwi allergy is frequent and can be the result of sensitization to a number of allergens showing different physicochemical characteristics. component-resolved diagnosis of kiwi allergy is still unavailable in routine clinical practice.201222768722
proteomics analysis of date palm leaves affected at three characteristic stages of brittle leaf disease.proteomics analysis has been performed in leaf tissue from field date palm trees showing the brittle leaf disease (bld) or maladie des feuilles cassantes, the main causal agent of the date palm decline in south tunisia. to study the evolution of the disease, proteins from healthy and affected leaves taken at three disease stages (s1, s2 and s3) were trichloroacetic acid acetone extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (5-8 ph range). statistical analysis showed that the pro ...201222843243
testing the effects of an introduced palm on a riparian invertebrate community in southern california.despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. along the san diego river (san diego, california, usa), the introduced canary island date palm (phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (salix lasiolepis). the structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm's effects on the ecosystem. we tested for the effects of the palm ...201222879991
estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.in a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. the heat dissipation method, originally established by granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern arava desert of israel. a long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. this stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by a ...201222887479
a randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in bangladesh.drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human nipah virus (niv) infection. fruit bats, the natural reservoir of niv, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. we evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap.201222905160
therapeutic effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.cadmium (cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. this study was designed to explore the long-term effects of a single low dose of cd on spermatogenesis, and testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of date palm pollen extract (dpp) in averting such reproductive damage. adult male wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of cdcl2 (0 or 1 mg kg(-1) ). twenty-four hours later, they started receiving dpp (0 or 40 mg kg(-1) ) orally, once daily for 56 ...201322998418
a sustainable approach to controlling oil spills.as a result of the huge economic and environmental destruction from oil spills, studies have been directed at improving and deploying natural sorbents which are not only the least expensive but also the safest means of spill control. this research reviews the limitations and environmental impact of existing cleanup methods. it also justifies the need for concerted research effort on oil spill control using natural and sustainable technology concepts. the article proposes future guidelines for th ...201223037316
effects of the ripening stage on phenolic profile, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of date palm fruit.four cultivars (gondi, gasbi, khalt dhahbi, and rtob ahmar) of tunisian date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits at 3 maturation stages, besser, rutab and tamr, were analyzed for their antioxidant activities (aa) using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals cation, and reducing power (rp) methods. the total phenolic (tpc), total flavonoid (tfc), and condensed tannins (ctc) contents were measured. results showed that all samples have th ...201223072597
climate change impacts on the future distribution of date palms: a modeling exercise using climex.climate is changing and, as a consequence, some areas that are climatically suitable for date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivation at the present time will become unsuitable in the future. in contrast, some areas that are unsuitable under the current climate will become suitable in the future. consequently, countries that are dependent on date fruit export will experience economic decline, while other countries' economies could improve. knowledge of the likely potential distribution of this ...201223110162
anti-allergic properties of a matured fruit extract of the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.) in mite-sensitized mice.the effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. the serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (ig) e levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)cd4(+), ige(+)b220(+) and fcεriα(+)cd117(+) cells was s ...201223132311
phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract in panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish.the neotropical detritivorous catfish panaque nigrolineatus imbibes large quantities of wood as part of its diet. due to the interest in cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin degradation pathways, this organism provides an interesting model system for the detection of novel microbial catabolism. in this study, we characterize the microbial community present in different regions of the alimentary tract of p. nigrolineatus fed a mixed diet of date palm and palm wood in laboratory aquaria. analysis ...201223133540
osteitis of the fourth metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a child: why the dorsum of the foot is the most commonly injured site.the palms are frequent in the region of eastern morocco. an insidious onset of a lytic lesion in the base of the fourth metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a 20-year-old patient is presented. an untreated embedded thorn can cause late complications, including periostitis or osteomyelitis. in most cases, removal of the foreign body is easy, and no surgical care is needed. if detected, these injuries can be treated without complications. in children, however, the diagnosis can be very easily ...201223158504
effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera 'deglet nour', arecales) fruit during development.date palm (phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the middle east and north africa. in recent years, the amount of rain in north africa and especially in the tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. we investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. during development, cell wall solubilization and remodell ...201323176574
