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therapeutic potential of date palm pollen for testicular dysfunction induced by thyroid disorders in male rats.hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. the present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (dpp) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. rats were divided into six groups. group i was normal control. group ii received oral dpp extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group iii (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of l-thyroxine (l-t4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group iv received l-t4 plus dpp extract, grou ...201526425844
comparative efficacy of co2 and ozone gases against ephestia cautella (lepidoptera: pyralidae) larvae under different temperature regimes.comparative efficacy of three different modified atmospheres: 100% co2, 75% co2 + 25% n2, and 22 ppm ozone were examined against larval mortality of the almond moth, ephestia cautella (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) at temperature regimes of 25°c and 35 ± 2°c and 60 ± 5% relative humidity, and 9:15 dark and light. wandering young larval instars, which are fast growing, large enough in size and considered as more tolerant to modified atmosphere, were collected directly from the rearing culture, ...201526382044
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.since the publication of this paper, it has become apparent that an error was made in the legend to fig. 3 and the colours referring to occidental and oriental are the wrong way round. the authors apologise for this error, and a correct version of the legend to fig. 3 is given below.201526378059
proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.).plants exposed to certain abiotic stress conditions tend to produce the amino acid proline, which acts as an active osmolyte, a metal chelator, an antioxidant, and a signaling molecule. there is increasing evidence that proline accumulates in plants due to a wide range of abiotic stress, in particular high soil salinity and drought. therefore, proline content is often used as a marker-assisted breeding tool aimed at improving drought and salinity tolerance. in this study, it was investigated whe ...201526345930
do skin prick test and in vitro techniques diagnose sensitization to peach lipid transfer protein and profilin equally well in allergy to plant food and pollen?to compare the skin prick test (spt) with in vitro techniques (single and multiplex fluorescence enzyme-immunoassay [feia]) for detecting sensitization to profilin and lipid transfer protein (ltp).201526310043
identification of proteins modulated in the date palm stem infested with red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliv.) using two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.a state of the art proteomic methodology using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (maldi tof) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (rpw). our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with rpw infestation in date palm stem. to identify rpw infestation associated peptides (i), artificially wounded plants (w) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, ...201526287180
feasibility study of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.a feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three algerian raw materials, namely date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (oap) in lemon juice (lj) was performed by response surface methodology (rsm) based on central composite design (ccd). the textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. the cooking temperature (x1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time ...201526243917
metabolic analysis of various date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional quality.date palm is an important crop, especially in the hot-arid regions of the world. date palm fruits have high nutritional and therapeutic value and possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. in this study, we performed bioactivity analyses and metabolic profiling of date fruits of 12 cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional value. our results showed that the date extracts from different cultivars have different free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation ac ...201526225946
variations in hormones and antioxidant status in relation to flowering in early, mid, and late varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) of united arab emirates.the present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of nagal, lulu, and khalas date palm varieties in uae. the nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. the aba and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period an ...201526167536
proteome analysis for understanding abiotic stress (salinity and drought) tolerance in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).this study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. for this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar "sagie" were subjected to drought (27.5 g/l polyethylene glycol 6000) and salinity stress conditions (16 g/l nacl) for one month. dige analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. ...201526167472
would phoenix dactyflera pollen (palm seed) be considered as a treatment agent against males' infertility? a systematic review.oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. in the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male's ability to impregnate a female. currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. the antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and ...201526816585
date (phoenix dactylifera) polyphenolics and other bioactive compounds: a traditional islamic remedy's potential in prevention of cell damage, cancer therapeutics and beyond.this review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. this allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage ...201526694370
antinociceptive effect of palm date spathe hydroalcoholic extract on acute and chronic pain in mice as compared with analgesic effect of morphine and diclofenac.in persian traditional medicine, palm date spathe (pds) is introduced as an analgesic. therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of pds on acute and chronic pain in mice in comparison with diclofenac and morphine.201526693469
metabolomics of dates (phoenix dactylifera) reveals a highly dynamic ripening process accounting for major variation in fruit composition.dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. in this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome.201526674306
