improvement of the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride to enhance both antagonism and induction of plant systemic disease resistance.biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. we determined whether transgenic strain sj3-4 of trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxa, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. the transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxa expression occurred immediately ...200516000810
an arabidopsis homeodomain transcription factor, overexpressor of cationic peroxidase 3, mediates resistance to infection by necrotrophic pathogens.the mechanisms controlling plant resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens are poorly understood. we previously reported on ep5c, a gene shown to be induced by the h(2)o(2) generated during a plant-pathogen interaction. to identify novel plant components operating in pathogen-induced signaling cascades, we initiated a large-scale screen using arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of the h(2)o(2)-responsive ep5c promoter. here, we report the ide ...200515923348
an antifungal protein from flageolet beans.a protein with antifungal and hemagglutinating activities was isolated from dried flageolet beans (phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'flageolet bean'). the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. the protein demonstrated antifungal activity against mycophaerella arachidicola with an ic50 of 9.8 microm, but was inactive toward fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by a variety of the sugars tested. t ...200516026901
antifungal activity and biotransformation of diisophorone by botrytis cinerea.diisophorone (1) was tested against two strains of the necrotrophic plant pathogen botrytis cinerea. fungal sensitivity varied according to the strain. b. cinera 2100 was more sensitive than b. cinereauca992: its mycelial growth was significantly inhibited at concentrations of 50 ppm and above. although diisophorone (1) showed an effective control of b. cinerea, a detoxification mechanism was present. the detoxification of racemic diisophorone (1) by b. cinerea was investigated. incubation with ...200516028992
ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom ganoderma lucidum.a 15-kda antifungal protein, designated ganodermin, was isolated from the medical mushroom ganoderma lucidum. the isolation procedure utilized chromatography on deae-cellulose, affi-gel blue gel, cm-sepharose and superdex 75. ganodermin was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. ganodermin inhibited the mycelial growth of botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and physalospora piricola with an ic50 value of 15.2 microm, 12.4 microm and 18.1 microm, respect ...200616039755
origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. a microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four french regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in g ...200516096689
screening study of lead compounds for natural product-based fungicides: antifungal activity and biotransformation of 6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-beta-himachalene by botrytis cinerea.eleven beta-himachalene derivatives were tested, using the poisoning food technique, for their potential antifungal activity against the phytopathogen botrytis cinerea. compounds 1-11 displayed moderate activity, whereas the 6,7-diol derivative (12) produced an inhibition of 91% after 6 days. the microbial transformation of 12 was investigated and yielded four new compounds hydroxylated at positions c-5 (13), c-2 (14), c-4 (15), and c-12 (16). the structures were established on the basis of thei ...200516104783
interactions between the mycoparasite pythium oligandrum and two types of sclerotia of plant-pathogenic fungi.the interactions between pythium oligandrum hyphae and two types of sclerotia, i.e. the plano-convexoid sclerotium of botrytis cinerea and the tuberoid sclerotium of sclerotinia minor, were investigated by ultrastructural and cytochemical experiments. in the mycoparasitism of p. oligandrum, some differences in relation to sclerotium anatomy and the role of the rind layer in preventing invasion are documented. both types of sclerotia showed neither alterations of the heavily melanised rind walls, ...200516121563
an antifungal protein from ginger rhizomes.there are very few reports on antifungal proteins from rhizomes and there is none from the family of zingiberaceae. an antifungal protein with a novel n-terminal sequence was isolated from ginger rhizomes utilizing a protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. it exhibited an apparent molecul ...200516125680
an antimicrobial peptide ar-amp from amaranth (amaranthus retroflexus l.) seeds.a 30-residue antimicrobial peptide ar-amp was isolated from the seeds of amaranth amaranthus retroflexus l. essentially by a single step procedure using reversed-phase hplc, and its in vitro biological activities were studied. the complete amino acid sequence of ar-amp was determined by edman degradation in combination with mass spectrometric methods. in addition, the cdna encoding ar-amp was obtained and sequenced. the cdna encodes a precursor protein consisting of the n-terminal putative signa ...200516126239
nppdr1, a pleiotropic drug resistance-type atp-binding cassette transporter from nicotiana plumbaginifolia, plays a major role in plant pathogen defense.nicotiana plumbaginifolia nppdr1, a plasma membrane pleiotropic drug resistance-type atp-binding cassette transporter formerly named npabc1, has been suggested to transport the diterpene sclareol, an antifungal compound. however, direct evidence for a role of pleiotropic drug resistance transporters in the plant defense is still lacking. in situ immunolocalization and histochemical analysis using the gusa reporter gene showed that nppdr1 was constitutively expressed in the whole root, in the lea ...200516126865
biotransformation of 6,7-epoxygeraniol by fungi.the biotransformation of 6,7-epoxygeraniol by resting cells of selected fungi was investigated. the main product obtained from the transformation in rhodotorula glutinis and r. marina cultures was 6,7-epoxynerol (5-48% of chloroform extracts), whereas saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida parapsilosis and c. kefyr reduced this substrate to 6,7-epoxycitronellol (30-33% of chloroform extracts). cultures of yarrowia lipolytica, botrytis cinerea and s. cerevisiae promoted the cyclisation of 6,7-epoxyger ...200516133341
the hrpn gene of erwinia amylovora stimulates tobacco growth and enhances resistance to botrytis cinerea.erwinia amylovora is a member of the harpin proteins that induces pathogen resistance and hypersensitive cell death in plants. to obtain tobacco plants displaying a hypersensitive response, the hrpn gene from erwinia amylovora was cloned into vector pmjc-gb under the control of the rice cytochrome promoter and transfected into tobacco. southern hybridization with a hrpn probe revealed that the gene was present in one copy in the transgenic plants. in addition, hrpn transcripts could be detected ...200616136336