male-specific dna markers provide genetic evidence of an xy chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (phoenix dactylifera). in this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. however, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. to identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the ge ...201323231423
short-term oxidative lime pretreatment of palm pruning waste for use as animal feedstuff.oxidative lime pretreatment (olp) is an effective pretreatment for highly recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. this experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term olp on fermentative gas production kinetics of date palm prunings. rachis and petiole were pretreated with excess lime (0.5 g ca(oh)2 g(-1) dry matter) in a reactor charged with 10 bar pure oxygen pressure at different times and temperatures.201323239410
identification and characterization of gene-based ssr markers in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is an important tree in the middle east and north africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. molecular breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. however, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding.201223241238
in vivo comparative studies on antigenotoxicity of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pits extract against dna damage induced by n-nitroso-n-methylurea in mice.aqueous extract of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pits was prepared and its antigenotoxic activity was evaluated against n-nitroso-n-methylurea (nmu) induced mutagenic effect in mice, using chromosome aberration (ca), micronuclei (mn) and dna fragmentation assays as experimental end points in male mice. date pits extract (dpe) was given orally to mice at the dose 25 mg/25 g mouse for successive five days in a week up to four consecutive weeks. nmu was used as mutagen and was given intrap ...201223293467
date palm by-products as a new ingredient for the meat industry: application to pork liver pâté.date palm is an interesting source of bioactive compounds that could be used as ingredient in meat products; thus a campagne type pork liver pâté was elaborated using fresh date by-products (0, 5, 10 and 15%). physicochemical properties, pigment and lipid oxidation, residual nitrite level, texture and sensory analysis during 4 days after the elaboration process were evaluated. date paste mostly incorporated moisture, fibre and phenolic compounds. physicochemical parameters, myoglobin content and ...201323314613
biology and management of palm dynastid beetles: recent advances.coconut, oil, and date palms are important crops in the tropics and are attacked by dynastids that cause loss of production or death of hosts. knowledge of their breeding sites has been extended since a previous review in 1980. the fungus metarhizium anisopliae has potential as a biopesticide against immature stages in friable breeding sites. the molecular biology and ultrastructure of oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (ornv), disseminated by adults, have been studied, and this pathogen can reduce o. ...201323317044
nipah virus infection outbreak with nosocomial and corpse-to-human transmission, bangladesh.active nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in faridpur, bangladesh, in january 2010. we identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. for 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patient's exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic ...201323347678
experimental investigation on gaseous emissions from the combustion of date palm residues in laboratory scale furnace.emissions characteristics from the combustion of five date palm residues, dpr, (date palm leaflets, date palm rachis, date palm trunk, date stones and fruitstalk prunings) in a laboratory scale furnace were investigated. release of gaseous products such as co2, co, voc, nox and so2 were measured at 600-800°c. the main goal was to analyze thermal behaviors and gaseous emissions in order to select the most convenient biofuel for an application in domestic boiler installations. regards to biofuel c ...201323347919
use of light traps and differing light color to investigate seasonal abundance of the date palm pest, oryctes agamemnon arabicus (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).oryctes agamemnon arabicus (fairmaire) (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots and can damage grass lawns in the united arab emirates (uae) and other countries such as oman, saudi arabia, and tunisia. the goal of this study was to monitor population dynamics and to evaluate six light colors (white, green, red, yellow, blue, and infrared) and two lamp types (mercury and energy-saving) in light traps. experiments were performed on a date palm far ...201223356071
detailed polyphenol and tannin composition and its variability in tunisian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) at different maturity stages.the polyphenol profile of two tunisian varieties of dates including flavanols, flavonols, flavones, and hydroxycinnamates was characterized. three tissue zones (flesh, peel, and stone) and three maturity stages were considered. phenolic compounds were analyzed using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to uv-visible and electrospray mass spectrometry. procyanidin oligomers and polymers were characterized and quantified using phloroglucinolysis prior to hplc analysis. pro ...201323374033
effect of cultivar type and ripening on the polyphenol content of date palm fruit.date palm (pheonix dactylifera) fruit contains an array of polyphenols, although how these levels alter with cultivar type and fruit ripening is unclear. utilizing hplc and lc-esi-ms/ms, this study define and quantify an array of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids in three common cultivars of dates (ajwa, barni, and khalas) at the main ripening stages (kimri, khalal, rutab, and tamr). polyphenols were at highest concentration at earlier stages of ripening, with concentra ...201323406291
the importance of acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the arava desert.anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. in parts of the middle east, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. we examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitat ...201323441145
interactions between phoretic mites and the arabian rhinoceros beetle, oryctes agamemnon arabicus.oryctes agamemnon arabicus (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the united arab emirates (uae). two mite species were found associated with this beetle: sancassania sp. (acari: astigmata: acaridae) and hypoaspis rhinocerotis oudemans (acari: mesostigmata: laelapidae). sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on o. a. arabicus adults and larvae. however, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. the highest deutonymp ...201223448160
