influence of fresh date palm co-products on the ripening of a paprika added dry-cured sausage model palm co-products are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used as a new ingredient for the meat industry. an intermediate food product (ifp) from date palm co-products (5%) was incorporated into a paprika added dry-cured sausage (pads) model system and was analysed for physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation and sensory attributes during ripening. addition of 5% ifp yielded a product with physicochemical properties similar to the traditional one. instrumental colour differences ...201424576770
the genome draft of coconut (cocos nucifera).coconut palm (cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus cocos and family arecaceae (palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including central and south america, east and west africa, southeast asia and the pacific islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years af ...201729048487
characterization and amplification of gene-based simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers in date palm.the paucity of molecular markers limits the application of genetic and genomic research in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.). availability of expressed sequence tag (est) sequences in date palm may provide a good resource for developing gene-based markers. this study characterizes a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences containing simple sequence repeats (ssrs) from the est sequences in date palm. the est sequences studied are mainly homologous to those of elaeis guineensis and musa a ...201728755229
in silico approach for characterization and comparison of repeats in the genomes of oil and date palms.transposable elements (tes) are mobile genetic elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. due to their typical patterns of repetition, discovery, and characterization, they demand analysis by various bioinformatics software. probably, as a result of the need for a complex analysis, many genomes publicly available do not have these elements annotated yet. in this study, a de novo and homology-based identification of tes and microsatellites was performed using genomic data from 3 palm spec ...201728469420
whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins.the evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (wgd), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. established methods for reconstructing wgds include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, ks age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions.201324053117
codon usage and codon pair patterns in non-grass monocot genomes.studies on codon usage in monocots have focused on grasses, and observed patterns of this taxon were generalized to all monocot species. here, non-grass monocot species were analysed to investigate the differences between grass and non-grass monocots.201729155926
colonization pattern of aquatic hyphomycetes on leaf packs in subtropical stream.steralized leaf pieces of eight plants (eucalyptus rostrata, phoenix dactylifera, phragmites australis, musa nana, salix subserrata, cyperus alopecuroides, ricinus communis and eichhornia crassipes) were submerged in the nile stream. thirty-nine species of aquatic hyphomycetes were colonized on the plant leaves. eucalyptus was the best substratum (30 species) for colonization by aquatic hyphomycetes. phoenix (14 species), phragmites (11 species), salix (9 species), musa (8 species), ricinus and ...199716283114
herbal medicines for leucorrhea according to iranian traditional medicine.leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. it is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. it is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. it is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. leucorrhea is a well-known disease in iranian traditional medicine (itm). in their manuscr ...201627840502
herbal medicines for leucorrhea according to iranian traditional medicine.leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. it is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. it is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. it is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. leucorrhea is a well-known disease in iranian traditional medicine (itm). in their manuscr ...201627516669
evolution of the incidence of pollen grains and sensitivity to pollen in the city of elche (spain).environment-mediated pollen production varies over time and space, influencing pollen exposure risk and ultimately patient sensitization trends. in order to assess temporal variation of pollen incidence and patient sensitization, we set up a pollen incidence and patient sensitization survey in the city of elche, spain, over a 10-years interval.201526342116
socio-economic characterisation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) growers and date value chains in pakistan.increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of pakistan. the production of traditional staples such as rice (oryza sativa l.) and bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. in these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. to fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the ho ...201627536506
a genetic and structural analysis of the n-glycosylation capabilities.the recent draft sequencing of the rice (oryza sativa) genome has enabled a genetic analysis of the glycosylation capabilities of an agroeconomically important group of plants, the monocotyledons. in this study, we have not only identified genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in n-glycosylation, but have examined by maldi-tof ms the structures of the n-glycans of rice and other monocotyledons (maize, wheat and dates; zea mays, triticum aestivum and phoenix dactylifera); these data show tha ...200415604706
differential dna methylation and transcription profiles in date palm roots exposed to a salt-adaptive plant, the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) requires a suitable mechanism to adapt to the stress of saline soils. there is growing evidence that dna methylation plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to abiotic stresses, including salinity. thus, the present study sought to examine the differential methylation status that occurs in the date palm genome when plants are exposed to salinity, and to identify salinity responsive genes that are regulated ...201829352281
occurrence of ochratoxins, fumonisin b2 , aflatoxins (b1 and b2 ), and other secondary fungal metabolites in dried date palm fruits from egypt: a mini-survey.this study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in assiut governorate, upper egypt in 2016. extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) analysis. in total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. among these metabolites, 4 types ...201829350762