improvement of table grapes quality and safety by the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (map) and eugenol, menthol, or thymol.table grape is a nonclimacteric fruit that shows a rapid loss of quality during storage and is very susceptible to colonization by fungi, especially botrytis cinerea, which is considered the most important disease of this commodity. to solve this problem, synthetic fungicides have been used, although legal restrictions and consumer's concern demand the search of other safe means. in the present paper, and as an alternative of synthetic fungicides, an active packaging to improve map effectiveness ...200516159173
secondary metabolites influence arabidopsis/botrytis interactions: variation in host production and pathogen sensitivity.numerous studies have suggested that plant/pathogen interactions are partially mediated via plant secondary metabolite production and corresponding pathogen tolerance. however, there are inconsistent reports on the ability of particular compounds to provide resistance to a pathogen. most of these studies have focused on individual isolates of a given pathogen, suggesting that pathogens vary in their sensitivity to plant-produced toxins. we tested variability in virulence among pathogen isolates, ...200516167893
genome characterization of a flexuous rod-shaped mycovirus, botrytis virus x, reveals high amino acid identity to genes from plant 'potex-like' viruses.this study reports the molecular characterization of a flexuous rod-shaped mycovirus, botrytis virus x (bvx), infecting the plant-pathogenic fungus, botrytis cinerea. bvx contains a ssrna genome of 6966 nucleotides, and a poly(a) tract at or very near the 3' terminus. computer analysis of the genomic cdna sequence of bvx revealed five potential open reading frames (orfs). orf1 showed significant amino acid sequence identity to the replicase proteins of plant 'potex-like' viruses, including 73% i ...200616172841
a family 11 xylanase from the pathogen botrytis cinerea is inhibited by plant endoxylanase inhibitors xip-i and taxi-i.the phytopathogen fungus botrytis cinerea produces various glycosidases which are secreted during plant infection. in this study, the xynbc1 cdna that encodes a xylanase from family 11 glycoside hydrolase from b. cinerea was identified by homology-based analysis, cloned by reverse transcription rt-pcr, fully sequenced, and heterologously expressed in pichia pastoris x-33. the purified recombinant protein obtained by chelating-affinity chromatography demonstrated high catalytic activity (180+/-23 ...200516185656
isolation and identification of antifungal and antialgal alkaloids from haplophyllum sieversii.bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane/ethyl acetate/water (h/etoac/h2o) crude extract of the aerial parts of haplophyllum sieversii was performed because of preliminary screening data that indicated the presence of growth inhibitory components against colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. fractionation was directed using bioautographical methods resulting in the isolation of the bioactive alkaloids flindersine, anhydroevoxine, haplamine, and ...200516190626
development of real-time pcr (taqman) assays for the detection and quantification of botrytis cinerea in planta.real-time pcr assays based on taqman chemistry have been developed for the detection and quantification of botrytis cinerea, suitable for a wide range of different host plant species. assays were designed to the beta-tubulin gene, the intergenic spacer (igs) region of the nuclear ribosomal dna and also to a previously published, species-specific sequence characterised amplified region (scar) marker; the assays were compared to a published method based on sybr green i technology. the assays desig ...200516198585
production of an engineered killer peptide in nicotiana benthamiana by using a potato virus x expression system.the decapeptide killer peptide (kp) derived from the sequence of a single-chain, anti-idiotypic antibody acting as a functional internal image of a microbicidal, broad-spectrum yeast killer toxin (kt) was shown to exert a strong microbicidal activity against human pathogens. with the aim to exploit this peptide to confer resistance to plant pathogens, we assayed its antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. synthetic kp exhibited antimicrobial activit ...200516204558
isolation of an n-alkylated benzylamine derivative from pseudomonas putida btp1 as elicitor of induced systemic resistance in bean.root treatment of phaseolus vulgaris with the nonpathogenic pseudomonas putida btp1 led to significant reduction of the disease caused by the pathogen botrytis cinerea on leaves. the molecular determinant of p. putida btp1 mainly responsible for the induced systemic resistance (isr) was isolated from cell-free culture fluid after growth of the strain in the iron-poor casamino acid medium. mass spectrometry analyses performed on both the bacterial product and synthetic analogues revealed a polyal ...200515986926
characterization of a class iii chitinase from vitis vinifera cv. koshu.a chitinase gene (chi3k) was cloned from the genomic dna of vitis vinifera cv. koshu. the structural gene comprised 891 by without introns and encoded 297 amino acids. the chi3k product showed high similarity to the class iii chitinase of v. vinifera cv. pinot noir. chi3k was expressed using a bacterial expression vector for purification and enzymatic characterization of its gene product. the recombinant chitinase exhibited hydrolytic activity toward glycol chitin and its optimum ph was 4.0. it ...200316233474
zn(ii) biosorption properties of botrytis cinerea biomass.the study was aimed of determining the zn(ii) sorption performance of botrytis cinerea (b. cinerea) biomass as a new biosorbent. heat inactivated biomass was used in the determination of optimum conditions. the rate and extent of accumulation were effected by ph, contact time and initial zinc ion concentrations. the uptake capacity of b. cinerea was increased by chemical and physical pretreatment of the cells when compared with the native biomass. the maximum removal of zn(ii) at ph 5.0-6.0 was ...200616239066
antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols.the antifungal effects of rosemary, cumin, sater (savory), basil and pickling herb hydrosols were investigated against rhizoctonia solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae, botrytis cinerea and alternaria citri. hydrosols of sater and pickling herb showed the most relevant fungicidal activity.200516243447
the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein pgip2 of phaseolus vulgaris has evolved a mixed mode of inhibition of endopolygalacturonase pg1 of botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes gray mold in >1,000 plant species. during infection, it secretes several endopolygalacturonases (pgs) to degrade cell wall pectin, and among them, bcpg1 is constitutively expressed and is an important virulence factor. to counteract the action of pgs, plants express polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) that have been shown to inhibit a variety of pgs with different inhibition kinetics, both competitive and noncompetitive. the pg-p ...200516244152
post-translational modifications of recombinant b. cinerea epg 6.the fungus botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous plant pathogen that infects more than 200 different plant species and causes substantial economic losses in a wide range of agricultural crops and harvested products. endopolygalacturonases (epgs) are among the first array of cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by fungi during infection. up to 13 epg glycoforms have been described for b. cinerea. the presence of multiple n-linked glycosylation modifications in bcpg1-6 is predicted by their deduced ami ...200516259040