effect of bait quantity and trap color on the trapping efficacy of the pheromone trap for the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus.the red palm weevil, rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (curculionidae: coleoptera), is not native to the united arab emirates (uae). since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. a primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. the objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of r. ferrugineus under field conditions in the uae. traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dates ...201223451836
medicinal uses of honey (quranic medicine) and its bee flora from dera ismail khan district, kpk, pakistan.this study was carried out during 2005-2008 to identify existing plant species visited by workers of honeybees for nectar and pollen collection in dera ismail khan (d.i.khan) district, pakistan. the honeybee species investigated in the area were, rock bee (apis dorsata f.), little bee (a. florea f.) and european honeybee (a. mellifera l.). a detailed list of 86 plant species both wild and cultivated was prepared, out of which 12 species, phulai (acacia modesta wall.), sarsoon (brassica campestri ...201323455201
ciprofloxacin adsorption from aqueous solution onto chemically prepared carbon from date palm leaflets.a chemically prepared carbon was synthesized from date palm leaflets via sulphuric acid carbonization at 160 degrees c. adsorption of ciprofloxacin (cip) from aqueous solution was investigated in terms of time, ph, concentration, temperature and adsorbent status (wet and dry). the equilibrium time was found to be 48 hr. the adsorption rate was enhanced by raising the temperature for both adsorbents, with adsorption data fitting a pseudo second-order model well. the activation energy, ea, was fou ...201223520864
removal of cu2+ and ag+ from aqueous solution on a chemically-carbonized sorbent from date palm leaflets.a chemically-carbonized sorbent was prepared from date palm leaflets by sulphuric acid treatment at 170 degrees c. carbonization took place via the dehydration effect of the hot sulphuric acid producing a carbon with reduction property. sorption of cu2+ and ag+ from aqueous solution was investigated in terms of ph, contact time, metal concentration and temperature. a peculiar behaviour was found for the sorption of the two metals on the produced carbon. sorption of cu2+ was fast, reaching equili ...201323530353
effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.date palm (phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in kutch district of gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. the immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). juice was pasteurized at 85 ...201023572618
assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plants by rapd and issr markers assay.rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) and issr (inter-simple sequence repeats) markers assay were employed to validate the genetic stability of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plants multiplied through somatic embryogenesis with upto forty two in vitro subcultures. out of the 160 rapd and 21 issr primers screened, 30 rapd and 12 issr primers produced a total of 347 (246 rapds + 101 issrs) clear, distinct and reproducible amplicons, which were monomorphic across all micropropagated plants (2 ...201023572971
date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties in nine israeli varieties.date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse israeli grown varieties. ethanol and acetone extracts of 'amari', 'barhi', 'deglet noor', 'deri', 'hadrawi', 'hallawi', 'hayani', 'medjool', and 'zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by rp-hplc and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on ldl susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated chol ...201323587027
aflatoxin production on the pits (seeds) of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).pits -a by-product of the utilization of date fruits, are widely used as components of animal feeds, but an incident of aflatoxicosis in camels fed rations containing date pits has caused concern in the gulf region. this present study has shown that date pits can support aflatoxin production when inoculated withaspergillus parasiticus (imi 91019b) and that variety and/or stages of maturation within a given variety can affect the final level of aflatoxin in the material. in one variety, lulu, afl ...199523606114
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays confirm bioactive compounds in ajwa date fruit.ajwa, a variety of date palm phoenix dactylifera l., produces the most expensive date fruits. percentages of seed, moisture, fructose, glucose, soluble protein, and fiber in ajwa dates were 13.24, 6.21, 39.06, 26.35, 1.33, and 11.01, respectively. the ethyl acetate, methanolic, and water extracts of ajwa dates, active at 250 μg/ml in the mtt assay, inhibited lipid peroxidation (lpo) by 88, 70, and 91% at 250 μg/ml and cyclooxygenase enzymes cox-1 by 30, 31, and 32% and cox-2 by 59, 48, and 45% a ...201323713661
characterization and determination of lignin in different types of iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.this study aimed to find analytical data base for iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of iraqi date palm using klason lignin method. the weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. the other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. ft-ir characterization showed tha ...201323811162
use of mixture design to construct a consortium of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit extract and potentially probiotic bacillus strain to confer protection against vibriosis in artemia culture.to find a biological control treatment applicable to shrimp hatcheries, the influence of the dietary administration of a consortium of two date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit extracts and potentially probiotic bacillus strain on artemia culture was studied. challenge tests were performed with virulent vibrio alginolyticus to assess the protective effects of deglet nour and degla fruit extracts alone or in conjunction with potentially probiotic bacillus strain.201323893402
