antifungal activity of wogonin.the antifungal activity of the wogonin isolated from holmskioldia sanguinea retz was determined on four different fungal organisms. the pure compound wogonin significantly inhibited the growth of aspergillus niger, penicillium frequentance, p. notatum and botrytis cinerea, in a concentration dependent fashion, when tested by turbidity and spore germination methods. the effects produced by the compound were compared with the standard antifungal agent griseofulvin.200314669259
purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from chinese chestnuts.a novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from chinese chestnut (castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. castamollin possessed a novel n-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to n-terminal sequences of castanea sativa chitinase. castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kd ...200314680938
the tetraspanin bcpls1 is required for appressorium-mediated penetration of botrytis cinerea into host plant leaves.animal tetraspanins are membrane proteins controlling cell adhesion, morphology and motility. in fungi, the tetraspanin mgpls1 controls an appressorial function required for the penetration of magnaporthe grisea into host plants. an orthologue of mgpls1, bcpls1, was identified in the necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea. we constructed a bcpls1::bar null mutant by targeted gene replacement. bcpls1::bar is not pathogenic on intact plant tissues of bean, tomato or rose, but it infec ...200414731267
increased antifungal and chitinase specific activities of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 by addition of a cellulose binding domain.trichoderma harzianum is a widely distributed soil fungus that antagonizes numerous fungal phytopathogens. the antagonism of t. harzianum usually correlates with the production of antifungal activities including the secretion of fungal cell walls that degrade enzymes such as chitinases. chitinases chit42 and chit33 from t. harzianum cect 2413, which lack a chitin-binding domain, are considered to play an important role in the biocontrol activity of this strain against plant pathogens. by adding ...200414740190
characterisation of pythium paroecandrum and its antagonism towards botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of grey mould disease of grape.pythium paroecandrum (b-30), an oomycete, was isolated from soil samples taken from a wheat field in genlis in the burgundy region of france and was found to check the growth and development of botrytis cinerea, a serious grapevine pathogen. the oomycete is a fast-growing organism, living on vegetable debris, and can be recognised by its catenulate hyphal swellings, catenulate oogonia, and monoclinous antheridia. when grown together with b. cinerea, the causal agent of the grey mould disease of ...200414757237
[temperature re action of the respiratory process of botrytis cinerea]. 195214926653
[the formation of fermentation inhibitory substances by botrytis cinerea]. 195214954603
the effect of botrytis cinerea infection on the antioxidant profile of mitochondria from tomato leaves.infection of tomato leaves with the necrotrophic fungus botrytis cinerea resulted in substantial changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as well as in superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px), glutathione transferase (gst), and l-galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase (gldh) activities. in the initial phase of the 5 d experiment cuzn sod was the most rapidly induced isoform (up to 209% of control), whereas later on its activity incre ...200414966215
synthesis and fungicidal activity of new n,o-acyl chitosan derivatives.novel n,o-acyl chitosan (noac) derivatives were synthesized to examine their fungicidal activity against the gray mould fungus botrytis cinerea (leotiales: sclerotiniaceae) and the rice leaf blast fungus pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: magnaporth grisea). the fungicidal activity was evaluated by the radial growth bioassay. noac derivatives were more active against the two plant pathogens than chitosan itself, and the effect was concentration dependent. against b. cinerea, 4-chlorobutyryl chitosa ...200415003025
properties of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein isolated from 'oroblanco' grapefruit.polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (pgip) was extracted from 'oroblanco' grapefruit type (triploid pummelo-grapefruit) albedo tissue, purified and partially characterized. extraction was carried out at 4 degrees c with a high ionic strength extraction buffer. after dialysis and concentration by ultrafiltration the extract was chromatographed on concanavalin a-sepharose. the pgip activity was bound by the lectin and then eluted using 250 mm alpha-methyl mannopyranoside, resulting in a 17-fold p ...200415032836