in vitro response of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) to k/na ratio under saline conditions.salinity is a serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural plants. one of the potential problems for plants growing under saline conditions is the inability to up take enough k(+). the addition of k(+) may considerably improve the salt tolerance of plants grown under salinity. it is assumed that increasing the k(+) supply at the root zone can ameliorate the reduction in growth imposed by high salinity. the present study aims to determine whether an increase in the k/na ratio in the e ...201526558511
whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop.date palms (phoenix dactylifera) are the most significant perennial crop in arid regions of the middle east and north africa. here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of approximately seven million single nucleotide polymorphisms in date palms based on whole genome re-sequencing of a collection of 62 cultivars. population structure analysis indicates a major genetic divide between north africa and the middle east/south asian date palms, with evidence of admixture in cultivars from egypt and su ...201526549859
in silico characterization and molecular modeling of double-strand break repair protein mre11 from phoenix dactylifera v deglet nour.dna double-strand breaks (dsbs) are highly cytotoxic and mutagenic. mre11 plays an essential role in repairing dna by cleaving broken ends through its 3' to 5' exonuclease and single-stranded dna endonuclease activities.201526541955
prevalence and clinical relevance of ige sensitization to profilin in childhood: a multicenter study.little is known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of hypersensitivity to the plant panallergen profilin in children.201526528861
correlation between mechanical properties with specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction of graphite/epoxy composites.the correlation between the mechanical properties of fillers/epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for neat epoxy (ne), graphite/epoxy composites (ge), and data palm fiber/epoxy with or without graphite composites (gfe and fe). the correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific we ...201528793431
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.date palms (phoenix dactylifera, arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. however, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the atlantic shores to southern asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. in order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geog ...201526113618
seawater as alternative to freshwater in pretreatment of date palm residues for bioethanol production in coastal and/or arid areas.the large water consumption (1.9-5.9 m(3) water per m(3) of biofuel) required by biomass processing plants has become an emerging concern, which is particularly critical in arid/semiarid regions. seawater, as a widely available water source, could be an interesting option. this work was to study the technical feasibility of using seawater to replace freshwater in the pretreatment of date palm leaflets, a lignocellulosic biomass from arid regions, for bioethanol production. it was shown that leaf ...201526487350
environmental implications of adopting a dominant factor approach to salinity management.additive or multiplicative models of crop response on which salinity management theory have been developed may lead to an erroneous perception regarding compensative interaction among salinity and other growth factors. we present results from studies of biomass production and transpiration of corn (zea mays l. cv. jubilee), melon (cucumis melo l. subsp. melo cv. galia), tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill. cv. 5656), onion (allium cepa l. cv. ha 944), and date palms (phoenix dactylifera l. cv. ...201516091597
cholesterol overload impairing cerebellar function: the promise of natural products.the cerebellum is the part of the brain most involved in controlling motor and cognitive function. the surface becomes convoluted, forming folia that have a characteristic internal structure of three layers including molecular, purkinje cell, and granular layer. this complex neural network gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability. cholesterol is a major constituent, derived by de novo synthesis and the blood-brain barrier. cholesterol is tightly regulated between neurons and glia-tha ...201525837204
african palm ethno-medicine.this study is the first to demonstrate the breadth and patterns of the medicinal applications of african palms. it sheds light on species with the potential to provide new therapeutic agents for use in biomedicine; and links the gap between traditional use of palms and pharmacological evaluation for the beneficial effects of palm products on human health. last but not least, the study provides recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys.201525749399
genome-wide survey of the seagrass zostera muelleri suggests modification of the ethylene signalling network.seagrasses are flowering plants which grow fully submerged in the marine environment. they have evolved a range of adaptations to environmental challenges including light attenuation through water, the physical stress of wave action and tidal currents, high concentrations of salt, oxygen deficiency in marine sediment, and water-borne pollination. although, seagrasses are a key stone species of the costal ecosystems, many questions regarding seagrass biology and evolution remain unanswered. genom ...201525563969
ethyl formate fumigation of dry and semidry date fruits: experimental kinetics, modeling, and lethal effect on carob moth.ethyl formate (ef) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (mb) for date fruit disinfestations. date fruits phoenix dactylifera 'deglet nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with ef at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. experimental data of ef sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to peleg's model. this mod ...201526470221
evaluation of bunch protectors for preventing insect infestation and preserving yield and fruit quality of dates, phoenix dactylifera l.in experiments comparing conventional date paper wraps with polyester mesh bags, date bunches enclosed in polyester mesh bags had lower insect infestations than dates covered by paper wraps. carob moth, ectomyelois ceratoniae (zeller), infestations of marketable fruit were significantly lower for mesh bags (0.6-3.1%) compared with paper wraps (8.5-15.5%). other fruit pests [raisin moth, cadra figulilella (gregson), and beetles in the family nitidulidae] were less common than carob moth, and infe ...201526470176