a field study on solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment parameters along a vertical canopy gradient of four tree species in an urban environment.to better understand the potential uses of vegetation indices based on the sun-induced upward and downward chlorophyll fluorescence at leaf and at canopy scales, a field study was carried out in the city of valencia (spain). fluorescence yield (fy) indices were derived for trees at different traffic intensity locations and at three canopy heights. this allowed investigating within-tree and between-tree variations of fy indices for four tree species. several fy indices showed a significant (p < 0 ...201423895782
genome sequence of the date palm phoenix dactylifera l.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (khalas), which is 605.4 mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671 mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that p. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. genetic diversity analysis indic ...201323917264
phoenix dactylifera l. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.date palm, phoenix dactylifera l. (arecaceae), grows commonly in the arabian peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. the aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. the essential oil of p. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. the oil was subsequently analyzed by gc-fid and gc-ms. the oil ...201323948523
characterization and evolution of conserved microrna through duplication events in date palm (phoenix dactylifera).micrornas (mirnas) are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a wide range of species. highly conserved mirnas regulate ancestral transcription factors common to all plants, and control important basic processes such as cell division and meristem function. we selected 21 conserved mirna families to analyze the distribution and maintenance of mirnas. recently, the first genome sequence in palmaceae was released: date palm (phoenix dactylifera). we conducted a ...201323951162
performance evaluation of three different types of local evaporative cooling pads in greenhouses in sudan.this study was conducted in date palm technology company limited, shambat, khartoum state. to evaluate performance of three types of evaporative cooling pads for greenhouses (celdek pads, straw pads and sliced wood pads), as compared to the conditions outside the greenhouses (control), for pads. performance evaluation includes environmental parameters (temperature and relative humidity at 8 am, 1 pm and 6 pm) and crop parameters (length and stem diameter, leaves number and width, fruit length an ...201123961103
determination of heavy metals in the fruit of date palm growing at different locations of riyadh.exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. in today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. this is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. the objectives of this experiment were to det ...201123961121
effects of riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of datura innoxia mill. plant.cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (o3, so2 and no2) in air, as pollutants, at riyadh city on datura innoxia mill. plant. morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of d. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutan ...201123961129
purification and characterization of membrane-bound peroxidase from date palm leaves (phoenix dactylifera l.).peroxidase from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) leaves was purified to homogeneity and characterized biochemically. the enzyme purification included homogenization, extraction of pigments followed by consecutive chromatographies on deae-sepharose and superdex 200. the purification factor for purified date palm peroxidase was 17 with 5.8% yield. the purity was checked by sds and native page, which showed a single prominent band. the molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 55 kda as es ...201123961138
somatic embryogenesis, scanning electron microscopy, histology and biochemical analysis at different developing stages of embryogenesis in six date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars.an efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in six date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars (barhee, zardai, khalasah, muzati, shishi and zart). somatic embryogenesis (se) was growth regulators and cultivars dependent. friable embryogenic callus was induced from excised shoot tips on ms medium supplemented with various auxins particularly 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d, 1.5 mg 1(-l)). suspension culture increased embryogenesis potentiality. only a-naphthaleneacetic ...201123961149
composition and diversity of weed communities in al-jouf province, northern saudi arabia.the aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in al-jouf province in northern saudi arabia. moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. a total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. the classification of vegetation using the two ...201223961198
valorization of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - review.the date palm phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. wastes such as date pits represent an ...201323961227
effect of ga3 and 2,4-d foliar application on the anatomy of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedling leaf.two concentrations (10-5m and 10-3m) of both ga3 and 2,4-d were used as foliar spray to evaluate the response of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. khedri seedlings. they affected some of the anatomical characteristics of the first leaf emerging after the beginning of the spray. the high concentration of ga3 increased the size of the midrib and its vascular bundle numbers. both low and high concentrations of 2,4-d inhibited the formation of the midrib. 2,4-d in both low and high concentratio ...201323961229
alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.brittle leaf disease or maladie de la feuille cassante (mfc) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of tunisia and algeria. no pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. the work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated ...201323987806
polyphenolic compounds in date fruit seed (phoenix dactylifera): characterisation and quantification by using uplc-dad-esi-ms.date fruit seeds have been demonstrated to possess high antioxidant activities due to their high content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. the objective of this work was to identify and quantify the phenolic composition of date seeds.201424037711
