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a genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two major subpopulations in phoenix dactylifera.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. there are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of north africa to india. the origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. we conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar ...201525957276
physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents.we have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (scba), date palm seed carbon (dpsc), and rice husk ash (rha) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent magnesol xl for improving the quality of waste frying oil (wfo) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. we measured moisture content, refractive index (ri), density, acid value (av), iodine value (iv), peroxide value (pv), and saponification value (sv), as well as fatty ...201527877789
identification of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon.laboratory and field investigations aimed to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm pest oryctes agamemnon. live males or extracts of male effluvia attracted conspecifics in an olfactometer, whereas female effluvia attracted only males. volatile emissions from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analysed by gas chromatography (gc) and gc/mass spectrometry (gc/ms). males emitted a blend of 1) ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, 2) 4-methyloctanoic acid, 3) 4-methyloctanyl a ...201525900246
physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.) .the oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in saudi arabia. the results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. the refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. the iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the ...201525895270
genetic diversity of qatari date palm using ssr markers.the genetic diversity in the date palm germplasm of 59 female accessions representing 12 cultivars from different locations in qatar was investigated using 14 loci of simple-sequence repeat (ssr) primers. a total of 94 alleles, with a mean of 6.7 alleles per locus, were scored. the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 (primer mpdcir090) to 11 (primers mpdcir010 and mpdcir015). the amplified ssr band sizes ranged from 104 to 330 bp. the mean gene diversity was 0.66 and ranged from 0.39 (locu ...201525867305
determination of sucrose in date fruits (phoenix dactylifera l.) growing in the sultanate of oman by nir spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.a near infrared (nir) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the sultanate of oman. in this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. the sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one ...201526048559
salt tolerance research in date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.), past, present, and future perspectives.the date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. however, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. it is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. in this ...201526042137
tunisian date (phoenix dactylifera l.) by-products: characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.three tunisian date varieties, deglet nour, kentichi and allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating deglet nour and kentichi s ...201526041157
oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. at present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (pgp) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resis ...201526033617
production of date palm fruits free of acaricides residues by ozone technology as post-harvest treatment.distilled water and ozonated water as postharvest wash treatments for 15-60 min as dipping times were tested to remove two acaricides namely, dicofol and amitraz from different varieties of date fruits. recovered amount of the acaricides was extracted using solid phase extraction (spe) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). dicofol removal percentages in the presence of ozone increased in the order of nabtet aly > nabout seif > khalas > sakay, while amitraz removal in ...201526028713
effect of palm pollen on sperm parameters of infertile man.there is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. the aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered date palm pollen (dpp) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. forty infertile men participated in our study. they were treated by pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers ...201526506651
how far can the red palm weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae) fly?: computerized flight mill studies with field-captured weevils.adult rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the al ahsaa directorate, kingdom of saudi arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (december), spring (march), and summer (may). of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. of those weev ...201526470385
influence of different drying treatments and extraction solvents on the metabolite profile and nitric oxide inhibitory activity of ajwa dates.this study aimed to examine the variation in the metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (no) inhibitory activity of ajwa dates that were subjected to 2 drying treatments and different extraction solvents. (1)h nmr coupled with multivariate data analysis was employed. a griess assay was used to determine the inhibition of the production of no in raw 264.7 cells treated with lps and interferon-γ. the oven dried (od) samples demonstrated the absence of asparagine and ascorbic acid as compared to the ...201526457883
impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.the reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. in the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. a total of twenty- ...201526428278
correlation between mechanical properties with specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction of graphite/epoxy composites.the correlation between the mechanical properties of fillers/epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for neat epoxy (ne), graphite/epoxy composites (ge), and data palm fiber/epoxy with or without graphite composites (gfe and fe). the correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific we ...201528793431
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.date palms (phoenix dactylifera, arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. however, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the atlantic shores to southern asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. in order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geog ...201526113618