insight into the expression variation of metal-responsive genes in the seedling of date palm (phoenix dactylifera).phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein gene expressions were monitored via qpcr in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in cd and cr detoxification in date palm (phoenix dactylifera). a specific reference gene validation procedure using bestkeeper, normfinder and genorm programs allowed selection of the three most stable reference genes in a context of cd or cr contamination among six reference gene candidates, namely elongation factor α1, actin, aldehyde dehydrogenase, san ...201729334652
transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly in arecanut, areca catechu l elucidates the secondary metabolite pathway genes.areca catechu l. belongs to the arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. the palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. the lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. to gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput rna sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. a total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of ...201829321980
the effect of hydro-alcoholic of phoenix dactylifera extract on sleep and eeg in rat.hard envelope of date palm pollen is used as a sedative and calmative compounds in iranian traditional medicine. we tried to study the effects of phoenix dactylifera (tarooneh) extract on sleep time and brian waves.201829299434
an extract from date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera) acts as a co-agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor fxr and differentially modulates fxr target-gene expression in palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera) consumption reduces serum triglyceride levels in human subjects. the objective of this study was to prepare an extract from dates and determine whether it acts as a ligand for the farnesoid x receptor (fxr), a nuclear receptor important for maintaining triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis. freeze-dried extracts were isolated from california-grown dates (deglet noor and medjool) from the 2014 and 2015 harvests, by means of liquid extraction and solid phas ...201829293579
correction to: date palm waste-derived biochar composites with silica and zeolite: synthesis, characterization and implication for carbon stability and recalcitrant potential.unfortunately, in the original publication of the article, prof. yong sik ok's affiliation was incorrectly published.201729282621
correction to: date palm waste biochars alter a soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and heavy metal mobility in contaminated mined soil.unfortunately, in the original publication of the article, prof. yang sik ok's affiliation was incorrectly published. the author's affiliation is as follows.201729282620
a vlp-based vaccine provides complete protection against nipah virus challenge following multiple-dose or single-dose vaccination schedules in a hamster model.nipah virus is a highly lethal zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first recognized in malaysia during an outbreak in 1998. during this outbreak, nipah virus infection caused a severe febrile neurological disease in humans who worked in close contact with infected pigs. the case fatality rate in humans was approximately 40%. since 2001, niv has re-emerged in bangladesh and india where fruit bats (pteropus spp.) have been identified as the principal reservoir of the virus. transmission to humans is c ...201729263876
phosphorus-loaded biochar changes soil heavy metals availability and uptake potential of maize (zea mays l.) plants.biochar (bc) was produced by pyrolyzing the date palm leaf waste at 600 °c and then loaded with phosphorus (p) via sorption process. greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the application effects of bc and p-loaded biochar (bcp) on growth and availability of p and heavy metals to maize (zea mays l.) plants grown in contaminated mining soil. the treatments consisted of bc and bcp (at application rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 g kg-1 of soil), recommended nk and npk, and a control (no ...201829220749
drdb: an online date palm genomic resource database.background: date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a cultivated woody plant with agricultural and economic importance in many countries around the world. with the advantages of next generation sequencing technologies, genome sequences for many date palm cultivars have been released recently. short sequence repeat (ssr) and single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) can be identified from these genomic data, and have been proven to be very useful biomarkers in plant genome analysis and breeding. results ...201729209336
biochemical and genetical responses of phoenix dactylifera l. to cadmium stress.the cadmium (cd), a heavy metal, causes toxicity, which leads to hampering the growth and development of the plant. the molecular and biochemical approaches were used for the investigation of antioxidant system response and genotoxicity in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. sagai in pot experiment having cd. the root length was more affected than the shoot length as more accumulation of cd occurs in roots. fresh weights of root and shoot were reduced significantly in treated plants as compar ...201729201916
abrogation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in sprague-dawley rats by ajwa date fruit extract through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis.ajwa, a variety of date palme phoenix dactylifera l., has long been used and considered as one of the most popular fruits in the north africa and middle east region. for muslims this fruit is of religious importance and is mentioned several times in quran. besides being a part of the arabian essential diet, dates have been used traditionally for number of complications. this study aimed to evaluate the possible potential of ajwa date extract to guard against carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced l ...201729175788
date palm biochar-polymer composites: an investigation of electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological characteristics.the application of biochar (bc) as a filler in polymers can be viewed as a sustainable approach that incorporates pyrolysed waste based value-added material and simultaneously mitigate bio-waste in a smart way. the overarching aim of this work was to investigate the electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of biocomposite developed by utilizing date palm waste-derived bc for the reinforcing of polypropylene (pp) matrix. date palm waste derived bc prepared at (700 and 900°c) wer ...201729154049