in vitro cytotoxicity effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen on neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells.there is a fast growing tendency in the use of herbal remedies in developing countries. one of the traditional medicines used for male infertility treatment is date palm (phoenix dactylifera) pollen (dpp). isolated spermatogonial stem cells and sertoli cells using enzymatic digestion were grown in dulbecco's modified eagle's medium supplemented with 4% foetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of 0.06, 0.25 and 0.62 mg/ml concentrations of aqueous extract of dpp for 2 weeks. the assessment ...201525189835
plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in norway and some other european countries: xenophobic tales or not?in their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. less often, historical events or persons are involved. this study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands.201526438411
enzymatic activities in different strains isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves: study of amylase production conditions.the present study aimed to investigate and compare the enzymatic production of endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy and brittle leaf disease affected date palm leaves (pectinase, cellulase, lipase, and amylase). the findings revealed that the enzymatic products from the bacterial isolates of healthy date palm leaves were primarily 33% amylolytic enzyme, 33 % cellulase, 25 % pectinase, and 25 % lipase. the isolates from brittle leaf disease date palm leaves, on the other hand, were noted to ...201525432343
controlling nipah virus encephalitis in bangladesh: policy options.nipah virus (niv) encephalitis is endemic in bangladesh, with yearly seasonal outbreaks occurring since 2003. niv has a notable case fatality rate, 75-100 per cent depending on the strain. in bangladesh, primary transmission to humans is believed to be because of consumption of bat-contaminated date palm sap (dps). both the disease and the virus have been investigated extensively, however efforts to implement preventive strategies have met social and cultural challenges. here we present a variet ...201525925087
raw sap consumption habits and its association with knowledge of nipah virus in two endemic districts in bangladesh.human nipah virus (niv) infection in bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. in november-december 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from rajbari and kushtia districts in bangladesh. we calculated the proportion ...201526551202
the date palm tree rhizosphere is a niche for plant growth promoting bacteria in the oasis ecosystem.in arid ecosystems environmental factors such as geoclimatic conditions and agricultural practices are of major importance in shaping the diversity and functionality of plant-associated bacterial communities. assessing the influence of such factors is a key to understand (i) the driving forces determining the shape of root-associated bacterial communities and (ii) the plant growth promoting (pgp) services they provide. desert oasis environment was chosen as model ecosystem where agriculture is p ...201525866759
hydrothermal pretreatment of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) leaflets and rachis to enhance enzymatic digestibility and bioethanol potential.date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the middle east. in this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. high glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis) and xylan (>75% ...201526347878
diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. in saudi arabia, both larvae and adults of oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to development of new inse ...201525899000
phoenix dactylifera (date palm) pit aqueous extract mediated novel route for synthesis high stable silver nanoparticles with high antifungal and antibacterial activity.the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) was conducted using date palm pit aqueous extract. the first visible sign of the synthesis of agnps was the change in colour of reaction mixtures from yellowish to reddish brown. the resulting synthesised agnps were characterised using uv-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (xrd), transmission electron microscopy (tem) and dynamic light scattering (dls). the uv-visible spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 428 nm. xrd confirmed tha ...201526224347
inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on spores and mycotoxin production of aspergillus niger contaminating date palm fruits.aspergillus niger has been reported as a potentially dangerous pathogen of date-palm fruits in saudi arabia due to the production of fumonisin b2 (fb2 ) and ochratoxin a (ota). in a trial to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (dapacp) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxin production of the pathogen.201525557283
isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera bacillus and enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory ...201525860542
effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (cyprinus carpio) fry.the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (dpfe) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (cyprinus carpio). one hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with dpfe at 200 ml kg(-1). at the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune ...201526439417
evolution of the incidence of pollen grains and sensitivity to pollen in the city of elche (spain).environment-mediated pollen production varies over time and space, influencing pollen exposure risk and ultimately patient sensitization trends. in order to assess temporal variation of pollen incidence and patient sensitization, we set up a pollen incidence and patient sensitization survey in the city of elche, spain, over a 10-years interval.201526342116
socio-economic characterisation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) growers and date value chains in pakistan.increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of pakistan. the production of traditional staples such as rice (oryza sativa l.) and bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. in these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. to fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the ho ...201627536506
herbal medicines for leucorrhea according to iranian traditional medicine.leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. it is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. it is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. it is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. leucorrhea is a well-known disease in iranian traditional medicine (itm). in their manuscr ...201627840502