control of the phytopathogen botrytis cinerea using adipic acid monoethyl ester.the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of adipic acid monoethyl ester (aame) on the necrotrophic pathogen botrytis cinerea has been studied. this chemical effectively controlled this important phytopathogen, inhibited spore germination and mycelium development at non-phytotoxic concentrations. the effectiveness of aame treatment is concentration-dependent and influenced by ph. spore germination in the presence of aame is stopped at a very early stage, preventing germ tube development. in a ...200616261314
lunatusin, a trypsin-stable antimicrobial peptide from lima beans (phaseolus lunatus l.).an anti-fungal peptide designated as lunatusin, with a molecular mass around 7kda, was purified from the seeds of chinese lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.). the peptide was isolated using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on superdex 75. lunatusin exerted an anti-fungal activity toward fungal species such as fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on, bacillus megaterium, bacill ...200516269344
induction of resistance to gray mold with benzothiadiazole modifies amino acid profile and increases proanthocyanidins in grape: primary versus secondary metabolism.field treatments of grapevine (cv. merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (bth, 0.3 mm) induced resistance against gray mold caused by botrytis cinerea. both incidence and severity of the disease were reduced. the resistance was associated with an increase of total polyphenols in berry skins, in particular, the proanthocyanidin fraction, that increased up to 36%. the amino acid profile of leaves was also modified by treatments, particularly lysine, that augmented 4-fold. other amino a ...200516277413
limenin, a defensin-like peptide with multiple exploitable activities from shelf beans.from the seeds of the shelf bean, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 6.5 kda was isolated. the isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on mono s, and gel filtration on superdex 75. the peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. it potently suppressed mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, and mycosphaerella arachidicola with an ic(50) of 2.9, 2.1, and 0.34 microm, respectively. it exerted ant ...200616285021
differential accumulation of monolignol-derived compounds in elicited flax (linum usitatissimum) cell suspension cultures.lignin and lignans share monolignols as common precursors and are both potentially involved in plant defence against pathogens. in this study, we investigated the effects of fungal elicitors on lignin and lignan metabolism in flax (linum usitatissimum) cell suspensions. cell suspension cultures of flax were treated with elicitor preparations made from mycelium extracts of botrytis cinerea, phoma exigua and fusarium oxysporum f ssp lini. elicitors induced a rapid stimulation of the monolignol pat ...200616292660
a pathogen-inducible patatin-like lipid acyl hydrolase facilitates fungal and bacterial host colonization in arabidopsis.genes and proteins related to patatin, the major storage protein of potato tubers, have been identified in many plant species and shown to be induced by a variety of environmental stresses. the arabidopsis patatin-like gene family (plps) comprises nine members, two of which (plp2 and plp7) are strongly induced in leaves challenged with fungal and bacterial pathogens. here we show that accumulation of plp2 protein in response to botrytis cinerea or pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (avrrpt2) is dep ...200516297072
inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by essential oil, hydrosol, ground material and extract of summer savory (satureja hortensis l.) growing wild in turkey.the antifungal activities of the essential oil, hydrosol, ground material and extract of summer savory (satureja hortensis l.) on mycelial growth of alternaria mali roberts and botrytis cinerea pers. were determined. all doses of extract inhibited 100% the mycelial growth of both fungi, and exhibited a fungicidal effect. the 15% level of hydrosol and the 1.0% level of ground material had a 100% effect on b. cinerea. the other doses showed weak inhibition on mycelial growth of the fungi, and anti ...200616330123
the membrane-anchored botrytis-induced kinase1 plays distinct roles in arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens.plant resistance to disease is controlled by the combination of defense response pathways that are activated depending on the nature of the pathogen. we identified the arabidopsis thaliana botrytis-induced kinase1 (bik1) gene that is transcriptionally regulated by botrytis cinerea infection. inactivation of bik1 causes severe susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens but enhances resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. the response to an av ...200616339855
a secreted lipase encoded by lip1 is necessary for efficient use of saturated triglyceride lipids in fusarium graminearum.a triglyceride lipase gene lip1 was identified in the genome of fusarium graminearum strain ph-1. the predicted protein encoded by lip1 contains 591 amino acid residues with a putative n-terminal signal peptide and shows 57 and 40-44 % identity to a botrytis cinerea lipase and five candida rugosa lipases, respectively. yeast cells overexpressing lip1 showed lipolytic activity against a broad range of triglyceride substrates. northern blot analyses revealed that expression of lip1 was activated i ...200516339936
functional analysis of the cytochrome p450 monooxygenase gene bcbot1 of botrytis cinerea indicates that botrydial is a strain-specific virulence factor.the micrographic phytopathogen botrytis cinerea causes gray mold diseases in a large number of dicotyledonous crop plants and ornamentals. colonization of host tissue is accompanied by rapid killing of plant cells ahead of the growing hyphen, probably caused by secretion of nonspecific phytotoxins, e.g., the sesquiterpene botrydial. although all pathogenic strains tested so far had been shown to secrete botrydial and although the toxin causes comparable necrotic lesions as infection by the fungu ...200515986930
bioconversion of alpha-damascone by botrytis cinerea.bioconversion of alpha-damascone (compound 1) was studied with four strains of botrytis cinerea in grape must (ph 3.2). as biotransformation products of compound 1, 3-oxo-alpha-damascone, cis- and trans-3-hydroxy-alpha-damascone, gamma-damascenone, 3-oxo-8, 9-dihydro-alpha-damascone, and cis- and trans-3-hydroxy-8,9-dihydro-alpha-damascone were identified. in addition, acid-catalyzed chemical transformation of compound 1 to the diastereomers of 9-hydroxy-8,9-dihydro-alpha-damascone was observed. ...199116348390
degradation of extracellular beta-(1,3)(1,6)-d-glucan by botrytis cinerea.during growth on glucose, botrytis cinerea produced extracellular beta-(1,3)(1,6)-d-glucan (cinerean), which formed an adhering capsule and slime. after glucose was exhausted from the medium, cinereanase activity increased from <0.4 to 30 u/liter, effecting a striking loss in the viscosity of the culture. cinerean was cleaved into glucose and gentiobiose. gentiobiose was then hydrolyzed to glucose. while cinereanase activity was strongest in the culture supernatant, gentiobiase activity was loca ...199216348789