phoenix dactylifera seeds ameliorate early diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.in arabic folk medicine, the seeds of phoenix dactylifera l. (arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of p. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored.201525612778
modeling the effects of climate on date palm scale (parlatoria blanchardi) population dynamics during different phenological stages of life history under hot arid conditions.the date palm scale (dps) parlatoria blanchardi is a serious pest due to the damage it inflicts on its host tree (phoenix dactylifera). to develop an effective control against dps in arid regions, it is essential to know its bio-ecology including population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the duration and timing of life history and also the densities of different phenological stages (crawlers, first and second instars nymphs, adult males, and adult females). monitoring of biological cy ...201525601782
effect of dietary supplementation of dates in alzheimer's disease appsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.oxidative stress may play a key role in alzheimer's disease (ad) neuropathology. changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ad transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from oman. the 4-month-old mice with double swedish app mutation (appsw/tg2576) were purchased from taconic farm, ny, usa; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet ...201524954036
would phoenix dactyflera pollen (palm seed) be considered as a treatment agent against males' infertility? a systematic review.oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. in the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male's ability to impregnate a female. currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. the antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and ...201526816585
feasibility study of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.a feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three algerian raw materials, namely date (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (oap) in lemon juice (lj) was performed by response surface methodology (rsm) based on central composite design (ccd). the textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. the cooking temperature (x1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time ...201526243917
date (phoenix dactylifera) polyphenolics and other bioactive compounds: a traditional islamic remedy's potential in prevention of cell damage, cancer therapeutics and beyond.this review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. this allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage ...201526694370
antinociceptive effect of palm date spathe hydroalcoholic extract on acute and chronic pain in mice as compared with analgesic effect of morphine and diclofenac.in persian traditional medicine, palm date spathe (pds) is introduced as an analgesic. therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of pds on acute and chronic pain in mice in comparison with diclofenac and morphine.201526693469
metabolomics of dates (phoenix dactylifera) reveals a highly dynamic ripening process accounting for major variation in fruit composition.dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. in this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome.201526674306
a genome-wide identification of the mirnaome in response to salinity stress in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).although date palm is relatively salt-tolerant, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to its salt tolerance. only recently, investigators have uncovered microrna-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation, which is critical for typical plant development and adaptation to stress conditions such as salinity. to identify conserved and novel mirnas in date palm and to characterize mirnas that could play a role in salt tolerance, we have generated srna libraries ...201526594218
in vitro response of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) to k/na ratio under saline conditions.salinity is a serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural plants. one of the potential problems for plants growing under saline conditions is the inability to up take enough k(+). the addition of k(+) may considerably improve the salt tolerance of plants grown under salinity. it is assumed that increasing the k(+) supply at the root zone can ameliorate the reduction in growth imposed by high salinity. the present study aims to determine whether an increase in the k/na ratio in the e ...201526558511
whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop.date palms (phoenix dactylifera) are the most significant perennial crop in arid regions of the middle east and north africa. here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of approximately seven million single nucleotide polymorphisms in date palms based on whole genome re-sequencing of a collection of 62 cultivars. population structure analysis indicates a major genetic divide between north africa and the middle east/south asian date palms, with evidence of admixture in cultivars from egypt and su ...201526549859
in silico characterization and molecular modeling of double-strand break repair protein mre11 from phoenix dactylifera v deglet nour.dna double-strand breaks (dsbs) are highly cytotoxic and mutagenic. mre11 plays an essential role in repairing dna by cleaving broken ends through its 3' to 5' exonuclease and single-stranded dna endonuclease activities.201526541955
prevalence and clinical relevance of ige sensitization to profilin in childhood: a multicenter study.little is known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of hypersensitivity to the plant panallergen profilin in children.201526528861
therapeutic potential of date palm pollen for testicular dysfunction induced by thyroid disorders in male rats.hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. the present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (dpp) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. rats were divided into six groups. group i was normal control. group ii received oral dpp extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group iii (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of l-thyroxine (l-t4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group iv received l-t4 plus dpp extract, grou ...201526425844
comparative efficacy of co2 and ozone gases against ephestia cautella (lepidoptera: pyralidae) larvae under different temperature regimes.comparative efficacy of three different modified atmospheres: 100% co2, 75% co2 + 25% n2, and 22 ppm ozone were examined against larval mortality of the almond moth, ephestia cautella (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) at temperature regimes of 25°c and 35 ± 2°c and 60 ± 5% relative humidity, and 9:15 dark and light. wandering young larval instars, which are fast growing, large enough in size and considered as more tolerant to modified atmosphere, were collected directly from the rearing culture, ...201526382044