evaluating the nutritional value of date pits and demonstrating their application in laying hen diets.this experiment was carried out to study the feeding value of ground date pits (dp) (phoenix dactylifera l.) with and without enzyme supplementation on laying hens' performance. apparent metabolizable energy value of dp was determined by the total collection method using 10 adult leghorn cockerels. after that, a total number of 144 lohmann 50-week-old lsl-lite hens were randomly allocated into six groups consisting of four replicates of six birds, based on a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of the tr ...201729143376
process simulation and economic assessment of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of multi-feedstock lignocellulose - separate vs combined processing.biorefinery based on multi-feedstock lignocellulose can be viable where a sustainable supply of a single substrate is limited, for example in arid regions. processing of mixed feedstocks has been studied in lab scale, however, its economics are less studied. in this study, an economic comparison was made between separate and combined (mixed) processing approaches for multi-feedstock lignocellulose for the production of monomeric sugars. this modular approach of focusing on sugar platform makes t ...201729136939
physicochemical and sensory characteristics of spreadable liver pâtés with annatto extract (bixa orellana l.) and date palm co-products (phoenix dactylifera l.).two novel ingredients were incorporated into spreadable liver pâtés to study their effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics and their possible use in the meat industry. fresh date (phoenix dactylifera, cv. confitera) co-products, as a paste (0, 2.5 and 7.5%), and annatto (bixa orellana) extract (0 and 128 mg/kg), as a colourant, and their combinations were incorporated into liver pâtés to study their effect on the final quality. the six formulations were analysed for chemical compos ...201729109376
effect of aqueous extract of tops of date palm leaves on blood glucose of diabetic rats.present study was carried out to examine the effect of tops of date palm leaves extract on blood glucose of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. forty male sprague dawely rats (120-130g) were housed individually and randomly allocated to two main groups; diabetic group (n=30), and normal group (n=10) in the animal lab, faculty of agriculture and veterinary medicine, qassim university, saudi arabia. an aqueous extracts were prepared from tops of date palm leaves (edpl) and were orally administer ...201729105640
genome sequencing of microbacterium sp. yaish 1, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of date palm trees affected by salinity.microbacterium sp. strain yaish 1 is a rhizospheric bacterium isolated from date palm orchards with high soil salinity. the genome was sequenced, and genes coding for growth-promoting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (acc) deaminase, siderophore-producing proteins, and tryptophan biosynthesis proteins were identified. here, we report the draft whole-genome sequencing of the strain.201729097476
effect of pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of date palm on male infertility: a systematic review.pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of the date palm are rich in flavonoids. antioxidant characteristics of the flavonoids have a significant effect on prevention and treatment of infertility. the aim of the present study was to review studies investigating the effects of pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of the date palm on male infertility. articles that were published about the topic between 2005 and 2016 were reviewed from different databases in turkish and english. the search engi ...201829087245
report - antidiabetic effects of native date fruit aseel (phoenix dactylifera l.) in normal and hyperglycemic rats.change in dietary pattern, sedentary life style and increasing stresses are contributing factors for high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. diabetic complications often lead to cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and hyperlipidemia that are the leading cause death and disability all over the world. apart from pharmacotherapy, use of antihyperglycemic medicinal food is a new aspect in diabetes management and prevention of its complications. phoenix dactylifera (date palm) has been traditionally ...201729084704
production and structural characterization of exopolysaccharides from newly isolated probiotic lactic acid this work, four exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (lab) strains, newly isolated from tunisian spontaneously fermented foods and beverages, namely bovine and turkey meat sausages (bms and tms), date palm sap (dps) and cow milk (cm), were identified as leuconostoc citreum-bms, leuconostoc mesenteroides-tms, pediococcus pentosaceus-dps and leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides-cm, respectively. the isolated strains showed the ability to withstand simulated human gastrointestinal (gi) tr ...201829080817
ameliorative effects of bee pollen and date palm pollen on the glycemic state and male sexual dysfunctions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats.this study aimed to assess the effects of bee pollen (bp) and/or date palm pollen (dpp) suspensions on the glycemic state, testicular dysfunctions, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic male wistar rats. diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of stz to overnight-fasted rats at dose of 40mg/kg body weight. after 1 week of stz injection, diabetic rats were treated with bp and/or dpp suspensions at dose levels of 100mg/kg ...201829080463
augmenting granular activated carbon with natural clay for multicomponent sorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.multicomponent adsorption of cd, cr, cu, pb and zn onto date palm pits based granular activated carbon (gac) augmented with highly active natural clay at different proportion was investigated. the effects of the initial ph and the adsorbents mixed ratio on the removal selectivity sequence of the metals evaluated. batch adsorption experiments were undertaken at initial ph 2, 6 and 12. at initial ph 2, both the percent removal and the metals adsorptive capacity decreased with increasing gac to cla ...201729068351
copper toxicity and date palm (phoenix dactylifera) seedling tolerance: monitoring of related palm (phoenix dactylifera) seeds were exposed to different copper (cu) solutions to examine plant stress responses. low cu concentrations (0.02 and 0.2 mm) caused an increase of seed germination, whereas higher cu amounts (2 mm) significantly inhibited seed germination, delayed hypocotyl elongation, increased seedling mortality, and reduced the germination index by more than 90%. metal-related toxicity symptoms appeared after 15 d of 2 mm of cu exposure. biochemical activities such as amyla ...201729023967
