TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of european seabass (dicentrarchus labrax).the application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. the aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related ...201627033470
mold-ripened soft cheeses fortified with date palm fruit product as functional dairy fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. this study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with streptococcus thermophilus, penicillium came ...201626930796
recent progress for the utilization of curcuma longa, piper nigrum and phoenix dactylifera seeds against type 2 diabetes.diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. the intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes.201627399905
genome-wide identification and transferability of microsatellite markers between palmae species.the palmae family contains 202 genera and approximately 2800 species. except for elaeis guineensis and phoenix dactylifera, almost no genetic and genomic information is available for palmae species. therefore, this is an obstacle to the conservation and genetic assessment of palmae species, especially those that are currently endangered. the study was performed to develop a large number of microsatellite markers which can be used for genetic analysis in different palmae species. based on the ass ...201627826307
feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit seed using experimental design.this article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit seed using experimental design. first, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. the responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (ysp) and viscosity (yvis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (x1), the aqueous date seed extract (x2), and the beeswax (x3). second, the cosmeti ...201627125011
phenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from tunisian cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. phenolic content was analyzed by hplc. antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. the results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with ...201626471652
draft genome sequence of endophytic bacterium enterobacter asburiae pda134, isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) this report, a draft of the enterobacter asburiae strain pda134 genome was sequenced. this bacterial strain was isolated from the root tissue of a date palm, where it has the ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) under salinity stress.201627540071
antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivars.phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. this research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °c for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °c for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (tpc), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of saudi arabian p. dactylifera cv mabroom, safawi and ajwa, as well as iranian p. dactylifera cv mariami. the stora ...201627023514
identification of strain isolated from dates (phœnix dactylifera l.) for enhancing very high gravity ethanol production.ethanol production from by-products of dates in very high gravity was conducted in batch fermentation using two yeasts, saccharomyces cerevisiae and zygosaccharomyces rouxii, as well as a native strain: an osmophilic strain of bacteria which was isolated for the first time from the juice of dates (phoenix dactylifera l.). the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16s ribosomal rna and gyrb sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain identified belongs to the genus of bacillus, b. ...201627838909
the antibacterial activity of date syrup polyphenols against s. aureus and e. coli.plant-derived products such as date syrup (ds) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. ds is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that ds polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. this investigation revealed that ds has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in t ...201626952177
specific caleosin/peroxygenase and lipoxygenase activities are tissue-differentially expressed in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedlings and are further induced following exposure to the toxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.two caleosin/peroxygenase isoforms from date palm, phoenix dactylifera l., pdclo2 and pdclo4, were characterized with respect to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, and oxylipin pathway substrate specificities in developing seedlings. both pdclo2 and pdclo4 had peroxygenase activities that peaked at the mid-stage (radicle length of 2.5 cm) of seedling growth and were associated with the lipid droplet (ld) and microsomal fractions. recombinant pdclo2 and pdclo4 proteins heterologou ...201628111588
table wine from tropical fruits utilizing natural yeast attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (y4 and y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard ...201627570291
enrichment of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) diet with palm fruit extracts and probiotics: effects on skin mucosal skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. to date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. in the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic shewanella putrefaciens (pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic bacillus sp. (bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (dpe diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of pdp11 + bacillus sp + aque ...201626712151
investigating rare risk factors for nipah virus in bangladesh: 2001-2012.human nipah encephalitis outbreaks have been identified almost yearly in bangladesh since 2001. though raw date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact are recognized as major transmission pathways, alternative pathways of transmission are plausible and may not have been identified due to limited statistical power in each outbreak. we conducted a risk factor analysis using all 157 cases and 632 controls surveyed in previous investigations during 2004-2012 to identify exposures independ ...201627738775
phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (j774 and thp1 alpha cell lines) of p. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.phoenix sylvestris (arecaceae family) known as indian date palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. the present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. the crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. in the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol p ...201627047320