genetic structure of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) in the old world reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.since the publication of this paper, it has become apparent that an error was made in the legend to fig. 3 and the colours referring to occidental and oriental are the wrong way round. the authors apologise for this error, and a correct version of the legend to fig. 3 is given below.201526378059
proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.).plants exposed to certain abiotic stress conditions tend to produce the amino acid proline, which acts as an active osmolyte, a metal chelator, an antioxidant, and a signaling molecule. there is increasing evidence that proline accumulates in plants due to a wide range of abiotic stress, in particular high soil salinity and drought. therefore, proline content is often used as a marker-assisted breeding tool aimed at improving drought and salinity tolerance. in this study, it was investigated whe ...201526345930
do skin prick test and in vitro techniques diagnose sensitization to peach lipid transfer protein and profilin equally well in allergy to plant food and pollen?to compare the skin prick test (spt) with in vitro techniques (single and multiplex fluorescence enzyme-immunoassay [feia]) for detecting sensitization to profilin and lipid transfer protein (ltp).201526310043
identification of proteins modulated in the date palm stem infested with red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliv.) using two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.a state of the art proteomic methodology using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (maldi tof) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (rpw). our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with rpw infestation in date palm stem. to identify rpw infestation associated peptides (i), artificially wounded plants (w) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, ...201526287180
metabolic analysis of various date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional quality.date palm is an important crop, especially in the hot-arid regions of the world. date palm fruits have high nutritional and therapeutic value and possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. in this study, we performed bioactivity analyses and metabolic profiling of date fruits of 12 cultivars from saudi arabia to assess their nutritional value. our results showed that the date extracts from different cultivars have different free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation ac ...201526225946
variations in hormones and antioxidant status in relation to flowering in early, mid, and late varieties of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) of united arab emirates.the present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of nagal, lulu, and khalas date palm varieties in uae. the nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. the aba and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period an ...201526167536
profiling microrna expression during multi-staged date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit development.micrornas (mirnas) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. in this study, we first identified 238 conserved mirnas in date palm (phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (fda) mirnas, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel p. dactylifera-sp ...201525638647
effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.in this study, the antioxidant effect of date (phoenix dactylifera l., arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °c was determined. butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) was used as positive control in the experiment. all extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to bha up to 21 days. when antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with bha, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarka ...201525694743
proteome analysis for understanding abiotic stress (salinity and drought) tolerance in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).this study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. for this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar "sagie" were subjected to drought (27.5 g/l polyethylene glycol 6000) and salinity stress conditions (16 g/l nacl) for one month. dige analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. ...201526167472
antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary tunisian date varieties (phoenix dactylifera l.) by hydrothermal treatments.three common non-commercial tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. the concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (smeti, garen gazel, and eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. both thermal treatments increased t ...201626593573
mitochondrial dna variation among populations of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: curculionidae) from pakistan.the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. in recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the middle east. this has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive rpw populations. for example, in parts of the middle east, rpw is commonly referred to as the "pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. we sought evidence to support or refute this belief. first reports of r ...201627651423
the major proteins of the seed of the fruit of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.): characterisation and emulsifying properties.proteins were extracted from the seeds of the fruit of the date palm. proteomic analysis and sds-page electrophoresis of the extracted proteome suggested it is composed predominantly of the storage proteins glycinin and β-conglycinin, although over 300 proteins were detected, 91 of which were identified with confidence. in terms of protein type, the largest numbers of proteins were associated, not unexpectedly, with metabolism and energy functions, which reflected the requirements of the germina ...201626617019
how far can the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus (coleoptera: curculionidae), fly?the palm weevil, rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to southeast asia and was recovered from an infested canary islands date palm in laguna beach, california, usa, in 2010. the detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. a key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can r. vuln ...201626791820