effect of agno3 and bap on root as a novel explant in date palm (phoenix dactylifera cv. medjool) somatic embryogenesis.somatic embryogenesis techniques are used for cloning a wide range of varieties of date palms around the world. the aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method with the lowest cost and the greatest potential to obtain in vitro plantlets of date palm cv. medjool. also, produce embryogenic callus and somatic embryos without using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d).201729023011
phenolic composition profiling of different edible parts and by-products of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) by using hplc-dad-esi/msn.fruits and vegetables are an important source of dietary antioxidants and epidemiological studies show that their regular intake in the diet may decrease the risk of several chronic diseases. phoenix dactylifera l. (date palm or dates) is an important crop, widely used in the arabian region and in other parts of the world as a food and also in folk medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. antioxidant phytochemicals present in plant foods are partly responsible for such health benefits. ...201728964373
pyrolysis of date palm waste in a fixed-bed reactor: characterization of pyrolytic products.the pyrolysis of several tunisian date palm wastes (dpw): date palm rachis (dpr), date palm leaflets (dpl), empty fruit bunches (efb) and date palm glaich (dpg) was run using a fixed-bed reactor, from room temperature to 500°c, with 15°c/min as heating rate and -5°c as condensation temperature, in order to produce bio-oil, biochar and syngas. in these conditions, the bio-oil yield ranges from 17.03wt% for dpl to 25.99wt% for efb. for the biochar, the highest yield (36.66wt%) was obtained for dpl ...201828954249
date palm (phoenix dactylifera) fruits as a potential cardioprotective agent: the role of circulating progenitor cells.context: date palms, along with their fruits' dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. in recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize e ...201728928656
biochar composites with nano zerovalent iron and eggshell powder for nitrate removal from aqueous solution with coexisting chloride ions.biochar (bc) was produced from date palm tree leaves and its composites were prepared with nano zerovalent iron (nzvi-bc) and hen eggshell powder (ep-bc). the produced bc and its composites were characterized by sem, xrd, bet, and ftir for surface structural, mineralogical, and chemical groups and tested for their efficiency for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of chloride ions. the incidence of graphene and nano zerovalent iron (fe0) in the nzvi-bc composite wa ...201728921403
a controlled trial to reduce the risk of human nipah virus exposure in bangladesh.human nipah virus (niv) infection, often fatal in bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by pteropus bats. we assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially niv-contaminated raw sap. during the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. in one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, e ...201728905152
factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues.seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. with respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. pretreatment temperature (180°c-210°c), salinity of seawater (0ppt-50ppt), and catalysts (h2so4, na2co3, and naoh) were investigated. the results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based p ...201728898854
highly decorated lignins in leaf tissues of the canary island date palm phoenix canariensis.the cell walls of leaf base tissues of the canary island date palm (phoenix canariensis) contain lignins with the most complex compositions described to date. the lignin composition varies by tissue region and is derived from traditional monolignols (ml) along with an unprecedented range of ml conjugates: ml-acetate, ml-benzoate, ml-p-hydroxybenzoate, ml-vanillate, ml-p-coumarate, and ml-ferulate. the specific functions of such complex lignin compositions are unknown. however, the distribution o ...201728894022
crispr/cas9: a practical approach in date palm genome editing.the genetic modifications through breeding of crop plants have long been used to improve the yield and quality. however, precise genome editing (ge) could be a very useful supplementary tool for improvement of crop plants by targeted genome modifications. various ge techniques including zfns (zinc finger nucleases), talens (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), and most recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)/cas9 (crispr-associated protein 9)-base ...201728878801
evaluation of extraction methods for the identification of proteins from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed and fruits are well known to be very nutritious. nevertheless, the protein contents of the fruit, particularly the seed and flesh, are still understudied, largely due to their difficult physical characteristics. this study was conducted to compare three different protein extraction methods which were the trichloroacetic acid (tca)-acetone (tca-a), phenol (phe), and tca-acetone-phenol (tca-a-phe), and to perform proteomic analysis on date palm seed and flesh. phe extraction method showed the hig ...201728857669
learning from the experts: drought resistance in desert plants. 201728850184
anti-cancer effects of ajwa dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in wistar rats.hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) accounts for major cancer-related deaths despite current advanced therapies. treatment and prognosis of hcc is better in patients with preserved liver function. many natural products including ajwa dates (phoenix dactylifera l.), are claimed to have hepatoprotective and hcc inhibitory effects, but most lack scientific validation. to prove our hypothesis, we attempted to evaluate the hcc inhibitory effects, and other beneficial properties of the aqueous extract of a ...201728830415
streptomyces globosus uae1, a potential effective biocontrol agent for black scorch disease in date palm plantations.many fungal diseases affect date palm causing considerable losses in date production worldwide. we found that the fungicide cidely® top inhibited the mycelial growth of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus thielaviopsis punctulata, the causal agent of black scorch disease of date palm, both in vitro and in vivo. because the use of biocontrol agents (bcas) can minimize the impact of pathogen control on economic and environmental concerns related to chemical control, we aimed at testing local actinomy ...201728824584
variation in bacterial endosymbionts associated with the date palm hopper, ommatissus lybicus populations.the date palm hopper, ommatissus lybicus, is a key pest of the date palm, which is expected to be comprised of many allopatric populations. the current study was carried out to determine bacterial endosymbiont diversity in the different populations of this pest. ten date palm hopper populations were collected from the main date palm growing regions in iran and an additional four samples from pakistan, oman, egypt and tunisia for detection of primary and secondary endosymbionts using polymerase c ...201728807085