nipah virus transmission from bats to humans associated with drinking traditional liquor made from date palm sap, bangladesh, 2011-2014.nipah virus (niv) is a paramyxovirus, and pteropus spp. bats are the natural reservoir. from december 2010 through march 2014, hospital-based encephalitis surveillance in bangladesh identified 18 clusters of niv infection. the source of infection for case-patients in 3 clusters in 2 districts was unknown. a team of epidemiologists and anthropologists investigated these 3 clusters comprising 14 case-patients, 8 of whom died. among the 14 case-patients, 8 drank fermented date palm sap (tari) regul ...201626981928
it's not only what you say, it's also how you say it: communicating nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in bangladesh.during a fatal nipah virus (niv) outbreak in bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of niv transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak.201627495927
evolving epidemiology of nipah virus infection in bangladesh: evidence from outbreaks during 2010-2011.drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of nipah virus (niv) transmission from bats to people in bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. during december 2010 to march 2011, we investigated niv epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. we identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory- ...201626122675
antileishmanial activity of date (phoenix dactylifera l) fruit and pit extracts in vitro.leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of phoenix dactylifera against leishmania major promastigotes. l major promastigotes were cultured in rpmi 1640 and incubated at 25°c ± 1°c for 24, 48, and 72 hours. for obtaining the ic50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, mtt assay was employed. furthermore, pro ...201627242378
molecular identification of potential denitrifying bacteria and use of d-optimal mixture experimental design for the optimization of denitrification process.three bacterial strains (te1, td3 and fb2) were isolated from date palm (degla), pistachio and barley. the presence of nitrate reductase (narg) and nitrite reductase (nirs and nirk) genes in the selected strains was detected by pcr technique. molecular identification based on 16s rdna sequencing method was applied to identify positive strains. in addition, the d-optimal mixture experimental design was used to optimize the optimal formulation of probiotic bacteria for denitrification process. str ...201626893037
phenol-rich compounds sweet gel: a statistically more effective antibiotic than cloxacillin against pseudomonas aeruginosa.the purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds.201627695634
a pseudomonas strain isolated from date-palm rhizospheres improves root growth and promotes root formation in maize exposed to salt and aluminum stress.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pseudomonas fluorescens 002 (p.f.002.), isolated from the rhizosphere of date palms from the ghardaia region in the algerian sahara, to promote root growth of two varieties of maize under conditions of salt and aluminum stress. primary roots of 5-day-old seedlings were inoculated with p.f.002., and seedlings were then grown under both control and stressed conditions. primary, lateral, and seminal root lengths and numbers, as well as root ...201626759938
enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid.the bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. in this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. the alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. t ...201726887233
application of optimized large surface area date stone (phoenix dactylifera ) activated carbon for rhodamin b removal from aqueous solution: box-behnken design model of response surface methodology was used to study the effect of adsorption process parameters for rhodamine b (rhb) removal from aqueous solution through optimized large surface area date stone activated carbon. the set experiments with three input parameters such as time (10-600min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10g/l) and temperature (25-50°c) were considered for statistical significance. the adequate relation was found between the input variables and response (removal percentage of ...201728167440
illumina miseq sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in stored palm has been a major fruit tree in the middle east over thousands of years, especially in the arabian peninsula. dates are consumed fresh (rutab) or after partial drying and storage (tamar) during off-season. the aim of the study was to provide in-depth analysis of fungal communities associated with the skin (outer part) and mesocarp (inner fleshy part) of stored dates (tamar) of two cultivars (khenizi and burny) through the use of illumina miseq sequencing.201728347268
fungal root microbiome from healthy and brittle leaf diseased date palm trees (phoenix dactylifera l.) reveals a hidden untapped arsenal of antibacterial and broad spectrum antifungal secondary this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (bld) date palm trees (phoenix dactylifera l.) widely cultivated in arid zones of tunisia. a total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and bld roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rdna sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to fi ...201728293229
mitochondrial molecular markers for resistance to bayoud disease in date palm.bayoud disease, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, is a very serious and destructive disease to date palm. screening of date palm germplasm for resistance to bayoud disease is a crucial step to avoid or alleviate the disease consequences. fortunately, it was discovered that there are two mitochondrial plasmid-like dna molecules associated with susceptibility or resistance to bayoud disease. in this chapter, we present a fast, simple, and reliable technique to screen date palm germpla ...201728755230
physico-chemical characteristics and fungal profile of four saudi fresh date (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars.physico-chemical and microbial analyses of four commercial fresh date cultivars (sukari, barhi, khalas and rothana) grown in saudi arabia were evaluated. colorimetric assay indicated that sukari had the highest total sugar content of 13.21g/100gfw while the lowest was in rothana with 7.96g/100gfw. total phenolic content (tpc) ranged from 76.74 to 122.20mggae/100gfw in barhi and rothana respectively, whereas antioxidant activity was highest in sukari (105.99μggae/gfw) and lowest in khalas (90.81μ ...201727979253