metabolite profiling in 18 saudi date palm fruit cultivars and their antioxidant potential via uplc-qtof-ms and multivariate data analyses.date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera) is not only one of the most economically significant plants in the middle east, but also valued for its nutritional impact, and for which development of analytical methods is ongoing to help distinguish its many cultivars. this study attempts to characterize the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of 18 date cultivars from saudi arabia. a total of 44 metabolites extracted from the fruit peel were evaluated in a uplc-qtof-ms based metabolomics analysis ...201626781334
optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. mejhoul.the effects of major mineral salts, l-glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. mejhoul were evaluated. different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (nh4no3; 550, 825 or 1650 mg/l), potassium nitrate (kno3; 633.3, 950 or 1900 mg/l), calcium chloride dehydrate (cacl2·2h2o; 147, 220 or 440 mg/l), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (kh2po4; 57, 85 or 170 mg/l), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (mgso4·7h2o; 123, 185 or 370 mg/l), l-gluta ...201628330181
development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (ssrs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). a total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of ...201628330092
the domestication syndrome in phoenix dactylifera seeds: toward the identification of wild date palm populations.investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) belongs to the genus phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. it has been cultivated for millennia in the middle east and in north africa and constitutes the keystone of o ...201627010707
susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species phoenix dactylifera, chamaerops humilis and washingtonia filifera against rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier, 1790) (coleoptera: curculionidae).rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the red palm weevil (rpw), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. however, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. in europe, the rpw is a major pest of phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. the aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of p. dactylifera, chamaerops ...201626976073
effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.this study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. all the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °c respectively and present similar thermal profiles. results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. these di ...201626948603
macroporous natural capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery.macroporous natural sporopollenin exine capsules (sec) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and coated by natural polymer composite (carboxymethyl cellulose with epichlorohydrin). the polymer coated exine capsules (pcec) were used in in-vitro investigations for controlled delivery of paracetamol. sec, pcec, and drugs loaded capsules (pcec-par) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (sem), surface area (bet), fourier-transform infrared (ft-ir), x-ray diffraction (xrd ...201626945735
evaluation of pollen germination of some palm males and pollination impact on bunch weight and fruit quality in kadary date palm cultivar (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2013-2014) at the research and agriculture experiment station, dirab, college of food and agricultural sciences, king saud university, riyadh. pollen grains, used in this trial, were collected from eleven male, namely succary, menify, sallag, dikhiny, nabout zamel, serry, khalas, shagra, safry, maktumi and kadary in order to pollinate female kadary date palm cultivar. results indicated that pollens of safry male followed by succary ...201626930872
exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).the ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (phoenix dactylifera l. cv deglet nour) was investigated. two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg cdcl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mm) added through the irrigation water. different levels of cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content a ...201626901506
endemic insular and coastal tunisian date palm genetic diversity.the breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. the tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. we have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited tunisian date palm genetic pool. eighteen microsatellite loci of phoenix dactylifera l. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal a ...201626895027
delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l.sporopollenin macroporous capsules (smcs) were extracted from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). the polymer coated macroporous capsules smc@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. the materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (sem), x-ray diffraction (xrd), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. the ibu loading and releasing was stu ...201626872877
artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. the efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture a ...201626868843
insecticidal potency of rnai-based catalase knockdown in rhynchophorus ferrugineus (oliver) (coleoptera: curculionidae).palm trees around the world are prone to notorious rhynchophorus ferrugineus, which causes heavy losses of palm plantations. in middle eastern countries, this pest is a major threat to date palm orchards. conventional pest control measures with the major share of synthetic insecticides have resulted in insect resistance and environmental issues. therefore, in order to explore better alternatives, the rnai approach was employed to knock down the catalase gene in fifth and tenth larval instars wit ...201626822903
the use of high throughput dna sequence analysis to assess the endophytic microbiome of date palm roots grown under different levels of salt stress.date palms are able to grow under diverse abiotic stress conditions including in saline soils, where microbial communities may be help in the plant's salinity tolerance. these communities able to produce specific growth promoting substances can enhance date palm growth in a saline environment. however, these communities are poorly defined. in the work reported here, the date palm endophytic bacterial and fungal communities were identified using the pyrosequencing method, and the microbial differ ...201628494084