adhesion of nongerminated botrytis cinerea conidia to several substrata.conidia of the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea adhered to tomato cuticle and to certain other substrata immediately upon hydration. this immediate adhesion occurred with both living and nonliving conidia. adhesion was not consistently influenced by several lectins, sugars, or salts or by protease treatment, but it was strongly inhibited by ionic or nonionic detergents. with glass and oxidized polyethylene, substrata whose surface hydrophobicities could be conveniently varied, there was ...199316348954
chlorine dioxide for reduction of postharvest pathogen inoculum during handling of tree fruits.alternatives to hypochlorous acid and fungicides are needed for treatment of fruit and fruit-handling facilities. chlorine dioxide was evaluated and found effective against common postharvest decay fungi and against filamentous fungi occurring on fruit packinghouse surfaces. in vitro tests with conidial or sporangiospore suspensions of botrytis cinerea, penicillium expansum, mucor piriformis, and cryptosporiopsis perennans demonstrated >99% spore mortality within 1 min when the fungi were expose ...199416349354
fungi associated with softening of bisulfite-brined cherries.softening of sound, calcium bisulfite-brined cherries was induced fairly quickly by brining them with cherries rotted by aspergillus niger, cytospora leucostoma, and penicillium expansum, but not with cherries rotted by a variety of other microorganisms, including alternaria sp., aspergillus oryzae, aureobasidium pullulans, botrytis cinerea, cladosporium sp., mucor racemosus, rhizopus stolonifer, and sclerotinia fructicola. rapid softening was correlated with the presence of a bisulfite-stable p ...196316349630
sorbic hydroxamic acid, an antifungal agent effective over a wide ph range.sorbic hydroxamic acid was prepared from sorbic acid by esterification and treatment with hydroxylamine (mp 133 to 135 c, pk(a) 8.8). its ultraviolet spectrum in acid solution had a single absorption maximum at 262 mmu; in alkaline solution the maximal absorption shifted to 255 mmu and significant absorption appeared at 280 to 300 mmu. at concentrations of 0.1% (w/v), sorbic hydroxamic acid prevented the growth of aspergillus niger, penicillium notatum, botrytis cinerea, cladosporium herbarum, a ...196316349636
characterization of debilitation-associated mycovirus infecting the plant-pathogenic fungus sclerotinia was previously reported that three dsrna segments, designated l, m and s, were isolated from sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain ep-1pn and that the m dsrna segment was coincident with hypovirulence and debilitation of the fungal host. here, the complete nucleotide sequence of the m dsrna of 5419 nt, excluding the poly(a) tail, was determined. sequence analysis revealed the occurrence of a single open reading frame (nt 93-5195) encoding a protein with significant similarity to the replicases of t ...200616361437
in vitro sensitivity of botrytis cinerea to anthraquinone and anthrahydroquinone derivatives.the effect on mycelial growth of the fungus botrytis cinerea of a set of structurally related tricyclic hydroquinones [9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-2,3,5,8-tetrahydroantracen-1(4h)-one and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-5,8-dihydroanthracen-1(4h)-one derivatives] and tricyclic quinones [4,4-dimethylanthracen-1,9,10(4h)-trione derivatives] was studied. in general, the anthraquinones presented higher activity than the anthrahydroquinones. anthraquinone and anthrahydroquinone derivatives with methyl gr ...200516366698
laccase induction in fungi and laccase/n-oh mediator systems applied in paper mill effluent.there has been increasing interest in extracellular enzymes from white rot fungi, such as lignin and manganese peroxidases, and laccases, due to their potential to degrade both highly toxic phenolic compounds and lignin. the optimum cultivation conditions for laccase production in semi-solid and liquid medium by trametes versicolor, trametes villosa, lentinula edodes and botrytis cinerea and the effects of laccase mediator system in e1 effluent were studied. the higher laccase activity (12756 u) ...200716376074
botcinins a, b, c, and d, metabolites produced by botrytis cinerea, and their antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea, a pathogen of rice blast disease.four new metabolites, botcinins a-d, were isolated from the culture filtrate of a strain of botrytis cinerea. their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly nmr techniques, molecular modeling, and the modified mosher's method. they exhibited antifungal activities against magnaporthegrisea, a pathogen of rice blast disease. botcinins b and c have a mic of 12.5 microm, and botcinins a and d are not active below 100 microm.200516378371
modified cyclodextrins are chemically defined glucan inducers of defense responses in grapevine cell grapevine (vitis vinifera l.), defense responses after microbial infection or treatment with elicitors involve accumulation of phytoalexins, oxidative burst, and the synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. oligosaccharide fractions from fungal or algal cell walls efficiently induce the defense responses, but a detailed analysis of the elicitor-plant cell surface interaction at the molecular level is precluded by the lack of chemically pure oligosaccharide elicitors. a grapevine liquid cel ...200616390179
controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (fragaria vesca l.).controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "reina de los valles" wild strawberry fruit (fragaria vesca l.) was studied. fruits were stored at 3 degrees c for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% co2/21% o2 (air), 3% co2/18% o2, 6% co2/15% o2, 10% co2/11% o2, and 15% co2/6% o2. the effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, ph, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. the result showed that the 10% ...200616390182
differences in the initial events of infection of botrytis cinerea strains isolated from tomato and grape.various stages of the infection process among b. cinerea strains isolated from tomatoes or grapes, belonging to different genetic groups, were compared. it was found that strains of b. cinerea isolated from either grapes or tomatoes showed differences in adhesion patterns and in the percentage of germination on tomato cutin. in strains isolated from tomato the first stage of adhesion occurred faster than in strains isolated from grape. at the same time strains isolated from tomato showed a highe ...200516396356
the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase xyn11a is required for virulence in botrytis cinerea.phytopathogenic fungi can degrade xylan, an abundant hemicellulose in plant cell walls, by the coordinate action of a group of extracellular enzymes. among these, endo-beta-1,4-xylanases carry out the initial breakdown by cleaving internal bonds in the polymer backbone. we have isolated and characterized a gene, xyn11a, coding for an endo-beta-1,4-xylanase belonging to family 11 of glycosyl hydrolases. xyn11a was shown to be induced by xylan and repressed by glucose and to be expressed in planta ...200616404950