herbal medicines for leucorrhea according to iranian traditional medicine.leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. it is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. it is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. it is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. leucorrhea is a well-known disease in iranian traditional medicine (itm). in their manuscr ...201627516669
the use of high throughput dna sequence analysis to assess the endophytic microbiome of date palm roots grown under different levels of salt stress.date palms are able to grow under diverse abiotic stress conditions including in saline soils, where microbial communities may be help in the plant's salinity tolerance. these communities able to produce specific growth promoting substances can enhance date palm growth in a saline environment. however, these communities are poorly defined. in the work reported here, the date palm endophytic bacterial and fungal communities were identified using the pyrosequencing method, and the microbial differ ...201628494084
impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of european seabass (dicentrarchus labrax).the application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. the aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related ...201627033470
genome-wide identification and transferability of microsatellite markers between palmae species.the palmae family contains 202 genera and approximately 2800 species. except for elaeis guineensis and phoenix dactylifera, almost no genetic and genomic information is available for palmae species. therefore, this is an obstacle to the conservation and genetic assessment of palmae species, especially those that are currently endangered. the study was performed to develop a large number of microsatellite markers which can be used for genetic analysis in different palmae species. based on the ass ...201627826307
feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit seed using experimental design.this article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit seed using experimental design. first, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. the responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (ysp) and viscosity (yvis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (x1), the aqueous date seed extract (x2), and the beeswax (x3). second, the cosmeti ...201627125011
phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (j774 and thp1 alpha cell lines) of p. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.phoenix sylvestris (arecaceae family) known as indian date palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. the present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. the crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. in the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol p ...201627047320
the antibacterial activity of date syrup polyphenols against s. aureus and e. coli.plant-derived products such as date syrup (ds) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. ds is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that ds polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. this investigation revealed that ds has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in t ...201626952177
phenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from tunisian cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. phenolic content was analyzed by hplc. antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. the results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with ...201626471652
antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivars.phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. this research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °c for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °c for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (tpc), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of saudi arabian p. dactylifera cv mabroom, safawi and ajwa, as well as iranian p. dactylifera cv mariami. the stora ...201627023514
identification of strain isolated from dates (phœnix dactylifera l.) for enhancing very high gravity ethanol production.ethanol production from by-products of dates in very high gravity was conducted in batch fermentation using two yeasts, saccharomyces cerevisiae and zygosaccharomyces rouxii, as well as a native strain: an osmophilic strain of bacteria which was isolated for the first time from the juice of dates (phoenix dactylifera l.). the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16s ribosomal rna and gyrb sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain identified belongs to the genus of bacillus, b. ...201627838909
draft genome sequence of endophytic bacterium enterobacter asburiae pda134, isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) roots.in this report, a draft of the enterobacter asburiae strain pda134 genome was sequenced. this bacterial strain was isolated from the root tissue of a date palm, where it has the ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) under salinity stress.201627540071
evolving epidemiology of nipah virus infection in bangladesh: evidence from outbreaks during 2010-2011.drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of nipah virus (niv) transmission from bats to people in bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. during december 2010 to march 2011, we investigated niv epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. we identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory- ...201626122675
investigating rare risk factors for nipah virus in bangladesh: 2001-2012.human nipah encephalitis outbreaks have been identified almost yearly in bangladesh since 2001. though raw date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact are recognized as major transmission pathways, alternative pathways of transmission are plausible and may not have been identified due to limited statistical power in each outbreak. we conducted a risk factor analysis using all 157 cases and 632 controls surveyed in previous investigations during 2004-2012 to identify exposures independ ...201627738775
it's not only what you say, it's also how you say it: communicating nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in bangladesh.during a fatal nipah virus (niv) outbreak in bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of niv transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak.201627495927
nipah virus transmission from bats to humans associated with drinking traditional liquor made from date palm sap, bangladesh, 2011-2014.nipah virus (niv) is a paramyxovirus, and pteropus spp. bats are the natural reservoir. from december 2010 through march 2014, hospital-based encephalitis surveillance in bangladesh identified 18 clusters of niv infection. the source of infection for case-patients in 3 clusters in 2 districts was unknown. a team of epidemiologists and anthropologists investigated these 3 clusters comprising 14 case-patients, 8 of whom died. among the 14 case-patients, 8 drank fermented date palm sap (tari) regul ...201626981928