report - screening of the anti-hyperglycemic activity of some medicinal plants of jordan.diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. in this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in jordan. extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. diabetes was induced in sprague dawley rats using alloxan. plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. blood glucose was measured at baseline and at ever ...201728653938
nipah virus outbreaks in bangladesh: a deadly infectious disease.during 2001-2011, multidisciplinary teams from the institute of epidemiology, disease control and research (iedcr) and international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh(icddr,b) identified sporadic cases and 11 outbreaks of nipah encephalitis. three outbreaks were detected through sentinel surveillance; others were identified through event-based surveillance. a total of 196 cases of nipah encephalitis, in outbreaks, clusters and as isolated cases were detected from 20 districts of ...201728612796
transient gus gene expression in date palm fruit using agroinjection transformation technique.transient expression of foreign genes in plant tissue is a valuable tool for testing the efficacy of transformation methods. in this work, we present, for the first time, the utilization of agroinjection as an efficient transformation system for gene delivery in date palm fruit. the research utilized agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lba4404 harboring the binary vector pri201-an-gus carrying the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene, under the control of a camv 35s and kanamycin (nptii) as an antibiotic ...201728755354
draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacillus aryabhattai strain squ-r12, identified from phoenix dactylifera l. roots.bacillus aryabhattai strain squ-r12 was isolated from date palm seedlings, where it showed a growth-promoting capacity by being able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid phytohormone and reduce ethylene biosynthesis by producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. the draft genome sequence of this strain is reported here.201728798173
identifying and controlling contamination of date palm tissue cultures.fungal and bacterial contaminations are major problems facing in vitro date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) proliferation. to overcome this problem, we must first identify the fungal (e.g., alternaria sp., aspergillus niger, penicillium sp.) and bacterial (e.g., pseudomonas sp.) spread in date palm in vitro cultures. incorporating fungicides (e.g., copper oxychloride, vitavax t, and topsin m) or antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin, banocin, and bencid d) at 500 mg/l in medium significantly reduces the ...201728755344
linking pollen quality and performance of neoseiulus californicus (acari: phytoseiidae) in two-spotted spider mite management has been shown that pollen as a dietary supplement may increase the establishment of generalist predatory mites, and therefore pest control by these mites can be provided. life table studies were performed to evaluate the nutritional value of seven different pollens (almond, castor-bean, date-palm, maize, bitter-orange, sunflower and mixed bee pollen) as a supplementary food source for the spider mite predator neoseiulus californicus mcgregor. in addition, the nutritional quality of each poll ...201727117203
convergence of humans, bats, trees, and culture in nipah virus transmission, bangladesh.preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. nipah virus (niv) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. we examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of niv infection in bangladesh. we visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with niv were identified and 147 control villages. we compared case villa ...201728820130
a large-scale behavior change intervention to prevent nipah transmission in bangladesh: components and costs.nipah virus infection (niv) is a bat-borne zoonosis transmitted to humans through consumption of niv-contaminated raw date palm sap in bangladesh. the objective of this analysis was to measure the cost of an niv prevention intervention and estimate the cost of scaling it up to districts where spillover had been identified.201728651646
the effect of increasing levels of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid profile of saanen dairy goats.this study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed (dps) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (fa) profile of dairy goats. eight multiparous saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (dim) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated latin square design. experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (dps6), 12% (dps12) and 18% (dps18) of dps. dry matter intake (dmi), milk production ...201728045194
a vlp-based vaccine provides complete protection against nipah virus challenge following multiple-dose or single-dose vaccination schedules in a hamster model.nipah virus is a highly lethal zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first recognized in malaysia during an outbreak in 1998. during this outbreak, nipah virus infection caused a severe febrile neurological disease in humans who worked in close contact with infected pigs. the case fatality rate in humans was approximately 40%. since 2001, niv has re-emerged in bangladesh and india where fruit bats (pteropus spp.) have been identified as the principal reservoir of the virus. transmission to humans is c ...201729263876
evaluating the nutritional value of date pits and demonstrating their application in laying hen diets.this experiment was carried out to study the feeding value of ground date pits (dp) (phoenix dactylifera l.) with and without enzyme supplementation on laying hens' performance. apparent metabolizable energy value of dp was determined by the total collection method using 10 adult leghorn cockerels. after that, a total number of 144 lohmann 50-week-old lsl-lite hens were randomly allocated into six groups consisting of four replicates of six birds, based on a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of the tr ...201729143376
the genome draft of coconut (cocos nucifera).coconut palm (cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus cocos and family arecaceae (palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including central and south america, east and west africa, southeast asia and the pacific islands, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares [1]. coconut palm is generally classified into 2 main categories: "tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years af ...201729048487