ethylene sensing and gene activation in botrytis cinerea: a missing link in ethylene regulation of fungus-plant interactions?ethylene production by infected plants is an early resistance response leading to activation of plant defense pathways. however, plant pathogens also are capable of producing ethylene, and ethylene might have an effect not only on the plant but on the pathogen as well. therefore, ethylene may play a dual role in fungus-plant interactions by affecting the plant as well as the pathogen. to address this question, we studied the effects of ethylene on the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea and the di ...200616404951
the non-host pathogen botrytis cinerea enhances glucose transport in pinus pinaster suspension-cultured cells.botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of grey mould disease and a non-host necrotrophic pathogen of maritime pine (pinus pinaster). recent evidence suggests that pathogen challenge can alter carbon uptake in plant cells; however, little is known on how elicitor-derived signalling pathways control sugar transport activity. p. pinaster suspended cells are able to absorb d-[14c]glucose with high affinity, have an h+-dependent transport system (km, 0.07 mm; vmax, 1.5 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) dw), are spec ...200616407393
biosynthetic studies on the botcinolide skeleton: new hydroxylated lactones from botrytis cinerea.[reaction: see text] the biosynthetic origin of the botcinolide skeleton was investigated by means of feeding 13c- and 2h-labeled precursors to botrytis cinerea. three new compounds, two homobotcinolide derivatives, 3-o-acetylhomobotcinolide (5) and 8-methylhomobotcinolide (6), and a new 11-membered lactone (7), were isolated. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including one-bond and long-range 1h-13c correlations. the relative stereochemistries were determined ...200616408965
different signalling pathways involving a galpha protein, camp and a map kinase control germination of botrytis cinerea conidia.conidial germination of the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea was found to be induced by different chemical and physical signals, namely the amount and quality of nutrients as well as the hydrophobicity and rigidity of the surface. a b. cinerea deltabcg3 mutant disrupted in the galpha3 subunit of the heterotrimeric g protein was specifically defective in germination induced by carbon sources. a similar germination defect of an adenylate cyclase mutant, and the complementing effect of camp addit ...200616420354
determination of fungicide residues in field-grown strawberries following different fungicide strategies against gray mold (botrytis cinerea).in a 2 year experiment, residues in field-grown strawberries were investigated from the fungicides fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, tolylfluanid, and kresoxim-methyl resulting from different strategies, as regards the dose, number, and time of fungicide applications. kresoxim-methyl was only used the first year and in full or no dose to control powdery mildew. in the first year, the highest concentrations analyzed were 0.66 mg kg(-1) for pyrimethanil and 0.63 mg kg(-1) for fenhexamid resulting from the ...200616448201
exposure to moulds in flats and the prevalence of allergic diseases--preliminary study.the presented study concerned mycological analysis of buildings in lódź and evaluation of the role between filamentous fungi contaminated flats and inhabitants health (allergic airway diseases). 49 inhabitants of 20 flats with signs of moulds contamination were examined. air samples were collected in houses and outdoors. in all inhabitants skin prick tests (spt) to common allergens and to standardized particular fungal extracts were performed. moreover, total and serum specific ige to moulds, re ...200516457375
micromycetes, producers of toxins, detected on stored 2003-2004, investigations of mycological contamination of stored and newly harvested vegetables were carried out. the aim of the study was to detect fungal species able to synthesize toxic metabolites, which are spread on vegetables under various conditions. for mycological investigations, samples of carrots, onions and cabbage were taken from storehouses with different storage periods and conditions. penicillium expansum, p. nalgiovense, mucor silvaticus and penicillium verrucosum were more ...200516457482
thptr2, a di/tri-peptide transporter gene from trichoderma harzianum.the generation of a wide ests library and database from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 was the base for identifying the gene thptr2, coding for a ptr family di/tri-peptide transporter. the deduced protein sequence of the thptr2 gene showed the conserved motifs and also the 12 transmembrane domains typical of the ptr transporters. the highest level of thptr2 expression was found when the fungus was grown in chitin as sole carbon source. we also found that thptr2 expression was increased when tri ...200616466953
enhanced resistance to botrytis cinerea mediated by the transgenic expression of the chitinase gene ch5b in strawberry.plants of strawberry (cultivar pájaro) were transformed with three defense related genes: ch5b, gln2 and ap24 using agrobacterium tumefaciens. the ch5b gene encodes for a chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris, while gln2 and ap24 encode for a glucanase and a thaumatin-like protein, respectively, both from nicotiana tabacum. sixteen transgenic lines expressing one or a combination of two defense genes were obtained. phytopathological tests showed that two transgenic lines expressing only the ch5b gen ...200616475010
impact of fungal drug transporters on fungicide sensitivity, multidrug resistance and virulence.drug transporters are membrane proteins that provide protection for organisms against natural toxic products and fungicides. in plant pathogens, drug transporters function in baseline sensitivity to fungicides, multidrug resistance (mdr) and virulence on host plants. this paper describes drug transporters of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans (eidam) winter, botrytis cinerea pers and mycosphaerella graminicola (fückel) schroter that function in fungicide sensitivity and resistance. the f ...200616475240
expression profiling of botrytis cinerea genes identifies three patterns of up-regulation in planta and an fkbp12 protein affecting pathogenicity.the ascomycete botrytis cinerea is a broad-spectrum plant pathogen. here, we describe the first macroarray transcriptomic study of the fungus in real-time infection conditions. infection of arabidopsis thaliana leaves by b.cinerea was monitored using macroarrays, containing 3032 genes. variance analysis revealed that 7% of b.cinerea genes are differentially expressed during infection and allowed us to identify 27 genes significantly up-regulated in planta. among them, two genes have already been ...200616497329
biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-hpl) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form c9- or c6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. in order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-hpl, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-hpl expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. however, its transcript as well as its activity was only induc ...200616497344