dietary supplementation of phoenix dactylifera seeds enhances performance, immune response, and antioxidant status in broilers.the date palm (phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. this proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (dps) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (bio-mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. an aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages a ...201628127417
molecular identification of sex in phoenix dactylifera using inter simple sequence repeat markers.early sex identification of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) at seedling stage is an economically desirable objective, which will significantly increase the profits of seed based cultivation. the utilization of molecular markers at this stage for early and rapid identification of sex is important due to the lack of morphological markers. in this study, a total of two hundred inter simple sequence repeat (issr) primers were screened among male and female date palm plants to identify putative se ...201627419132
natural history of javeta pallida baly, 1858 on phoenix palms in india (chrysomelidae, cassidinae, coelaenomenoderini).members of the old world hispine tribe, coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of arecaceae, cyperaceae, and zingiberales. a few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in africa. the host plants and natural history of javeta pallida baly, 1858, the only indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. these beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, phoenix sylvestris (l.) roxb. (arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, phoenix dactylifera ...201627408585
phoenix dactylifera mediated green synthesis of cu2o particles for arsenite uptake from water.in this study, an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and single-step procedure is used for the synthesis of polycrystalline cu2o particles with controlled morphologies. simple sugars are extracted from date fruit pulp (phoenix dactylifera) and used as a reducing agent for the formation of cu2o particles in aqueous medium. the feasibility of this solution is compared with the standard glucose solution. the cu2o particles are characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical ...201627933116
proteome analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) under severe drought and salt stress.date palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. this study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/l nacl) and drought (82.5 g/l peg or no irrigation) conditions for one month. using a protein 2d electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. atp synthase cf1 alpha chains were significantly upregu ...201627840818
identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time pcr in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) subjected to drought and salinity.date palm is an important crop plant in the arid and semi-arid regions supporting human population in the middle east and north africa. these areas have been largely affected by drought and salinity due to insufficient rainfall and improper irrigation practices. date palm is a relatively salt- and drought-tolerant plant and more recently efforts have been directed to identifying genes and pathways that confer stress tolerance in this species. quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) is a promising tech ...201627824922
effect of red and blue light emitting diodes "crb-led" on in vitro organogenesis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. alshakr.the objective of the present study is to determine the effect of light source on enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activities of in vitro cultures of date palm cv. alshakr. in vitro-grown buds were cultured on murashige and skoog (ms) medium and incubated under a conventional white fluorescent light (control), and combinations of red + blue light emitting diode (18:2) (crb-led). results revealed that the treatment of crb-led showed a significant ...201627562594
cultivar-level phylogeny using chloroplast dna barcode psbk-psbi spacers for identification of emirati date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) varieties.the efficacy of genetic material for use as dna barcodes is under constant evaluation and improvement as new barcodes offering better resolution and efficiency of amplification for specific species groups are identified. in this study, the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbk-psbi was evaluated for the first time as a dna barcode for distinguishing date palm cultivars. nucleotide sequences were aligned using mega 6.0 to calculate pairwise divergence among the cultivars. the analyzed data illustrat ...201627525916
soil salinisation and irrigation management of date palms in a saharan environment.the continuance of agricultural production in regions of the world with chronic water shortages depends upon understanding how soil salinity is impacted by irrigation practises such as water salinity, irrigation frequency and amount of irrigation. a two-year field study was conducted in a saharan oasis of tunisia (lazala oasis) to determine how the soil electrical conductivity was affected by irrigation of date palms with high saline water. the study area lacked a saline shallow water table. fie ...201627476071
ajwa date (phoenix dactylifera l.) extract inhibits human breast adenocarcinoma (mcf7) cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.phoenix dactylifera l (date palm) is a native plant of the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) and other middle eastern countries. ajwa date has been described in the traditional and alternative medicine to provide several health benefits including anticholesteremic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects, but most remains to be scientifically validated. herein, we evaluated the anticancer effects of the methanolic extract of ajwa date (mead) on human breast adenocarcinoma (mcf7) cells i ...201627441372
genic and intergenic ssr database generation, snps determination and pathway annotations, in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third version of the date palm genome and develop a new ssr primers database. in addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) that are located within the ssr flanking regions were recognized. moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by ssr primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. a total of 172,075 ss ...201627434138
palm weevil pheromones - discovery and use.male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. the weevils are large, have ...201627430563