adsorption studies on the removal of cod and bod from treated sewage using activated carbon prepared from date palm this work, the adsorption of chemical oxygen demand (cod) and biological oxygen demand (bod) from treated sewage with low-cost activated carbon prepared from date palm shell waste by chemical activation method was studied. different parameters affecting the adsorption process such as carbon dose, ph, contact time, agitation rate, and temperature were studied. adsorption equilibrium was attained after 150 min at ph 6.0 with agitation rate of 400 rpm at 25 °c. the results showed that cod remova ...201728799143
conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products - an effort to minimize solid waste in ethiopia.presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in ethiopia. the objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (hibiscus cannabinus), jute (corchorus trilocularis l.), palm (phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. resin binder (rb) and natural rubber latex (nrl) were used as binding agents for the preparati ...201728764877
effects of date palm pollen on fertility: research proposal for a systematic review.over 10-15% of couples in different countries are infertile. male infertility is a contributing factor and the only cause of infertility in respectively 50% and 20-30% of all cases of infertility. according to previous research, micro-elements isolated from date palm pollen (dpp), e.g. estrogen and sterols, may enhance male and female fertility. dpp has also been reported to improve sperm parameters including sperm motility and viability, acrosome reaction, and lipid peroxidation. this article m ...201728764804
in vitro assessment of abiotic stress in date palm: salinity and palm is one of the major crops growing in regions where abiotic stress conditions are extreme. abiotic stress affects plant growth, development, physiology, and biochemical processes. this chapter describes a protocol to evaluate the response of date palm cultures to abiotic stresses. tolerance to salinity stress is assessed using calcium chloride (cacl2), potassium chloride (kcl), and sodium chloride (nacl) at 11.96, 12.06, and 9.45 g/l, respectively (equivalent to 0.8 mpa osmotic potentia ...201728755357
extraction and estimation of secondary metabolites from date palm cell suspension cultures.the health benefits of dates arise from their content of phytochemicals, known for having pharmacological properties, including flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, procyanidins, and anthocyanins. in vitro cell culture technology has become an attractive means for the production of biomass and bioactive compounds. this chapter describes step-by-step procedures for the induction and proliferation of callus from date palm offshoots on murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with ...201728755356
bioreactor steroid production and analysis of date palm embryogenic callus.several compounds and families of compounds of date palm secondary metabolites have been investigated. the analysis of date palm tissue has shown the abundance of secondary metabolites including phytosterols, e.g., steroids, an important group of pharmaceutical compounds. biotechnology offers the opportunity to utilize cells, tissues, and organs grown in vitro and manipulated to obtain desired compounds. this chapter presents a protocol for the production, determination, and identification of st ...201728755355
microprojectile bombardment transformation of date palm using the insecticidal cholesterol oxidase (choa) gene.the overall objective of this work is to optimize the transformation system for date palm as a first step toward production of date palm clones resistant to noxious pests. a construct harboring the cholesterol oxidase (choa) gene, which renders plant resistance against insect attack, is introduced into embryogenic date palm callus using the pds-1000/he particle bombardment system. the process involves the establishment of embryogenic callus cultures as well as immature embryo-derived microcalli ...201728755353
genetic transformation of date palm via microprojectile bombardment.efficient protocols for date palm embryogenic callus and somatic embryo transformation with uida gene are described in this chapter. the embryogenic callus transformation procedure is 1.6 μm gold particle size coated with 2.5 μg dna (pact1-d plasmid), 1100 psi helium pressure, 9 cm target distance, 26 inhg vacuum pressure, 3 mm distance between the rupture disk and macrocarrier, and osmotic pretreatment with 0.4 m mannitol followed by 60 min air desiccation. the somatic embryo transformation pro ...201728755352
plantform bioreactor for mass micropropagation of date palm.a novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. this protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (tis, plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. the use of the plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. it also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic ...201728755351
temporary immersion system for date palm micropropagation.the temporary immersion system (tis) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. tis usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. the latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. these systems are providing the most satisf ...201728755350
microcalli induction in protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) production is severely hampered due to several pests and diseases. biotechnological tools such as protoplast fusion appear as an alternative to ensure rapid genetic improvement and multiplication of this species. however, establishment of an effective system of plant regeneration from protoplasts culture is a prerequisite for date palm somatic hybridization. in this chapter, we describe an effective protocol to induce microcalli in protoplasts isolated from nod ...201728755349
synchronization of somatic embryogenesis in date palm suspension culture using abscisic acid.somatic embryogenesis is considered the most effective method for commercial propagation of date palm. however, the limitation of obtaining synchronized development of somatic embryos remains an impediment. the synchronization of somatic embryo development is ideal for the applications to produce artificial seeds. abscisic acid (aba) is associated with stress response and influences in vitro growth and development. this chapter describes an effective method to achieve synchronized development of ...201728755348