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of a novel chitinase gene (ech30) from the mycoparasite trichoderma atroviride strain p1.we describe the cloning and characterization of a single copy gene from trichoderma atroviride p1 encoding a novel 30 kda chitinase, ech30. ech30 is a family 18 chitinase showing low sequence similarity to other trichoderma chitinases. real-time quantitative rt-pcr studies revealed that expression of the ech30 gene was induced by the presence of botrytis cinerea in plate confrontation assays, but hardly by chitin in liquid cultures. studies of ech30 purified from an escherichia coli strain overe ...200616499618
antifungal activity of thiophenes from echinops ritro.extracts from 30 plants of the greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct bioautography assays with three colletotrichum species. among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of echinops ritro (asteraceae) was the most potent. bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of eight thiophenes. antifungal activities of isolated compounds together with a previously isolated thiophene from echinops transiliensis were first eva ...200616506815
calcineurin, mpk1 and hog1 mapk pathways independently control fludioxonil antifungal sensitivity in cryptococcus neoformans.fludioxonil is employed as an agricultural fungicide to control plant-pathogenic fungi such as botrytis cinerea. cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that causes fatal disease in immunocompromised hosts. this paper demonstrates that three different signalling cascades regulate sensitivity of c. neoformans to fludioxonil. fludioxonil inhibited growth of the serotype a sequence reference strain h99 but not that of the sequenced serotype d strain jec21. in the drug-sen ...200616514140
mould and yeast flora in fresh berries, grapes and citrus fruits.fresh fruits are prone to fungal contamination in the field, during harvest, transport, marketing, and with the consumer. it is important to identify fungal contaminants in fresh fruits because some moulds can grow and produce mycotoxins on these commodities while certain yeasts and moulds can cause infections or allergies. in this study, 251 fresh fruit samples including several varieties of grapes, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and various citrus fruits were surface-dis ...200516023239
comparative studies of extracellular fungal laccases.various basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and deuteromycetes, grown in a sugar-rich liquid medium, were compared for laccase-producing ability and for the inducing effect of 2,5-xylidine on laccase production. clear stimulation of the extracellular enzyme formation by xylidine was obtained in the cultures of fomes annosus, pholiota mutabilis, pleurotus ostreatus, and trametes versicolor, whereas rhizoctonia praticola and botrytis cinerea were not affected by the xylidine, and in the case of podospora ...198416346649
dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.the methanol extract of stems of catalpa ovata g don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr (rice blast) on rice plants, botrytis cinerea pers ex fr (tomato grey mould) and phytophthora infestans (mont) de bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, puccinia recondita rob ex desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and blumeria graminis (dc) speer f. sp. hordei marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. an antifungal substance was isolated and i ...200616550502
mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. part ii: the consumer protection.controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. for products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. in this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (lc/ms) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, ...200616555227
physical and functional interactions between pathogen-induced arabidopsis wrky18, wrky40, and wrky60 transcription information is available about the roles of specific wrky transcription factors in plant defense. we report physical and functional interactions between structurally related and pathogen-induced wrky18, wrky40, and wrky60 transcription factors in arabidopsis thaliana. the three wrky proteins formed both homocomplexes and heterocomplexes and dna binding activities were significantly shifted depending on which wrky proteins were present in these complexes. single wrky mutants exhibited no ...200616603654
a case study from the interaction of strawberry and botrytis cinerea highlights the benefits of comonitoring both partners at genomic and mrna level.strawberry fragaria x ananassa (cv. korona) was inoculated with botrytis cinerea by dipping berries in a conidial suspension. colonization by the pathogen was monitored using real-time pcr, elisa and ergosterol assays, the first showing the highest sensitivity. the expression of pathogen beta-tubulin and six polygalacturonases (bcpg1-6) and three host defence genes (polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (fapgip) and two class ii chitinases) were monitored using real-time rt-pcr. the maximum trans ...200516219085
integrated signaling network involving calcium, nitric oxide, and active oxygen species but not mitogen-activated protein kinases in bcpg1-elicited grapevine defenses.we have already reported the identification of the endopolygalacturonase 1 (bcpg1) from botrytis cinerea as a potent elicitor of defense responses in grapevine, independently of its enzymatic activity. the aim of the present study is the analysis of the signaling pathways triggered by bcpg1 in grapevine cells. our data indicate that bcpg1 induces a ca2+ entry from the apoplasm, which triggers a phosphorylation-dependent nitric oxide (no) production via an enzyme probably related to a no synthase ...200616610746
licensed to kill: the lifestyle of a necrotrophic plant pathogen.necrotrophic plant pathogens have received an increasing amount of attention over the past decade. initially considered to invade their hosts in a rather unsophisticated manner, necrotrophs are now known to use subtle mechanisms to subdue host plants. the gray mould pathogen botrytis cinerea is one of the most comprehensively studied necrotrophic fungal plant pathogens. the genome sequences of two strains have been determined. targeted mutagenesis studies are unraveling the roles played in the i ...200616616579
inactivation of botrytis cinerea during thermophilic composting of greenhouse tomato plant residues.the effectiveness of in-vessel thermophilic composting on the inactivation of botrytis cinerea was evaluated. the bioreactor operated on an infected mixture of tomato plant residues, wood shavings, and municipal solid compost (1:1.5:0.28). tap water and urea were added to adjust the moisture content and c:n ratio to 60% and 30:1, respectively. used cooking oil was added as a bioavailable carbon source to compensate for heat losses from the system and extend the thermophilic composting stage. the ...200616622284
characterization of a new, nonpathogenic mutant of botrytis cinerea with impaired plant colonization capacity.botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that attacks more than 200 plant species. here, the nonpathogenic mutant a336, obtained via insertional mutagenesis, was characterized. mutant a336 was nonpathogenic on leaves and fruits, on intact and wounded tissue, while still able to penetrate the host plant. it grew normally in vitro on rich media but its conidiation pattern was altered. the mutant did not produce oxalic acid and exhibited a modified regulation of the production of some secreted p ...200616626475