drdb: an online date palm genomic resource database.background: date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a cultivated woody plant with agricultural and economic importance in many countries around the world. with the advantages of next generation sequencing technologies, genome sequences for many date palm cultivars have been released recently. short sequence repeat (ssr) and single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) can be identified from these genomic data, and have been proven to be very useful biomarkers in plant genome analysis and breeding. results ...201729209336
biochemical and genetical responses of phoenix dactylifera l. to cadmium stress.the cadmium (cd), a heavy metal, causes toxicity, which leads to hampering the growth and development of the plant. the molecular and biochemical approaches were used for the investigation of antioxidant system response and genotoxicity in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. sagai in pot experiment having cd. the root length was more affected than the shoot length as more accumulation of cd occurs in roots. fresh weights of root and shoot were reduced significantly in treated plants as compar ...201729201916
abrogation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in sprague-dawley rats by ajwa date fruit extract through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis.ajwa, a variety of date palme phoenix dactylifera l., has long been used and considered as one of the most popular fruits in the north africa and middle east region. for muslims this fruit is of religious importance and is mentioned several times in quran. besides being a part of the arabian essential diet, dates have been used traditionally for number of complications. this study aimed to evaluate the possible potential of ajwa date extract to guard against carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced l ...201729175788
date palm biochar-polymer composites: an investigation of electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological characteristics.the application of biochar (bc) as a filler in polymers can be viewed as a sustainable approach that incorporates pyrolysed waste based value-added material and simultaneously mitigate bio-waste in a smart way. the overarching aim of this work was to investigate the electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of biocomposite developed by utilizing date palm waste-derived bc for the reinforcing of polypropylene (pp) matrix. date palm waste derived bc prepared at (700 and 900°c) wer ...201729154049
studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm (phoenixdactylifera l.) pollens and seeds.natural resources have been the crucial origin of chemical elements. they have been used in many traditions as alternative medicines. the chemical profiling of some plant extracts and essential oils related to different plants were followed to unveil their most active components. in this paper, phoenix dactilyfera l was selected as a host plant to investigate the composition of different organs with different cultivars.201728480436
characterization and amplification of gene-based simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers in date palm.the paucity of molecular markers limits the application of genetic and genomic research in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.). availability of expressed sequence tag (est) sequences in date palm may provide a good resource for developing gene-based markers. this study characterizes a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences containing simple sequence repeats (ssrs) from the est sequences in date palm. the est sequences studied are mainly homologous to those of elaeis guineensis and musa a ...201728755229
in silico approach for characterization and comparison of repeats in the genomes of oil and date palms.transposable elements (tes) are mobile genetic elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. due to their typical patterns of repetition, discovery, and characterization, they demand analysis by various bioinformatics software. probably, as a result of the need for a complex analysis, many genomes publicly available do not have these elements annotated yet. in this study, a de novo and homology-based identification of tes and microsatellites was performed using genomic data from 3 palm spec ...201728469420
a controlled trial to reduce the risk of human nipah virus exposure in bangladesh.human nipah virus (niv) infection, often fatal in bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by pteropus bats. we assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially niv-contaminated raw sap. during the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. in one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, e ...201728905152
factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues.seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. with respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. pretreatment temperature (180°c-210°c), salinity of seawater (0ppt-50ppt), and catalysts (h2so4, na2co3, and naoh) were investigated. the results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based p ...201728898854
highly decorated lignins in leaf tissues of the canary island date palm phoenix canariensis.the cell walls of leaf base tissues of the canary island date palm (phoenix canariensis) contain lignins with the most complex compositions described to date. the lignin composition varies by tissue region and is derived from traditional monolignols (ml) along with an unprecedented range of ml conjugates: ml-acetate, ml-benzoate, ml-p-hydroxybenzoate, ml-vanillate, ml-p-coumarate, and ml-ferulate. the specific functions of such complex lignin compositions are unknown. however, the distribution o ...201728894022
crispr/cas9: a practical approach in date palm genome editing.the genetic modifications through breeding of crop plants have long been used to improve the yield and quality. however, precise genome editing (ge) could be a very useful supplementary tool for improvement of crop plants by targeted genome modifications. various ge techniques including zfns (zinc finger nucleases), talens (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), and most recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)/cas9 (crispr-associated protein 9)-base ...201728878801
evaluation of extraction methods for the identification of proteins from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed and fruits are well known to be very nutritious. nevertheless, the protein contents of the fruit, particularly the seed and flesh, are still understudied, largely due to their difficult physical characteristics. this study was conducted to compare three different protein extraction methods which were the trichloroacetic acid (tca)-acetone (tca-a), phenol (phe), and tca-acetone-phenol (tca-a-phe), and to perform proteomic analysis on date palm seed and flesh. phe extraction method showed the hig ...201728857669