molecular identification of potential denitrifying bacteria and use of d-optimal mixture experimental design for the optimization of denitrification process.three bacterial strains (te1, td3 and fb2) were isolated from date palm (degla), pistachio and barley. the presence of nitrate reductase (narg) and nitrite reductase (nirs and nirk) genes in the selected strains was detected by pcr technique. molecular identification based on 16s rdna sequencing method was applied to identify positive strains. in addition, the d-optimal mixture experimental design was used to optimize the optimal formulation of probiotic bacteria for denitrification process. str ...201626893037
antileishmanial activity of date (phoenix dactylifera l) fruit and pit extracts in vitro.leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of phoenix dactylifera against leishmania major promastigotes. l major promastigotes were cultured in rpmi 1640 and incubated at 25°c ± 1°c for 24, 48, and 72 hours. for obtaining the ic50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, mtt assay was employed. furthermore, pro ...201627242378
computational identification and comparative analysis of mirna precursors in three palm species.in the present study, mirna precursors in the genomes of three palm species were identified. analyzes of sequence conservation and biological function of their putative targets contribute to understand the roles of mirna in palm biology. micrornas are small rnas of 20-25 nucleotides in length, with important functions in the regulation of gene expression. recent genome sequencing of the palm species elaeis guineensis, elaeis oleifera and phoenix dactylifera have enabled the discovery of mirna ge ...201626919984
454-pyrosequencing reveals variable fungal diversity across farming systems.oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the arabian peninsula and several african countries. in oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming (sof) system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. this study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a sof system which is cultivated with date palms, acid ...201627014331
recent progress for the utilization of curcuma longa, piper nigrum and phoenix dactylifera seeds against type 2 diabetes.diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. the intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes.201627399905
antioxidants as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for cadmium.epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. because numerous effects to cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prev ...201625944010
mold-ripened soft cheeses fortified with date palm fruit product as functional dairy products.date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. this study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with streptococcus thermophilus, penicillium came ...201626930796
enrichment of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) diet with palm fruit extracts and probiotics: effects on skin mucosal immunity.fish skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. to date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. in the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic shewanella putrefaciens (pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic bacillus sp. (bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (dpe diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of pdp11 + bacillus sp + aque ...201626712151
phenol-rich compounds sweet gel: a statistically more effective antibiotic than cloxacillin against pseudomonas aeruginosa.the purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds.201627695634
a pseudomonas strain isolated from date-palm rhizospheres improves root growth and promotes root formation in maize exposed to salt and aluminum stress.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pseudomonas fluorescens 002 (p.f.002.), isolated from the rhizosphere of date palms from the ghardaia region in the algerian sahara, to promote root growth of two varieties of maize under conditions of salt and aluminum stress. primary roots of 5-day-old seedlings were inoculated with p.f.002., and seedlings were then grown under both control and stressed conditions. primary, lateral, and seminal root lengths and numbers, as well as root ...201626759938
specific caleosin/peroxygenase and lipoxygenase activities are tissue-differentially expressed in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedlings and are further induced following exposure to the toxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.two caleosin/peroxygenase isoforms from date palm, phoenix dactylifera l., pdclo2 and pdclo4, were characterized with respect to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, and oxylipin pathway substrate specificities in developing seedlings. both pdclo2 and pdclo4 had peroxygenase activities that peaked at the mid-stage (radicle length of 2.5 cm) of seedling growth and were associated with the lipid droplet (ld) and microsomal fractions. recombinant pdclo2 and pdclo4 proteins heterologou ...201628111588
table wine from tropical fruits utilizing natural yeast isolates.an attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (y4 and y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard ...201627570291
date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.the objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. an abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. to evaluate the antagonistic effects of th ...201626102058
periostitis of the metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a child: a case report.date palm thorn injuries are common in middle eastern countries, where there are many date palm plantations. if detected, these injuries can be treated without subsequent complications. in children, however, the diagnosis can very easily be missed. an untreated embedded thorn may cause late complications, including periostitis or osteomyelitis. in this article, the author presents a case of date palm thorn-induced periostitis of the fourth metatarsal. the lesion was successfully treated in this ...201621354009
the major proteins of the seed of the fruit of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.): characterisation and emulsifying properties.proteins were extracted from the seeds of the fruit of the date palm. proteomic analysis and sds-page electrophoresis of the extracted proteome suggested it is composed predominantly of the storage proteins glycinin and β-conglycinin, although over 300 proteins were detected, 91 of which were identified with confidence. in terms of protein type, the largest numbers of proteins were associated, not unexpectedly, with metabolism and energy functions, which reflected the requirements of the germina ...201626617019