induction of resistance to the pathogenic agent botrytis cinerea in the cultivation of the tomato by means of the application of the protein "harpin"(messenger).harpin(ea), an active component in messenger, was originally isolated from the bacterial plant pathogen erwinia amylovora based on its ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (hr). this bacterial pathogen causes "fire blight", a disease in apples and other members of the rosaceae. harpin(ea) also induces resistance in a variety of plants against a wide array of pathogens. the objective of this investigation was to determine indications of resistance induction to botrytis cinerea in the plant ...200516637156
development of a biological control method against postharvest diseases of citrus fruits.candida oleophila strain o was previously selected for its high and reliable antagonistic activity against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum, two important wound pathogens on post-harvest apples. the application of these antagonistic strains on wound pathogens of citrus was more recently undertaken. the efficacy of yeast (applied at several concentrations from 10(5) to 10(8) cfu/ml) was assessed against p. digitatum and p. italicum inoculated after one hours (at a concentration of 10(5), ...200516637158
botrytis infection warnings in strawberry: reduced enhanced chemical control.the fungal pathogen botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of grey mould, the most important fungal fruit rot disease in strawberry in europe. currently disease control for grey mould is based on preventive spraying every five to seven days during flowering and harvest. replacing preventive spraying with applications based on infection warnings can optimize performance and reduce the amount of sprays needed. success of this approach will depend on the accuracy of the model used to predict disease ...200516637160
a new post-harvest fungicide to control fruit rot on apple and pear.philabuster is a new post-harvest fungicide developed by janssen pharmaceutica n.v.. it provides an advanced mould control by post-harvest treatments of citrus and pome fruit. the product is formulated as a stable suspension concentrate intended for dilution in water before use. philabuster 400 sc contains 200 g/l imazalil and 200 g/l pyrimethanil. both active ingredients have a different single site mode of action. imazalil inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis (dmi), whereas pyrimethanil interferes ...200516637162
selection of antagonists of postharvest apple parasites: penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea.the objectives of this study were to constitute a collection of pathogenic agents of economic importance which cause losses of apple fruits after harvest namely botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum and to select in vivo efficient antagonistic strains able to protect fruits against both pathogens at 5 degrees c (p. expansum) and 25 degrees c (p. expansum & b. cinerea). twenty strains of p. expansum and ten strains of b. cinerea have been isolated from infected apple fruits. potential antagon ...200516637169
biological control of botrytis gray mould and sclerotinia drop in lettuce.research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of two most important fungal diseases of lettuce (lactuca sativa l.): 1) botrytis gray mould caused by botrytis cinerea pers. ex fr.; 2) sclerotinia drop caused by two pathogenic fungi, sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib.) de bary and/or sclerotinia minorjagger. biological control in lettuce was carried out: 1) using coniothyrium minitans campbell, an antagonist fungus that attacks and destroys sclerotia within the soil; ...200516637171
signum, a new fungicide for control of leaf diseases in outdoor vegetables.during three years, the new fungicide signum, containing 6.7% pyraclostrobine + 26.7 % boscalid and developed by basf. has been evaluated in leek, carrots and cabbages in several outdoor field experiments under practical conditions and during one year in outdoor lettuce. in leek, phytophthora porri is one of the major leaf diseases causing lesions on differ ent places on the leaves, resulting in at least extra labour costs for trimming or even worse sometimes resulting in complete crop loss. so ...200516637178
fungicidal activity of some o-acyl chitosan derivatives against grey mould botrytis cinerea and rice leaf blast pyricularia grisea. 200516637180
treatments with gras compounds to keep fig fruit (ficus carica l.) quality during cold storage.the trade of fresh fig fruit is restricted by its high perishability and numerous attempts have been done to extend the postharvest life. the main difficulties can be found in the fast ripening and the easiness of pathogen spread. although the ripening can be slowed by low storage temperatures (close to 0 degrees c) the control of pathogens remains still unsolved since no pesticide treatments are allowed. generally recognized as save compounds (g.r.a.s.) are possible candidates to fulfil this vo ...200516637198
botcinins e and f and botcinolide from botrytis cinerea and structural revision of botcinolides.botcinins e and f were isolated together with the known botcinolide. the structures of botcinins e and f were determined to be 3-o-deacetylbotcinin a (5) and 3-o-deacetyl-2-epi-botcinin a (6), respectively, by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversion. the structure of botcinolide was revised on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical conversion. botcinolide was originally reported as a nine-membered lactone (7), but the revised structure is the seco acid of botcinin e (13). thus botcin ...200616643065
carbohydrate metabolism and oxalic acid synthesis by botrytis cinerea. 195416654653
isolation and antifungal and antioomycete activities of staurosporine from streptomyces roseoflavus strain ls-a24.the actinomycete strain ls-a24 active against some plant fungal and oomycete pathogens was isolated from a soil sample of the sunghwan lake in korea. the cell wall composition and spore shape of strain ls-a24 were ll-diaminopimelic acid and spiral type, respectively. on the basis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16s ribosomal dna sequence analysis, strain ls-a24 was identical to streptomyces roseoflavus. an antifungal and antioomycete antibiotic was isolated from ls-a24 u ...200616608228
stimulation of sanguinarine production by combined fungal elicitation and hormonal deprivation in cell suspension cultures of papaver bracteatum.fungal elicitor preparations from either homogenized mycelia of dendryphion penicillatum (cda.) fr., a specific pathogen of papaver species, or conidia of verticillium dahliae kleb., a general pathogen, were added to 14-day-old suspension cultures of papaver bracteatum. plant tissue cultures were grown either in the presence or absence of 0.1 milligram of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid per liter and 0.5 milligram of 6-benzylam-inopurine per liter. dendryphion extracts elicited an accumulation of ...198816665861