plant regeneration from somatic embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm.somatic embryogenesis is one of the most important technologies for plant regeneration of elite date palm cultivars. recently, considerable progress has been made in the development and optimization of this technique from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. this chapter describes a procedure for the rapid development of a large number of somatic embryos from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. an efficient plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures st ...201728755347
improvement of in vitro date palm plantlet acclimatization rate with kinetin and hoagland vitro propagation of date palm phoenix dactylifera l. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. this chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and hoagland solution to enhance the growth of barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stag ...201728755346
controlling hyperhydricity in date palm in vitro culture by reduced concentration of nitrate nutrients.hyperhydricity (or vitrification) is a fundamental physiological disorder in date palm micropropagation. several factors have been ascribed as being responsible for hyperhydricity, which are related to the explant, medium, culture vessel, and environment. the optimization of inorganic nutrients in the culture medium improves in vitro growth and morphogenesis, in addition to controlling hyperhydricity. this chapter describes a protocol for controlling hyperhydricity during the embryogenic callus ...201728755345
histological analysis of the developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants of date palm.somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. this chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. direct somatic embryos are obtained from murashige and skoog (ms) medium containing 2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine. in o ...201728755343
histological evidence of indirect somatic embryogenesis from immature female date palm inflorescences.rapid production of somatic embryogenesis and date palm regeneration is achieved by culturing immature female inflorescence explants. inflorescence explants are soft, creamy in color, average 6-7 cm in length, and cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium containing 1 mg/l thidiazuron (tdz). callus induction occurs after 4-5 weeks of culture on the callus induction medium. subsequently, callus develops embryogenic calli on ms medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (naa). his ...201728755342
desiccation and cold hardening of date palm somatic embryos improve germination.embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm are ideal for mass propagation of somatic embryos; however, the low percentage of germination of somatic embryos (se) remains an impediment. this chapter focuses on two important physical factors to improve germination of date palm somatic embryos: the use of partial desiccation (3 h) of somatic embryos and the exposure to low temperature (4 °c for 24 h). high germination percentage (41%) is achieved by desiccation for 3 h. moreover, adding 0.3 g/l ac ...201728755341
desiccation-enhanced maturation and germination of date palm somatic embryos derived from cell suspension vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool for rapid, large-scale production of healthy true-to-type plants. this approach is suitable to preserve existing natural genetic variability and propagation of variability generated from genetic improvement programs, including crossing, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, and somatic hybridization. this chapter outlines a simplified protocol for date palm regeneration via somatic embryogenesis induced in cell suspension cult ...201728755340
indirect somatic embryogenesis of date palm using juvenile leaf explants and low 2,4-d concentration.this chapter describes an efficient protocol for large-scale micropropagation of date palm. somatic embryo-derived plants are regenerated from highly proliferating suspension cultures. friable embryogenic callus is initiated from juvenile leaves using slightly modified murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d). suspension cultures consisting of proembryonic masses are established from highly competent callus for somatic embryogenesis using ...201728755339
indirect somatic embryogenesis from mature inflorescence explants of date palm.due to the limitations associated with shoot tip explants in the micropropagation of date palm, inflorescence explants are an ideal alternative. this chapter focuses on the protocol for the induction of callus from inflorescence tissue, establishment for proliferation of somatic embryos, germination, elongation, rooting, and acclimatization. female inflorescences, 30-40 cm in length, cv. shaishee, were used for culture initiation. after disinfection, the outer inflorescence cover (spathe) is cut ...201728755338
enhanced indirect somatic embryogenesis from shoot-tip explants of date palm by gradual reductions of 2,4-d concentration.shoot-tip explants obtained from offshoots of adult date palms are an excellent source for callus induction and subsequent somatic embryogenesis. in this protocol, the shoot-tip explants are transferred sequentially to a series of media containing gradually reduced concentrations of plant growth hormones: (a) 10 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-d) and 3 mg/l 2-isopentenyl adenine (2ip), (b) 7 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip, (c) 5 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip, and (d) 3 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip ...201728755337
enhanced indirect somatic embryogenesis of date palm using low levels of palm tolerates salinity, drought, and high temperatures. arid and semiarid zones, especially the middle east region, need a huge number of date palms for cultivation. to meet this demand, tissue culture techniques have great potential for mass production of plantlets, especially using the indirect embryogenesis technique; any improvement of these techniques is a worthy objective. low levels of salinity can enhance growth and development of tolerant plants. a low level of seawater, a natural ...201728755336
direct organogenesis and indirect somatic embryogenesis by in vitro reversion of mature female floral buds to a vegetative state.this protocol describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) by reversion of floral state (reproductive phase) to the vegetative state. the mature female inflorescence (fully developed) is cultured on ms induction medium containing 10 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 3 mg/l 2-isopentenyladenine (2ip), and 2 mg/l paclobutrazol (pbz) or 2 mg/l abscisic acid (aba). the basal part of the petals has meristematic cells, ...201728755335