how far can the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus (coleoptera: curculionidae), fly?the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to southeast asia and was recovered from an infested canary islands date palm in laguna beach, california, usa, in 2010. the detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. a key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can r. vuln ...201626791820
metabolite profiling in 18 saudi date palm fruit cultivars and their antioxidant potential via uplc-qtof-ms and multivariate data analyses.date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera) is not only one of the most economically significant plants in the middle east, but also valued for its nutritional impact, and for which development of analytical methods is ongoing to help distinguish its many cultivars. this study attempts to characterize the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of 18 date cultivars from saudi arabia. a total of 44 metabolites extracted from the fruit peel were evaluated in a uplc-qtof-ms based metabolomics analysis ...201626781334
'ajwa' dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) extract ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy through downregulation of oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic molecules in rodent model.ajwa, a special variety of saudi arabian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a rich source of nutrients, fibers and bioactive molecules. while previous studies have shown the therapeutic value of dates phytoconstituents in liver and kidney diseases etc., its cardioprotective potential remains elusive. we therefore, investigated the cardioprotective effect of lyophilized ajwa extract (ajle) ex vivo as well as in vivo.201626776662
nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily arecoideae (arecaceae).palms (arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. the focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. a targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the arecoideae tribes and the ...201626748268
acoustic detection of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) and oryctes elegans (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in phoenix dactylifera (arecales: arecacae) trees and offshoots in saudi arabian orchards.rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of r. ferrugineus, but until now ha ...201626743218
optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. mejhoul.the effects of major mineral salts, l-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. mejhoul were evaluated. different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (nh4no3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/l), potassium nitrate (kno3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/l), calcium chloride dehydrate (cacl2·2h2o; 147, 220 or 440 mg/l), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (kh2po4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/l), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (mgso4·7h2o; 123, 185 or 370 mg/l), l-gluta ...201628330181
development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (ssrs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). a total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of ...201628330092
proteome analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) under severe drought and salt stress.date palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. this study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/l nacl) and drought (82.5 g/l peg or no irrigation) conditions for one month. using a protein 2d electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. atp synthase cf1 alpha chains were significantly upregu ...201627840818
identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time pcr in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) subjected to drought and salinity.date palm is an important crop plant in the arid and semi-arid regions supporting human population in the middle east and north africa. these areas have been largely affected by drought and salinity due to insufficient rainfall and improper irrigation practices. date palm is a relatively salt- and drought-tolerant plant and more recently efforts have been directed to identifying genes and pathways that confer stress tolerance in this species. quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) is a promising tech ...201627824922
mitochondrial dna variation among populations of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) from pakistan.the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. in recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the middle east. this has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive rpw populations. for example, in parts of the middle east, rpw is commonly referred to as the "pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. we sought evidence to support or refute this belief. first reports of r ...201627651423
in vivo evaluation of anti diabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidative activities of saudi date seed extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. in folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. the date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene.201627134893
evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious phoenix species.understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. the genus phoenix, belonging to the arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. phylogenetic data suggest that the genus phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. we have investi ...201627118680
somatic embryogenesis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) through cell suspension culture.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is the oldest and most economically important plant species distributed in the hot arid regions of the world. propagation of date palm by seeds produces heterogeneous offspring with inferior field performance and poor fruit quality. traditionally, date palm is propagated by offshoots, but this method is inefficient for mass propagation because of limited availability of offshoots. plant regeneration through tissue culture is able to provide technologies for the ...201627108330
in vitro effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen on colonization of neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen (dpp) is widely used as a folk remedy for male infertility treatment, and has well known medicinal effects.201627084457