production and characterization of laccase from botrytis cinerea isolate of botrytis cinerea (strain 61-34) constitutively expresses substantial amounts of extracellular laccase on a defined growth medium. the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by a facile operational sequence, the last stage of which involves hydrophobic interaction chromatography. by these means, over 80 mg of laccase liter(sup-1) can be obtained from aerated fermentor reaction broths. the enzyme, with an estimated m(infr) of 74,000 and pi of 4.0, is a monomeric glycoprotein contain ...199516534974
the distribution and evolutionary history of the prp8 intein.we recently described a mini-intein in the prp8 gene of a strain of the basidiomycete cryptococcus neoformans, an important fungal pathogen of humans. this was the second described intein in the nuclear genome of any eukaryote; the first nuclear encoded intein was found in the vma gene of several saccharomycete yeasts. the evolution of eukaryote inteins is not well understood. in this report we describe additional prp8 inteins (bringing the total of these to over 20). we compare and contrast the ...200616737526
quantitative structure-activity relationship studies for the prediction of antifungal activity of n-arylbenzenesulfonamides against botrytis cinerea.the botrytis cinerea is one of the most interesting fungal pathogens. it can infect almost every plant and plant part and cause early latent infections which damage the fruit before ripening. the qsar is an alternative method for the research of new and better fungicides against b. cinerea. this paper describes the results of applying a topological sub-structural molecular design (tops-mode) approach for predicting the antifungal activity of 28 n-arylbenzenesulfonamides. the model described 86.1 ...200716782373
casar82a, a pathogen-induced pepper sar8.2, exhibits an antifungal activity and its overexpression enhances disease resistance and stress tolerance.pepper sar8.2 gene (casar82a) was previously reported to be locally or systemically induced in pepper plants by biotic and abiotic stresses. in this study, the physiological and molecular functions of the pepper sar8.2 protein in the plant defense responses were investigated by generating arabidopsis transgenic lines overexpressing the casar82a gene. the transgenic arabidopsis plants grew faster than the wild-type plants, indicating that the casar82a gene was involved in plant development. the e ...200616786294
biodegradation of the fungicide iprodione by zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain dbvpg 6399.iprodione is a contact fungicide used to control several pathogens such as botrytis cinerea, monilia, and sclerotinia. this paper reports the ability of an iprodione-resistant strain of zygosaccharomyces rouxii to degrade iprodione at a concentration of 1 mg l(-1). the yeast z. rouxii was chosen also for its ability to grow at high osmolarity. also of note is that in bioremediation situations and in the food industry such resistance could be important. the kinetic and metabolic behaviors of the ...200616787022
necrotrophic mycoparasitism of botrytis cinerea by cellulolytic and ligninocellulolytic basidiomycetes.twenty-six isolates representing 17 species of aphyllophoraceous, wood-decaying basidiomycetes and five species of agaricoid, turf-borne, thatch-decaying basidiomycetes were screened for their abilities to degrade cellulose, lignin, and melanin by using colorimetric degradation assays on agar media. selected ligninocellulolytic basidiomycetes capable of degrading melanin were screened for antagonism of botrytis cinerea per.:fr. the greatest inhibition of botrytis colony and hyphal growth in vitr ...200616788718
analysis of defensive responses activated by volatile allo-ocimene treatment in arabidopsis thaliana.since volatile allo-ocimene enhances resistance of arabidopsis thaliana against botrytis cinerea, we attempted to dissect the factors involved in this induced resistance. the penetration of b. cinerea hyphae into arabidopsis epidermis and the growth of hyphae after penetration were suppressed on allo-ocimene-treated leaves. allo-ocimene also induced lignification on cell walls and veins of the leaves. the treatment induced accumulation of antifungal substances including the arabidopsis phytoalex ...200616808931
two-dimensional electrophoresis protein profile of the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungi causing disease in a number of important crops. it is considered a very complex species in which different populations seem to be adapted to different hosts. in order to characterize fungal virulence factors, a proteomic research was started. a protocol for protein extraction from mycelium tissue, with protein separation by 2-de and ms analysis, was optimised as a first approach to defining the b. cinerea proteome. around 400 spots were detected in 2-d ...200616544282
overexpression in arabidopsis of a plasma membrane-targeting glutamate receptor from small radish increases glutamate-mediated ca2+ influx and delays fungal infection.ionotropic glutamate receptors (iglurs) are ligand-gated nonselective cation channels that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. although homologues of the iglurs have been identified in higher plants, their roles are largely unknown. in this work we isolated a full-length cdna clone (rsglur) encoding a putative glutamate receptor from small radish. an rsglur: mgfp fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane. in arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing the full-length cdna, glutamate tre ...200616819306
evidence for protein degradation by botrytis cinerea and relationships with alteration of synthetic wine foaming properties.botrytis cinerea is an important fungal pathogen particularly dreaded in the cool climate vineyard. it is responsible for important damage, especially the decrease in foamability of sparkling wines, such as champagne. different studies have shown that proteins are largely involved in the stabilization of champagne foam despite their low concentration. other works demonstrated changes in the electrophoretic characteristics of must proteins originating from botrytized grapes, although the cause of ...200616819930
identification of an abscisic acid gene cluster in the grey mold botrytis several other phytopathogenic fungi, the ascomycete botrytis cinerea is known to produce the plant hormone abscisic acid (aba) in axenic culture. recently, bcaba1, the first fungal gene involved in aba biosynthesis, was identified. neighborhood analysis of bcaba1 revealed three further candidate genes of this pathway: a putative p450 monooxygenase-encoding gene (bcaba2), an open reading frame without significant similarities (bcaba3), and a gene probably coding for a short-chain dehydrogena ...200616820452
a mutation in the gtp hydrolysis site of arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1e confers enhanced cell death in response to powdery mildew infection.we screened for mutants of arabidopsis thaliana that displayed enhanced disease resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen erysiphe cichoracearum and identified the edr3 mutant, which formed large gray lesions upon infection with e. cichoracearum and supported very little sporulation. the edr3-mediated disease resistance and cell death phenotypes were dependent on salicylic acid signaling, but independent of ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. in addition, edr3 plants displayed enhanced suscept ...200616824181
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