synthesis and antifungal action of new tricyclazole analogues.melanins are very important pigments for the survival and longevity of fungi, so their biosynthesis inhibition is a new biochemical target aiming at the discovery of selective fungicides. in this work is described the synthesis of new pyrazolo-thiazolo-triazole compounds, analogues of tricyclazole (a commercial antifungal product that acts by inhibiting melanin synthesis), and their biological activity was studied on some dermatophytes and phytopathogens. the compounds poorly inhibited the growt ...200415053543
molecular characterization and in planta detection of sclerotinia sclerotiorum endopolygalacturonase genes.sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a plant pathogenic ascomycete, secretes multiple pectinolytic enzymes that facilitate penetration, colonization, and maceration of the plant tissues. molecular analysis has previously revealed that the pectinolytic system of the fungus is organized as a multigene family, among which a subfamily of three members encoding for neutral endopolygalacturonase (endopg) isoforms has been characterized. here we describe the isolation and characterization of three additional endo ...200415057467
role of lipopeptides produced by bacillus subtilis ga1 in the reduction of grey mould disease caused by botrytis cinerea on apple.test of bacillus subtilis strain ga1 for its potential to control grey mould disease of apple caused by botrytis cinerea.200415078533
identification of botrytis cinerea susceptibility loci in arabidopsis thaliana.botrytis cinerea is a major pathogen of fruit and vegetable crops causing both pre- and post-harvest grey mould. we have analysed 16 arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes for natural variation in b. cinerea susceptibility. susceptibility was associated with lower camalexin accumulation, and three ecotypes (cape verdi islands (cvi-0), slavice (sav-0) and kindalville (kin-0)) showed differential susceptibility to the two b. cinerea isolates used. subsequently, to better understand the genetic control of g ...200415086796
effects of various ozone exposures on the susceptibility of bean leaves (phaseolus vulgaris l.) to botrytis cinerea.the effects of various ozone exposures in predisposing bean leaves (phaseolus vulgaris l.) to botrytis cinerea have been investigated under laboratory conditions. seedlings of two bean cultivars were exposed to incremental ozone concentrations (120, 180 and 270 microg m(-3) for 8-h day(-1)) for five days and primary leaves were subsequently inoculated with conidia suspended in water or in an inorganic phosphate solution (pi), and with mycelium. ozone injury increased with increasing ozone concen ...199415091685
the effect of zeolite on the toxicity of lead to order to determine whether clinoptilolite, a naturally occurring zeolite, had any ameliorative effect on lead (pb) toxicity to fungi, a series of growth experiments were performed. three fungi, aspergillus niger, botrytis cinerea, and fusarium culmorum, were grown on appropriately amended solid agar media, and their linear extension rates determined. b. cinerea was 25% inhibited, as compared to a control, at 100 mg dm(-3) pb, and completely inhibited at 1000 mg dm(-3) pb. f. culmorum was comp ...198815092664
isolation of allicepin, a novel antifungal peptide from onion (allium cepa) bulbs.from the bulbs of the onion allium cepa, a novel antifungal peptide distinct from the antimicrobial peptide previously reported from onion seeds was isolated. the antifungal peptide, designated allicepin, was purified with a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. allicepin was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. the molecular weight ...200415113089
synthesis and structure-activity study of fungicidal anilinopyrimidines leading to mepanipyrim (kif-3535) as an anti-botrytis agent.a series of 2-anilinopyrimidines was prepared and their fungicidal activities against botrytis cinerea pers were examined. the activity fell sharply with any substitution on the anilinobenzene ring. substituents at the 5-position of the pyrimidine ring greatly reduced the activity. substituents such as chloro, methoxy, methylamino, methyl or 1-propynyl were well tolerated at the 4- and 6-positions of the pyrimidine ring. among these substituents, the combination of methyl and 1-propynyl groups w ...200415119603
a new species of pythium isolated from burgundian vineyards and its antagonism towards botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of the grey mould disease.during the course of an investigation on the pythiaceous fungi occurring in burgundian vineyards, three isolates of pythium were found, all of which were characterised by spherical to lemoniform, proliferating sporangia. only one out of these three isolates produced sexual characters (s-12) after prolonged incubation, but their asexual structures, temperature growth relationship and molecular characteristics were identical. saprolegnia-type internal proliferation of the sporangia, and phytophtho ...200415135532