influence of habitat and climate variables on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community distribution, as revealed by a case study of facultative plant epiphytism under semiarid conditions.in semiarid mediterranean ecosystems, epiphytic plant species are practically absent, and only some species of palm trees can support epiphytes growing in their lower crown area, such as phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm). in this study, we focused on sonchus tenerrimus l. plants growing as facultative epiphytes in p. dactylifera and its terrestrial forms growing in adjacent soils. our aim was to determine the possible presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in these peculiar habitats and ...201324038687
whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins.the evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (wgd), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. established methods for reconstructing wgds include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, ks age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions.201324053117
seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus).the intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (rpw, rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. the understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (march, july and november), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the m ...201324102776
retained subretinal date palm tree thorn in a child.a 3-year-old boy presented with severe eye pain and nausea after colliding with a date palm tree branch. examination under anesthesia revealed a self-sealed corneal laceration and traumatic cataract in his left eye. cultures were taken and the patient received prophylactic subconjunctival, intravitreal, and systemic antibiotics because of the high risk of endophthalmitis. a thorn from the same tree grew bacillus cereus. examination after 2 weeks of the injury revealed a subretinal foreign body ( ...201324160979
cloning, expression in e. coli and immunological characterization of par j 3.0201, a parietaria pollen profilin variant.parietaria judaica pollen is one of the main sources of allergens in the mediterranean area. its allergenic composition has been studied in detail showing the presence of two major allergens (par j 1 and par j 2) and two minor allergens belonging to the profilin and calcium binding protein families of allergens (par j 3 and par j 4, respectively). clinical reports support the hypothesis of a limited cross-reactivity between profilin from parietaria and unrelated sources. we screened a p. judaica ...201424172226
water loss and polyethylene glycol-mediated acclimatization of in vitro-grown seedlings of 5 cultivars of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plantlets.plantlets derived from shoot-tips of seedlings from five cultivars of date palm, phoenix dactylifera l., were subjected to polyethylene glycol in liquid medium. comparisons of water loss of detached leaves among in vitro-grown, polyethylene glycol-treated and greenhouse-grown plants showed significant differences with treatment for all cultivars studied. for each treatment, significant differences were also found among cultivars. the common result was that the percent of moisture loss of non-tre ...199524185338
in vitro acclimatization of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plantlets: a quantitative comparison of epicuticular leaf wax as a function of polyethylene glycol treatment.wax deposits on leaf surfaces ofin vitro-grown plantlets,in vitro plantlets treated with polyethylene glycol and greenhouse-grown seedlings from five cultivars of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) were extracted and quantified. significant variations among treatments and cultivars were obtained. greenhouse-grown plants had the greatest wax deposits followed by the acclimatized plantlets.in vitro plantlets had an average of 15% of the wax of greenhouse plants. cultivar and plant age differences ...199524185666
identification and immunocytochemical localization of α-galactosidase in resting and germinated date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seeds.α-galactosidases (ec 3.2.1.22) from resting and germinated date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seeds were compared and localized using immunocytochemical methods. the enzyme was present in both the endosperm and embryo of resting seeds, in the endosperm undergoing digestion where the greatest specific activity was present, and in the haustorium of seedlings. the enzyme had a molecular mass of 140000 as determined by gel filtration and a ph optimum of 4.5. at least seven forms of the enzyme with isoele ...199024196674
somatic embryogenesis from shoot tip and immature inflorescence of phoenix dactylifera cv. barhee.a method of clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis of date palm, cultivar barhee, which has potential for large scale commercial application as well as for developmental studies on embryos is described. cultures were initiated from shoot tip and immature inflorescence explants, both of which were capable of development into embryogenic callus. when the embryogenic callus was cultured in liquid suspension on a rotary shaker, hundreds of embryos developed from milligram quantities of callus ...199224201724
optimization of semiochemical-based trapping ofmetamasius hemipterus sericeus (olivier) (coleoptera: curculionidae).response of adults of the west indian sugarcane weevil,metamasius hemipterus sericeus, to various semiochemical treatments and physical trap designs was studied in southern florida in field-grown banana and canary island date palms. ethyl acetate released alone at 860-1007 mg/day was as effective for the capture ofm. h. sericeus as a combination of ethyl acetate (844-919 mg/day), ethyl propionate (348-362 mg/day), and ethyl butyrate (117-137 mg/day) and in one trial was more effective than ferme ...199624226244
freeze-fracture observations on membranes of dry and hydrated pollen from collomia, phoenix and zea.pollen from collomia grandiflora dougl. ex lindl., phoenix dactylifera l. and zea mays l. was examined by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. particular attention was paid to the organization of the cell membranes in the naturally dehydrated, as compared to the fully hydrated, state. all membranes examined had a normal bilayer organization similar to that seen in the hydrated cells of these and other plants. this organization of dry pollen membranes is discussed as it relates to physiological s ...198624232136
coupled electrokinetics-adsorption technique for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organics from saline-sodic soil.in situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. in this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electro ...201324235885
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