learning from the experts: drought resistance in desert plants. 201728850184
anti-cancer effects of ajwa dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in wistar rats.hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) accounts for major cancer-related deaths despite current advanced therapies. treatment and prognosis of hcc is better in patients with preserved liver function. many natural products including ajwa dates (phoenix dactylifera l.), are claimed to have hepatoprotective and hcc inhibitory effects, but most lack scientific validation. to prove our hypothesis, we attempted to evaluate the hcc inhibitory effects, and other beneficial properties of the aqueous extract of a ...201728830415
streptomyces globosus uae1, a potential effective biocontrol agent for black scorch disease in date palm plantations.many fungal diseases affect date palm causing considerable losses in date production worldwide. we found that the fungicide cidely® top inhibited the mycelial growth of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus thielaviopsis punctulata, the causal agent of black scorch disease of date palm, both in vitro and in vivo. because the use of biocontrol agents (bcas) can minimize the impact of pathogen control on economic and environmental concerns related to chemical control, we aimed at testing local actinomy ...201728824584
variation in bacterial endosymbionts associated with the date palm hopper, ommatissus lybicus populations.the date palm hopper, ommatissus lybicus, is a key pest of the date palm, which is expected to be comprised of many allopatric populations. the current study was carried out to determine bacterial endosymbiont diversity in the different populations of this pest. ten date palm hopper populations were collected from the main date palm growing regions in iran and an additional four samples from pakistan, oman, egypt and tunisia for detection of primary and secondary endosymbionts using polymerase c ...201728807085
adsorption studies on the removal of cod and bod from treated sewage using activated carbon prepared from date palm this work, the adsorption of chemical oxygen demand (cod) and biological oxygen demand (bod) from treated sewage with low-cost activated carbon prepared from date palm shell waste by chemical activation method was studied. different parameters affecting the adsorption process such as carbon dose, ph, contact time, agitation rate, and temperature were studied. adsorption equilibrium was attained after 150 min at ph 6.0 with agitation rate of 400 rpm at 25 °c. the results showed that cod remova ...201728799143
conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products - an effort to minimize solid waste in ethiopia.presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in ethiopia. the objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (hibiscus cannabinus), jute (corchorus trilocularis l.), palm (phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. resin binder (rb) and natural rubber latex (nrl) were used as binding agents for the preparati ...201728764877
effects of date palm pollen on fertility: research proposal for a systematic review.over 10-15% of couples in different countries are infertile. male infertility is a contributing factor and the only cause of infertility in respectively 50% and 20-30% of all cases of infertility. according to previous research, micro-elements isolated from date palm pollen (dpp), e.g. estrogen and sterols, may enhance male and female fertility. dpp has also been reported to improve sperm parameters including sperm motility and viability, acrosome reaction, and lipid peroxidation. this article m ...201728764804
in vitro assessment of abiotic stress in date palm: salinity and palm is one of the major crops growing in regions where abiotic stress conditions are extreme. abiotic stress affects plant growth, development, physiology, and biochemical processes. this chapter describes a protocol to evaluate the response of date palm cultures to abiotic stresses. tolerance to salinity stress is assessed using calcium chloride (cacl2), potassium chloride (kcl), and sodium chloride (nacl) at 11.96, 12.06, and 9.45 g/l, respectively (equivalent to 0.8 mpa osmotic potentia ...201728755357
extraction and estimation of secondary metabolites from date palm cell suspension cultures.the health benefits of dates arise from their content of phytochemicals, known for having pharmacological properties, including flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, procyanidins, and anthocyanins. in vitro cell culture technology has become an attractive means for the production of biomass and bioactive compounds. this chapter describes step-by-step procedures for the induction and proliferation of callus from date palm offshoots on murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with ...201728755356
bioreactor steroid production and analysis of date palm embryogenic callus.several compounds and families of compounds of date palm secondary metabolites have been investigated. the analysis of date palm tissue has shown the abundance of secondary metabolites including phytosterols, e.g., steroids, an important group of pharmaceutical compounds. biotechnology offers the opportunity to utilize cells, tissues, and organs grown in vitro and manipulated to obtain desired compounds. this chapter presents a protocol for the production, determination, and identification of st ...201728755355
microprojectile bombardment transformation of date palm using the insecticidal cholesterol oxidase (choa) gene.the overall objective of this work is to optimize the transformation system for date palm as a first step toward production of date palm clones resistant to noxious pests. a construct harboring the cholesterol oxidase (choa) gene, which renders plant resistance against insect attack, is introduced into embryogenic date palm callus using the pds-1000/he particle bombardment system. the process involves the establishment of embryogenic callus cultures as well as immature embryo-derived microcalli ...201728755353
synchronization of somatic embryogenesis in date palm suspension culture using abscisic acid.somatic embryogenesis is considered the most effective method for commercial propagation of date palm. however, the limitation of obtaining synchronized development of somatic embryos remains an impediment. the synchronization of somatic embryo development is ideal for the applications to produce artificial seeds. abscisic acid (aba) is associated with stress response and influences in vitro growth and development. this chapter describes an effective method to achieve synchronized development of ...201728755348