biochemical, transcriptional, and bioinformatic analysis of lipid droplets from seeds of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) and their use as potent sequestration agents against the toxic pollutant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin.contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (pops), is a major ecological issue. dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. lipid droplets (lds) purified from date palm, phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. the bioaffinity of date palm lds ...201627375673
execution of strands thinning improves the phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit.date fruit is a rich and quick source of phytochemicals and sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) which playing a vital role to nourish the human beings worldwide. the present study therefore, was conducted to explore the role of strands thinning on phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (cvs. hillawi and khadrawi). the experiment was comprised of different strand thinning treatments viz. @ 20% rcs (removal of central strands), 30% rcs, 20% stt (shortening of terminal tips), 30% stt, 20% ...201627393433
'ajwa' dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) extract ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy through downregulation of oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic molecules in rodent model.ajwa, a special variety of saudi arabian dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) is a rich source of nutrients, fibers and bioactive molecules. while previous studies have shown the therapeutic value of dates phytoconstituents in liver and kidney diseases etc., its cardioprotective potential remains elusive. we therefore, investigated the cardioprotective effect of lyophilized ajwa extract (ajle) ex vivo as well as in vivo.201626776662
acoustic detection of rhynchophorus ferrugineus (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) and oryctes elegans (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in phoenix dactylifera (arecales: arecacae) trees and offshoots in saudi arabian orchards.rhynchophorus ferrugineus (olivier) (coleoptera: dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of r. ferrugineus, but until now ha ...201626743218
date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. it was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by ...201627333954
nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily arecoideae (arecaceae).palms (arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. the focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. a targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the arecoideae tribes and the ...201626748268
corrigendum to "macroporous natural capsules extracted from phoenix dactylifera l. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery" [int. j. pharm. 504 (2016) 39-47]. 201627282433
identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-date palm waste using pyrolysis-gc/ms technique.the behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using py-gc/ms. the main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. the first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, ...201627197656
discrimination and nitric oxide inhibitory activity correlation of ajwa dates from different grades and origin.this study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different ajwa grades and farm origins. it is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (no) inhibitory activity. identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹h-nmr spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. the no inhibitory activity was determined using a griess assay. multivariate data analy ...201627801841
comparative study of neuropharmacological, analgesic properties and phenolic profile of ajwah, safawy and sukkari cultivars of date palm (phoenix dactylifera).in addition to the rich nutritional value, date palm is also used in various ethnobotanical practices for the treatment of various disease conditions. present investigation was undertaken to examine the neuropharmacological and antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of three date cultivars growing in saudi arabia, namely ajwah, safawy and sukkari. neuropharmacological effect was observed by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole board test. antinociceptive activity was ...201627746708
chemical characterisation and the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial properties of date fruit (phoenix dactylifera l.).date fruit, phoenix dactylifera l. has traditionally been used as a medicine in many cultures for the treatment of a range of ailments such as stomach and intestinal disorders, fever, oedema, bronchitis and wound healing.201627729284
analysis of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide content in palm date fruit of the united arab emirates: a baseline study.the purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the united arab emirates (uae) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. an investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the uae was performed. palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the uae were collected and analyzed. the study targeted the naturally occurring r ...201627682905
evaluation of anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral activities of bioactive compounds from phoenix dactylifera l's leaf: in vitro and in vivo approach.among various chronic disorders, cancer and diabetes mellitus are the most common disorders. this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of phoenix dactylifera l. leaves (hepdl) in animal models of type ii diabetes in vitro/in vivo and in a human melanoma-derived cell line (igr-39). a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in this plant. the physicochemic ...201627668542
in vivo evaluation of anti diabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidative activities of saudi date seed extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. in folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. the date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene.201627134893
evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious phoenix species.understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. the genus phoenix, belonging to the arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. phylogenetic data suggest that the genus phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. we have investi ...201627118680
somatic embryogenesis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) through cell suspension culture.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is the oldest and most economically important plant species distributed in the hot arid regions of the world. propagation of date palm by seeds produces heterogeneous offspring with inferior field performance and poor fruit quality. traditionally, date palm is propagated by offshoots, but this method is inefficient for mass propagation because of limited availability of offshoots. plant regeneration through tissue culture is able to provide technologies for the ...201627108330