phoenix dactylifera l. sap enhances wound healing in wistar rats: phytochemical and histological assessment.the sap of the date palm "lagmi" is a clear liquid, rich in sugars and minerals, with a pleasant flavour. folk remedies based on the use of "lagmi" for wound healing are still practiced. however, no studies investigated the relevance of "lagmi" for wound healing. therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the in vivo healing properties of "lagmi" on mechanically wounded wistar rats. injured rats were divided into three groups: a first group treated by "lagmi", a second reference group proc ...201627064088
the domestication syndrome in phoenix dactylifera seeds: toward the identification of wild date palm populations.investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) belongs to the genus phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. it has been cultivated for millennia in the middle east and in north africa and constitutes the keystone of o ...201627010707
susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species phoenix dactylifera, chamaerops humilis and washingtonia filifera against rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier, 1790) (coleoptera: curculionidae).rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the red palm weevil (rpw), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. however, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. in europe, the rpw is a major pest of phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. the aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of p. dactylifera, chamaerops ...201626976073
effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.this study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. all the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °c respectively and present similar thermal profiles. results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. these di ...201626948603
macroporous natural capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery.macroporous natural sporopollenin exine capsules (sec) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and coated by natural polymer composite (carboxymethyl cellulose with epichlorohydrin). the polymer coated exine capsules (pcec) were used in in-vitro investigations for controlled delivery of paracetamol. sec, pcec, and drugs loaded capsules (pcec-par) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (sem), surface area (bet), fourier-transform infrared (ft-ir), x-ray diffraction (xrd ...201626945735
evaluation of pollen germination of some palm males and pollination impact on bunch weight and fruit quality in kadary date palm cultivar (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2013-2014) at the research and agriculture experiment station, dirab, college of food and agricultural sciences, king saud university, riyadh. pollen grains, used in this trial, were collected from eleven male, namely succary, menify, sallag, dikhiny, nabout zamel, serry, khalas, shagra, safry, maktumi and kadary in order to pollinate female kadary date palm cultivar. results indicated that pollens of safry male followed by succary ...201626930872
exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).the ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (phoenix dactylifera l. cv deglet nour) was investigated. two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg cdcl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mm) added through the irrigation water. different levels of cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content a ...201626901506
endemic insular and coastal tunisian date palm genetic diversity.the breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. the tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. we have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited tunisian date palm genetic pool. eighteen microsatellite loci of phoenix dactylifera l. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal a ...201626895027
delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l.sporopollenin macroporous capsules (smcs) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). the polymer coated macroporous capsules smc@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. the materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (sem), x-ray diffraction (xrd), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. the ibu loading and releasing was stu ...201626872877
artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. the efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture a ...201626868843
insecticidal potency of rnai-based catalase knockdown in rhynchophorus ferrugineus (oliver) (coleoptera: curculionidae).palm trees around the world are prone to notorious rhynchophorus ferrugineus, which causes heavy losses of palm plantations. in middle eastern countries, this pest is a major threat to date palm orchards. conventional pest control measures with the major share of synthetic insecticides have resulted in insect resistance and environmental issues. therefore, in order to explore better alternatives, the rnai approach was employed to knock down the catalase gene in fifth and tenth larval instars wit ...201626822903
dietary supplementation of phoenix dactylifera seeds enhances performance, immune response, and antioxidant status in broilers.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. this proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (dps) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (bio-mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. an aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages a ...201628127417
phoenix dactylifera mediated green synthesis of cu2o particles for arsenite uptake from water.in this study, an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and single-step procedure is used for the synthesis of polycrystalline cu2o particles with controlled morphologies. simple sugars are extracted from date fruit pulp (phoenix dactylifera) and used as a reducing agent for the formation of cu2o particles in aqueous medium. the feasibility of this solution is compared with the standard glucose solution. the cu2o particles are characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical ...201627933116
discrimination and nitric oxide inhibitory activity correlation of ajwa dates from different grades and origin.this study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different ajwa grades and farm origins. it is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (no) inhibitory activity. identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹h-nmr spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. the no inhibitory activity was determined using a griess assay. multivariate data analy ...201627801841
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