optimized direct organogenesis from shoot tip explants of date vitro propagation is an available alternative to produce uniform and good-quality planting material to establish large-scale date palm cultivation in a short time. this study was carried out to achieve organogenesis and multiplication directly from shoot tips without callus formation, thus avoiding any possibility of undesirable genetic variability among the regenerated plants. the shoot tips explants are cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic a ...201728755334
direct organogenesis from immature female inflorescence of date palm by gradual reduction of 2,4-d concentration.inflorescences represent an alternative explant source for superior date palm trees, especially those that do not produce offshoots. they provide large numbers of explants free of fungal and bacterial contamination for successful tissue culture initiation. furthermore, they are characterized by the capacity of plant regeneration within a short time as compared to other explant types. this chapter focuses on the procedures employed for plant regeneration by direct organogenesis using immature fem ...201728755333
naa-induced direct organogenesis from female immature inflorescence explants of date palm.micropropagation has great potential for the multiplication of female and male date palms of commercially grown cultivars by using inflorescences. this approach is simple, convenient, and much faster than the conventional method of using shoot-tip explants. we describe here a stepwise micropropagation procedure using inflorescence explants of iraqi date palm cultivar maktoom. cultured explants were derived from 0.5-cm-long spike segments excised from 8 to 10-cm-long spathes. about 70% formed adv ...201728755332
cultivar-dependent direct organogenesis of date palm from shoot tip explants.a number of public and private laboratories are working on date palm micropropagation to meet the increasing worldwide demand for date palm planting material. a standardized direct organogenesis protocol exists for the production of date palm plantlets to maintain the genetic fidelity of regenerated plants. organogenesis has the advantage of using low concentrations of plant growth regulators and avoiding the callus phase. in addition, direct regeneration of vegetative buds minimizes the risk of ...201728755331
date fruit proteomics during development and ripening stages.gel-based comparative proteomics approach is a valuable technique for studying the changes in abundance of proteins in any given system. the combination of this technique with mass spectrometry has provided immense insight into protein dynamics during fruit development and ripening. this chapter describes, informatively, the procedures for carrying out comparative proteomics analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruits at different developmental stages using a combination of two-dimensi ...201728755236
electrophoresis-based proteomics to study development and germination of date palm zygotic embryos.proteomics has become an important and powerful tool in plant biology research. to establish a proteomic reference map of date palm zygotic embryos (ze), we separated and identified proteins from zygotic embryos during different developmental and germination phases using one, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. proteins are extracted with trichloroacetic acid (tca)/acetone-phenol and resolved by gel electrophoresis. gel images are captured and analyzed by ap ...201728755235
proteome of abiotic stress tolerance in date palm.this protocol describes the analysis of date palm proteome under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. three-month-old date palm seedlings are subjected to drought (27.5 g/l polyethylene glycol 6000) and salinity stress conditions (16 g/l nacl) for 1 month prior to leaf sample analysis. differential in gel electrophoresis (dige) analysis of protein extracts identifies the sensitive proteins that respond to abiotic stress. mass spectrom ...201728755234
microrna expression in multistage date fruit development.micrornas (mirnas) are small endogenous noncoding rnas. plant mirnas are known to play important regulatory roles in homeostasis, stress response, and diverse developmental processes. here, we describe the identification of conserved mirnas in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) based on transcriptomic data acquired across multistage fruit development and genome sequences, which include 238 plant conserved mirnas and 276 novel p. dactylifera-specific mirnas.201728755233
development of genomic simple sequence repeats (ssr) by enrichment libraries in date palm.development of highly informative markers such as simple sequence repeats (ssr) for cultivar identification and germplasm characterization and management is essential for date palms genetic studies. the present study documents the development of ssr markers and assesses genetic relationships of commonly grown date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars in different geographical regions of saudi arabia. a total of 93 novel simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers were screened for their ability to d ...201728755232
analysis of expressed sequence tags (est) in date palm.expressed sequence tags (est) were generated from a normalized cdna library of the date palm sukkari cv. to understand the high-quality and better field performance of this well-known commercial cultivar. a total of 6943 high-quality ests were generated, out of them 6671 are submitted to the genbank dbest (libest_028537). the generated ests were assembled into 6362 unigenes, consisting of 494 (14.4%) contigs and 5868 (84.53%) singletons. the functional annotation shows that the majority of the e ...201728755231
date palm sex differentiation based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish).in situ hybridization (ish) is used to visualize defined dna sequences in cellular preparations by hybridization of complementary probe sequences. recently, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) technique has become a powerful and useful tool for the direct detection of specific dna fragments in the genome. ribosomal dna genes (45s and 5s rdna) are commonly used as markers for the physical mapping of plant chromosomes to analyze genomic organization. here we describe cytological-based ma ...201728755228
development of sex-specific pcr-based markers in date palm.molecular markers are used efficiently in the development and identification of gender-specific pcr-based markers in date palm. there is mounting evidence that different marker systems vary in their mechanisms of detecting polymorphism and genome coverage. therefore, they could complement each other to generate accurate sex-specific markers in date palm. this chapter describes the uses of pcr-based molecular markers to develop and identify the gender in different date palm genotypes; these are a ...201728755227
gender identification in date palm using molecular markers.breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd), sequence-characterized amplified regions (scar), and simple sequence repeats (ssr) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding ge ...201728755226