plantform bioreactor for mass micropropagation of date palm.a novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. this protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (tis, plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. the use of the plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. it also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic ...201728755351
plant regeneration from somatic embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm.somatic embryogenesis is one of the most important technologies for plant regeneration of elite date palm cultivars. recently, considerable progress has been made in the development and optimization of this technique from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. this chapter describes a procedure for the rapid development of a large number of somatic embryos from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. an efficient plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures st ...201728755347
improvement of in vitro date palm plantlet acclimatization rate with kinetin and hoagland vitro propagation of date palm phoenix dactylifera l. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. this chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and hoagland solution to enhance the growth of barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stag ...201728755346
controlling hyperhydricity in date palm in vitro culture by reduced concentration of nitrate nutrients.hyperhydricity (or vitrification) is a fundamental physiological disorder in date palm micropropagation. several factors have been ascribed as being responsible for hyperhydricity, which are related to the explant, medium, culture vessel, and environment. the optimization of inorganic nutrients in the culture medium improves in vitro growth and morphogenesis, in addition to controlling hyperhydricity. this chapter describes a protocol for controlling hyperhydricity during the embryogenic callus ...201728755345
histological analysis of the developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants of date palm.somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. this chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. direct somatic embryos are obtained from murashige and skoog (ms) medium containing 2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine. in o ...201728755343
histological evidence of indirect somatic embryogenesis from immature female date palm inflorescences.rapid production of somatic embryogenesis and date palm regeneration is achieved by culturing immature female inflorescence explants. inflorescence explants are soft, creamy in color, average 6-7 cm in length, and cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium containing 1 mg/l thidiazuron (tdz). callus induction occurs after 4-5 weeks of culture on the callus induction medium. subsequently, callus develops embryogenic calli on ms medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (naa). his ...201728755342
temporary immersion system for date palm micropropagation.the temporary immersion system (tis) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. tis usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. the latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. these systems are providing the most satisf ...201728755350
microcalli induction in protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) production is severely hampered due to several pests and diseases. biotechnological tools such as protoplast fusion appear as an alternative to ensure rapid genetic improvement and multiplication of this species. however, establishment of an effective system of plant regeneration from protoplasts culture is a prerequisite for date palm somatic hybridization. in this chapter, we describe an effective protocol to induce microcalli in protoplasts isolated from nod ...201728755349
desiccation and cold hardening of date palm somatic embryos improve germination.embryogenic suspension cultures of date palm are ideal for mass propagation of somatic embryos; however, the low percentage of germination of somatic embryos (se) remains an impediment. this chapter focuses on two important physical factors to improve germination of date palm somatic embryos: the use of partial desiccation (3 h) of somatic embryos and the exposure to low temperature (4 °c for 24 h). high germination percentage (41%) is achieved by desiccation for 3 h. moreover, adding 0.3 g/l ac ...201728755341
desiccation-enhanced maturation and germination of date palm somatic embryos derived from cell suspension vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool for rapid, large-scale production of healthy true-to-type plants. this approach is suitable to preserve existing natural genetic variability and propagation of variability generated from genetic improvement programs, including crossing, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, and somatic hybridization. this chapter outlines a simplified protocol for date palm regeneration via somatic embryogenesis induced in cell suspension cult ...201728755340
indirect somatic embryogenesis of date palm using juvenile leaf explants and low 2,4-d concentration.this chapter describes an efficient protocol for large-scale micropropagation of date palm. somatic embryo-derived plants are regenerated from highly proliferating suspension cultures. friable embryogenic callus is initiated from juvenile leaves using slightly modified murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d). suspension cultures consisting of proembryonic masses are established from highly competent callus for somatic embryogenesis using ...201728755339
indirect somatic embryogenesis from mature inflorescence explants of date palm.due to the limitations associated with shoot tip explants in the micropropagation of date palm, inflorescence explants are an ideal alternative. this chapter focuses on the protocol for the induction of callus from inflorescence tissue, establishment for proliferation of somatic embryos, germination, elongation, rooting, and acclimatization. female inflorescences, 30-40 cm in length, cv. shaishee, were used for culture initiation. after disinfection, the outer inflorescence cover (spathe) is cut ...201728755338
enhanced indirect somatic embryogenesis from shoot-tip explants of date palm by gradual reductions of 2,4-d concentration.shoot-tip explants obtained from offshoots of adult date palms are an excellent source for callus induction and subsequent somatic embryogenesis. in this protocol, the shoot-tip explants are transferred sequentially to a series of media containing gradually reduced concentrations of plant growth hormones: (a) 10 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-d) and 3 mg/l 2-isopentenyl adenine (2ip), (b) 7 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip, (c) 5 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip, and (d) 3 mg/l 2,4-d and 1 mg/l 2ip ...201728755337