in vitro effects of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen on colonization of neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen (dpp) is widely used as a folk remedy for male infertility treatment, and has well known medicinal effects.201627084457
phoenix dactylifera l. sap enhances wound healing in wistar rats: phytochemical and histological assessment.the sap of the date palm "lagmi" is a clear liquid, rich in sugars and minerals, with a pleasant flavour. folk remedies based on the use of "lagmi" for wound healing are still practiced. however, no studies investigated the relevance of "lagmi" for wound healing. therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the in vivo healing properties of "lagmi" on mechanically wounded wistar rats. injured rats were divided into three groups: a first group treated by "lagmi", a second reference group proc ...201627064088
the complete plastid genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius (asparagaceae: lomandroideae).the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of eustrephus latifolius was firstly determined in subfamily lomandriodeae of family asparagaceae. it was 159,736 bp and contained a large single copy region (82,403 bp) and a small single copy region (13,607 bp) which were separated by two inverted repeat regions (31,863 bp). in total, 132 genes were identified and they were consisted of 83 coding genes, 8 rrna genes, 38 trna genes, 3 pseudogenes. rpl23 and clpp were pseudogenes due to sequence dele ...201625186113
date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.the objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. an abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. to evaluate the antagonistic effects of th ...201626102058
the tunisian oasis ecosystem is a source of antagonistic bacillus spp. producing diverse antifungal lipopeptides.the use of microbial products has become a promising alternative approach to controlling plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. bacteria isolated from the date palm tree rhizosphere of the tunisian oasis ecosystem could provide new biocontrol microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions, such as drought, salinity and high temperature. the aim of this study was to screen bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the date palm tree for their ability to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi, and t ...201626428248
the role of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) pollen in fertility: a comprehensive review of current evidence.date palm pollen (dpp) is the male reproductive dust of palm flowers used as dietary supplement especially as aphrodisiac and fertility enhancer in both women and men from ancient times. although there are few clinical trials evaluating the beneficial effects of dpp in humans, various experimental studies have been conducted on the reproductive effects of dpp. among the compounds isolated from dpp are amino acids, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponins, and estroles. the present review summarizes com ...201626438718
projected future distribution of date palm and its potential use in alleviating micronutrient deficiency.micronutrient deficiency develops when nutrient intake does not match nutritional requirements for maintaining healthy tissue and organ functions which may have long-ranging effects on health, learning ability and productivity. inadequacy of iron, zinc and vitamin a are the most important micronutrient deficiencies. consumption of a 100 g portion of date flesh from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) has been reported to meet approximately half the daily dietary recommended intake of these micron ...201625847224
periostitis of the metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a child: a case report.date palm thorn injuries are common in middle eastern countries, where there are many date palm plantations. if detected, these injuries can be treated without subsequent complications. in children, however, the diagnosis can very easily be missed. an untreated embedded thorn may cause late complications, including periostitis or osteomyelitis. in this article, the author presents a case of date palm thorn-induced periostitis of the fourth metatarsal. the lesion was successfully treated in this ...201621354009
draft genome sequence of endophytic bacterium enterobacter asburiae pda134, isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) roots.in this report, a draft of the enterobacter asburiae strain pda134 genome was sequenced. this bacterial strain was isolated from the root tissue of a date palm, where it has the ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) under salinity stress.201627540071
antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivars.phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. this research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °c for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °c for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (tpc), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of saudi arabian p. dactylifera cv mabroom, safawi and ajwa, as well as iranian p. dactylifera cv mariami. the stora ...201627023514
antioxidants as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for cadmium.epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. because numerous effects to cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prev ...201625944010
enrichment of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) diet with palm fruit extracts and probiotics: effects on skin mucosal immunity.fish skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. to date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. in the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic shewanella putrefaciens (pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic bacillus sp. (bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (dpe diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of pdp11 + bacillus sp + aque ...201626712151
phenol-rich compounds sweet gel: a statistically more effective antibiotic than cloxacillin against pseudomonas aeruginosa.the purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds.201627695634
antileishmanial activity of date (phoenix dactylifera l) fruit and pit extracts in vitro.leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of phoenix dactylifera against leishmania major promastigotes. l major promastigotes were cultured in rpmi 1640 and incubated at 25°c ± 1°c for 24, 48, and 72 hours. for obtaining the ic50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, mtt assay was employed. furthermore, pro ...201627242378
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