early sex identification in date palm by male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. dna-based markers are useful for early sex detection. in this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling ...201728755225
molecular identification of date palm cultivars using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers.ambiguity in the total number of date palm cultivars across the world is pointing toward the necessity for an enumerative study using standard morphological and molecular markers. among molecular markers, dna markers are more suitable and ubiquitous to most applications. they are highly polymorphic in nature, frequently occurring in genomes, easy to access, and highly reproducible. various molecular markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp), amplified fragment length polymo ...201728755224
genotyping and molecular identification of date palm cultivars using inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers.molecular markers are credible for the discrimination of genotypes and estimation of the extent of genetic diversity and relatedness in a set of genotypes. inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers rapidly reveal high polymorphic fingerprints and have been used frequently to determine the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars. this chapter describes the application of issr markers for genotyping of date palm cultivars. the application involves extraction of genomic dna from the target cu ...201728755223
determining phylogenetic relationships among date palm cultivars using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers.investigation of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars is useful for their conservation and genetic improvement. various molecular markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps), simple sequence repeat (ssr), representational difference analysis (rda), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) have been developed to molecularly characterize date palm cultivars. pcr-based markers random amplified polymorphic ...201728755222
molecular analysis of date palm genetic diversity using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeats (issrs).the date palm is an ancient domesticated plant with great diversity and has been cultivated in the middle east and north africa for at last 5000 years. date palm cultivars are classified based on the fruit moisture content, as dry, semidry, and soft dates. there are a number of biochemical and molecular techniques available for characterization of the date palm variation. this chapter focuses on the dna-based markers random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeats (issr ...201728755221
assessing date palm genetic diversity using different molecular markers.molecular marker technologies which rely on dna analysis provide powerful tools to assess biodiversity at different levels, i.e., among and within species. a range of different molecular marker techniques have been developed and extensively applied for detecting variability in date palm at the dna level. recently, the employment of gene-targeting molecular marker approaches to study biodiversity and genetic variations in many plant species has increased the attention of researchers interested in ...201728755220
date palm genetic diversity analysis using microsatellite palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is considered one of the great socioeconomic resources in the middle east and the arab regions. the tree has been and still is at the center of the comprehensive agricultural development. the number of known date palm cultivars, distributed worldwide, is approximately 3000. the success of genetic diversity conservation or any breeding program depends on an understanding of the amount and distribution of the genetic variation already in existence in the genetic ...201728755219
genetic diversity analysis of date palm using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr).random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) are pcr-based molecular techniques used for evaluation and characterization of date palm to find the best genotype and male/female identification at an early stage. genetic fingerprinting using molecular markers is an important tool for the analysis of genetic diversity and cultivar identification. here, we present an improved dna extraction protocol using leaf tissue, based on the standard cetyltrimethyl ammonium br ...201728755218
molecular identification of fungal contamination in date palm tissue cultures.fungal contamination of in vitro cultures of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is the major constraint to their initiation and maintenance. different molecular approaches have been applied successfully to analyze both inter- and intraspecific variation among fungal species as well as determine their identity. this chapter describes step-by-step procedures of molecular identification of fungal contaminants by internal transcribed spacer (its) products of the most common fungal contaminants of da ...201728755217
evaluation of clonal fidelity of micropropagated date palm by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd).date palm is a fruit-bearing tree commonly found in arid and semiarid regions. it is a dioecious plant, producing fruit on female plants and a limited number of basal offshoots for propagation. to produce large numbers of uniform plantlets, tissue culture techniques are required. it is highly advisable to detect genetic variation that may occur through micropropagation techniques as it may lead to phenotypic alterations. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) is a simple and pcr-based molecular ...201728755216
encapsulation of date palm somatic embryos: synthetic seeds.synthetic seed or encapsulated somatic embryos may be used for propagation, storage, and exchange of plant germplasm and have many diverse applications in date palm cultivation. they have advantages over conventional use of offshoot material for germplasm propagation, maintenance, exchange, and transportation. this chapter describes a protocol for date palm synthetic seed production by encapsulation of somatic embryos with sodium alginate. among three concentrations used, 3% sodium alginate foll ...201728755215
in vitro conservation of date palm somatic embryos using growth-retardant vitro conservation is carried out to maintain disease-free genetic materials, in a small area, protected against pests, insects, soil problems (alkaline, acidic, excess salinity, lack of organic matter, too dry, or too wet), climatic changes, and high-multiplication potential. a requirement of successful in vitro conservation is that the plants can be regenerated into complete plants rapidly when desired. the current work describes in vitro propagation and conservation techniques employing sl ...201728755214
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