enhanced indirect somatic embryogenesis of date palm using low levels of palm tolerates salinity, drought, and high temperatures. arid and semiarid zones, especially the middle east region, need a huge number of date palms for cultivation. to meet this demand, tissue culture techniques have great potential for mass production of plantlets, especially using the indirect embryogenesis technique; any improvement of these techniques is a worthy objective. low levels of salinity can enhance growth and development of tolerant plants. a low level of seawater, a natural ...201728755336
direct organogenesis and indirect somatic embryogenesis by in vitro reversion of mature female floral buds to a vegetative state.this protocol describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) by reversion of floral state (reproductive phase) to the vegetative state. the mature female inflorescence (fully developed) is cultured on ms induction medium containing 10 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), 3 mg/l 2-isopentenyladenine (2ip), and 2 mg/l paclobutrazol (pbz) or 2 mg/l abscisic acid (aba). the basal part of the petals has meristematic cells, ...201728755335
optimized direct organogenesis from shoot tip explants of date vitro propagation is an available alternative to produce uniform and good-quality planting material to establish large-scale date palm cultivation in a short time. this study was carried out to achieve organogenesis and multiplication directly from shoot tips without callus formation, thus avoiding any possibility of undesirable genetic variability among the regenerated plants. the shoot tips explants are cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium supplemented with 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic a ...201728755334
direct organogenesis from immature female inflorescence of date palm by gradual reduction of 2,4-d concentration.inflorescences represent an alternative explant source for superior date palm trees, especially those that do not produce offshoots. they provide large numbers of explants free of fungal and bacterial contamination for successful tissue culture initiation. furthermore, they are characterized by the capacity of plant regeneration within a short time as compared to other explant types. this chapter focuses on the procedures employed for plant regeneration by direct organogenesis using immature fem ...201728755333
naa-induced direct organogenesis from female immature inflorescence explants of date palm.micropropagation has great potential for the multiplication of female and male date palms of commercially grown cultivars by using inflorescences. this approach is simple, convenient, and much faster than the conventional method of using shoot-tip explants. we describe here a stepwise micropropagation procedure using inflorescence explants of iraqi date palm cultivar maktoom. cultured explants were derived from 0.5-cm-long spike segments excised from 8 to 10-cm-long spathes. about 70% formed adv ...201728755332
analysis of expressed sequence tags (est) in date palm.expressed sequence tags (est) were generated from a normalized cdna library of the date palm sukkari cv. to understand the high-quality and better field performance of this well-known commercial cultivar. a total of 6943 high-quality ests were generated, out of them 6671 are submitted to the genbank dbest (libest_028537). the generated ests were assembled into 6362 unigenes, consisting of 494 (14.4%) contigs and 5868 (84.53%) singletons. the functional annotation shows that the majority of the e ...201728755231
date palm sex differentiation based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish).in situ hybridization (ish) is used to visualize defined dna sequences in cellular preparations by hybridization of complementary probe sequences. recently, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) technique has become a powerful and useful tool for the direct detection of specific dna fragments in the genome. ribosomal dna genes (45s and 5s rdna) are commonly used as markers for the physical mapping of plant chromosomes to analyze genomic organization. here we describe cytological-based ma ...201728755228
development of sex-specific pcr-based markers in date palm.molecular markers are used efficiently in the development and identification of gender-specific pcr-based markers in date palm. there is mounting evidence that different marker systems vary in their mechanisms of detecting polymorphism and genome coverage. therefore, they could complement each other to generate accurate sex-specific markers in date palm. this chapter describes the uses of pcr-based molecular markers to develop and identify the gender in different date palm genotypes; these are a ...201728755227
gender identification in date palm using molecular markers.breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd), sequence-characterized amplified regions (scar), and simple sequence repeats (ssr) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding ge ...201728755226
early sex identification in date palm by male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. dna-based markers are useful for early sex detection. in this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling ...201728755225
molecular identification of date palm cultivars using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers.ambiguity in the total number of date palm cultivars across the world is pointing toward the necessity for an enumerative study using standard morphological and molecular markers. among molecular markers, dna markers are more suitable and ubiquitous to most applications. they are highly polymorphic in nature, frequently occurring in genomes, easy to access, and highly reproducible. various molecular markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp), amplified fragment length polymo ...201728755224
genotyping and molecular identification of date palm cultivars using inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers.molecular markers are credible for the discrimination of genotypes and estimation of the extent of genetic diversity and relatedness in a set of genotypes. inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers rapidly reveal high polymorphic fingerprints and have been used frequently to determine the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars. this chapter describes the application of issr markers for genotyping of date palm cultivars. the application involves extraction of genomic dna from the target cu ...201728755223
determining phylogenetic relationships among date palm cultivars using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers.investigation of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars is useful for their conservation and genetic improvement. various molecular markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps), simple sequence repeat (ssr), representational difference analysis (rda), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) have been developed to molecularly characterize date palm cultivars. pcr-based markers random amplified polymorphic ...201728755222
molecular analysis of date palm genetic diversity using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeats (issrs).the date palm is an ancient domesticated plant with great diversity and has been cultivated in the middle east and north africa for at last 5000 years. date palm cultivars are classified based on the fruit moisture content, as dry, semidry, and soft dates. there are a number of biochemical and molecular techniques available for characterization of the date palm variation. this chapter focuses on the dna-based markers random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeats (issr ...201728755221
assessing date palm genetic diversity using different molecular markers.molecular marker technologies which rely on dna analysis provide powerful tools to assess biodiversity at different levels, i.e., among and within species. a range of different molecular marker techniques have been developed and extensively applied for detecting variability in date palm at the dna level. recently, the employment of gene-targeting molecular marker approaches to study biodiversity and genetic variations in many plant species has increased the attention of researchers interested in ...201728755220
date palm genetic diversity analysis using microsatellite palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is considered one of the great socioeconomic resources in the middle east and the arab regions. the tree has been and still is at the center of the comprehensive agricultural development. the number of known date palm cultivars, distributed worldwide, is approximately 3000. the success of genetic diversity conservation or any breeding program depends on an understanding of the amount and distribution of the genetic variation already in existence in the genetic ...201728755219
genetic diversity analysis of date palm using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr).random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) are pcr-based molecular techniques used for evaluation and characterization of date palm to find the best genotype and male/female identification at an early stage. genetic fingerprinting using molecular markers is an important tool for the analysis of genetic diversity and cultivar identification. here, we present an improved dna extraction protocol using leaf tissue, based on the standard cetyltrimethyl ammonium br ...201728755218
molecular identification of fungal contamination in date palm tissue cultures.fungal contamination of in vitro cultures of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is the major constraint to their initiation and maintenance. different molecular approaches have been applied successfully to analyze both inter- and intraspecific variation among fungal species as well as determine their identity. this chapter describes step-by-step procedures of molecular identification of fungal contaminants by internal transcribed spacer (its) products of the most common fungal contaminants of da ...201728755217
evaluation of clonal fidelity of micropropagated date palm by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd).date palm is a fruit-bearing tree commonly found in arid and semiarid regions. it is a dioecious plant, producing fruit on female plants and a limited number of basal offshoots for propagation. to produce large numbers of uniform plantlets, tissue culture techniques are required. it is highly advisable to detect genetic variation that may occur through micropropagation techniques as it may lead to phenotypic alterations. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) is a simple and pcr-based molecular ...201728755216
encapsulation of date palm somatic embryos: synthetic seeds.synthetic seed or encapsulated somatic embryos may be used for propagation, storage, and exchange of plant germplasm and have many diverse applications in date palm cultivation. they have advantages over conventional use of offshoot material for germplasm propagation, maintenance, exchange, and transportation. this chapter describes a protocol for date palm synthetic seed production by encapsulation of somatic embryos with sodium alginate. among three concentrations used, 3% sodium alginate foll ...201728755215
in vitro conservation of date palm somatic embryos using growth-retardant vitro conservation is carried out to maintain disease-free genetic materials, in a small area, protected against pests, insects, soil problems (alkaline, acidic, excess salinity, lack of organic matter, too dry, or too wet), climatic changes, and high-multiplication potential. a requirement of successful in vitro conservation is that the plants can be regenerated into complete plants rapidly when desired. the current work describes in vitro propagation and conservation techniques employing sl ...201728755214
in vitro conservation of date palm shoot-tip explants and callus cultures under minimal growth palm fruit production has great economic significance for many countries. there is a fundamental necessity to conserve valuable date palm germplasm, but there are various problems with in vivo and ex situ conservation. in vitro storage has several advantages over conventional germplasm conservation methods. the in vitro technique offers a developed method of slow-growth storage, which is considered as an alternate solution for short- and medium-term storage of date palm germplasm under cont ...201728755213
in vitro cryopreservation of date palm caulogenic meristems.cryopreservation is the technology of choice not only for plant genetic resource preservation but also for virus eradication and for the efficient management of large-scale micropropagation. in this chapter, we describe three cryopreservation protocols (standard vitrification, droplet vitrification, and encapsulation vitrification) for date palm highly proliferating meristems that are initiated from vitro-cultures using plant growth regulator-free ms medium. the positive impact of sucrose precul ...201728755212
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