characterization of the antifungal activity on botrytis cinerea of the natural diterpenoids kaurenoic acid and 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid.the antifungal activity on botrytis cinerea of the diterpenoids 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, obtained from the resinous exudates of pseudognaphalium vira vira, was determined. 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid reduced the mycelial growth of b. cinerea in solid and liquid media. additionally, the damage produced by the fungus on the surface of tomato leaves in the presence of the diterpenoids was evaluated. a higher protective effect was observed in the presence of the hydroxylated ...200415137820
structure-activity relationships of derivatives of fusapyrone, an antifungal metabolite of fusarium semitectum.fusapyrone (1) and deoxyfusapyrone (2) are two 3-substituted-4-hydroxy-6-alkyl-2-pyrones isolated from fusarium semitectum that have considerable antifungal activity against molds. because of their low zootoxicity and selective action they are potentially utilizable along with biocontrol yeasts for control of postharvest crop diseases. seven derivatives of 1 (3 and 5-10) and one derivative of 2 (4) were obtained by chemical modifications of the glycosyl residue, the 2-pyrone ring, the aliphatic ...200415137845
survival of spores of rhizopus stolonifer, aspergillus niger, botrytis cinerea and alternaria alternata after exposure to ethanol solutions at various quantify and model the toxicity of brief exposures of spores of rhizopus stolonifer, aspergillus niger, botrytis cinerea and alternaria alternata to heated, aqueous ethanol solutions. these fungi are common postharvest decay pathogens of fresh grapes and other produce. sanitation of produce reduces postharvest losses caused by these and other pathogens.200415139929
identification of botrytis cinerea genes up-regulated during infection and controlled by the galpha subunit bcg1 using suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh).the galpha subunit bcg1 plays an important role during the infection of host plants by botrytis cinerea. delta bcg1 mutants are able to conidiate, penetrate host leaves, and produce small primary lesions. however, in contrast to the wild type, the mutants completely stop invasion of plant tissue at this stage; secondary lesions have never been observed. suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) was used to identify fungal genes whose expression on the host plant is specifically affected in bcg ...200415141958
development of a selective medium for the determination of the spore concentrations of botrytis cinerea in the air.gray mold, caused by botrytis cinerea, is an important disease that causes world-wide extensive damage to a wide range of economically important crops. when it is necessary to determine the spore concentration of botrytis cinerea in a certain area, it is important to develop a method that can capture the spores of botrytis cinerea and that can identify them. for the identification and enumeration of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea in the environment the easiest method available for the momen ...200315151304
activity of some chemicals in the control of botrytis cinerea on the control of grey mould (botrytis cinerea) on rose petals all 15 tested fungicides used as a spray, suppressed very effectively development of necrosis. but the best results in suppression of necrosis development, more than 90% effectiveness gave: amistar 250 sc (azoxystrobin), bravo 500 sc (chlorothalonil), discus 500 wg (kresoxim methyl), euparen 50 wp (dichlofluanid) euparen multi 50 wg (tolyfluanid), folpan 80 wg (folpet), kaptan zaw. 50 wp (captan), penncozeb 80 wp (mancozeb), ronilan ...200315151307
survey of the botrytis cinerea chitin synthase multigenic family through the analysis of six euascomycetes genomes.we describe a strategy for systematic amplification of chitin synthase genes (chs) in the filamentous ascomycetes plant-pathogen botrytis cinerea using pcr with multiple degenerate primers designed on specific and conserved sequence motifs. eight distinct chs genes were isolated, named bcchs i, ii, iiia, iiib, iv, v, vi and vii. they probably constitute the entire chs multigenic family of this fungus, as revealed by careful analysis of six euascomycetes genomes. bcchs i, iiia, iiib, iv and vi ge ...200415153106
structure--activity relationships in the fungistatic activity against botrytis cinerea of clovanes modified on ring c.the preparation of clovanes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9, which bear different levels of oxidation on ring c, is described for the first time. the biotransformation of compounds 5, 6, and 9 by the fungus botrytis cinerea is investigated, yielding compounds 10, 11, and 12, which are described for the first time, together with compounds 4-6, 8, and 9. the evaluation of the fungistatic activity against b. cinerea of compounds 6, 9, 12, 18, 19, 20, and 21 is reported. comparison of these results with previousl ...200415165139
enniatins of fusarium sp. strain f31 and their inhibition of botrytis cinerea spore germination.a spectrum of enniatins was isolated from fusarium sp. strain f31 by bioassay-guided isolation directed against botrytis cinerea. two new enniatins, j(2) (7) and j(3) (8), were co-isolated and both contained, in addition to three hydroxyisovaleric acid units, n-methylated l-alanine, l-valine, and l-isoleucine units, differing only in their primary sequence. two other enniatins, named enniatin j(1) (1) and enniatin k(1) (6), each containing two n-me-l-val units and one n-me-l-ala or alpha-n-me-l- ...200415165149
alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom polyporus antifungal polypeptide, with a molecular mass of 28 kda as judged by gel filtration and appearing as a single band with a molecular mass of 14 kda in sodium dodecyl suflate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom polyporus alveolaris. the antifungal polypeptide, designated as alveolarin, demonstrated an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and physalospora piricola. alveola ...200415165727
real-time pcr monitoring of fungal development in arabidopsis thaliana infected by alternaria brassicicola and botrytis cinerea.reliable methods for disease severity assessment are of crucial importance in the study of plant pathogen interactions, either for disease diagnostic on the field or to assess phenotypical differences in plants or pathogen strains. currently, most of the assays used in fungal disease diagnostic rely on visual assessment of the symptoms, lesion diameter measurement or spore counting. however, these tests are tedious and often cannot discriminate between slightly different levels of resistance. be ...200415191738
tomato phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase inhibits cell death induced by bax and oxidative stresses in yeast and plants.using a conditional life or death screen in yeast, we have isolated a tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) gene encoding a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (lephgpx). the protein displayed reduced glutathione-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxide peroxidase activity, but differs from counterpart mammalian enzymes that instead contain an active seleno-cys. lephgpx functioned as a cytoprotector in yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae), preventing bax, hydrogen peroxide, and heat stress indu ...200415235116
airway toxicity of house dust and its fungal dust is an important source of different toxic metabolites as well as allergens, including those of fungal origin, in the indoor environment. a bio-assay employing 1-day-old chick tracheas was used to characterize airway effects of 2-butanone and dimethylsulphoxide (me2so) extracts of 23 dust samples collected from water damaged (13) and control (10) danish schools. direct microscopical analysis of samples, followed by cultivation on dichloran 18 % glycerol agar at 25 degrees c for 10 days ...200415236501
benzothiadiazole enhances resveratrol and anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine, meanwhile improving resistance to botrytis cinerea.pre-harvest multiple treatments of grapevine (cv. merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (bth, 0.3 mm) enhanced trans-resveratrol content in berries by about 40%. an even more striking effect was observed on anthocyanin synthesis, particularly on malvidine 3-glucoside, malvidine 3-(6-o-acetyl)glucoside and malvidine 3-(6-o-p-coumaroyl)glucoside, whose amounts were more than doubled. these data were obtained with a novel and time-saving hplc method, set up for the simultaneous detectio ...200415237944
the p450 monooxygenase bcaba1 is essential for abscisic acid biosynthesis in botrytis cinerea.the phytopathogenic ascomycete botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (aba), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal aba biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids but involves direct cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate and subsequent oxidation steps. we present here evidence that this "direct" pathway is indeed the only one used by an aba-overproducing strain of ...200415240257
ethylene response factor 1 mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum.ethylene response factor 1 (erf1) is a transcriptional factor from arabidopsis thaliana that regulates plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungi botrytis cinerea and plectosphaerella cucumerina and whose overexpression enhances resistance to these fungi. here, we show that erf1 also mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungi fusarium oxysporum sp. conglutinans and f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, because its constitutive expression in arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to these ...200415242170
characterization of tomato endo-beta-1,4-glucanase cel1 protein in fruit during ripening and after fungal infection.the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (egase) cel1 protein was characterized in fruit using specific antibodies. two polypeptides ranging between 51 and 52 kda were detected in the pericarp, and polypeptides ranging between 49 and 51 kda were detected in locules. the polypeptides recognized by cel1 antiserum in fruit are within the size range predicted for cel1 protein and could be derived from heterogeneous glycosylation. cel1 protein accumulation was examined throu ...200415243740
actinchinin, a novel antifungal protein from the gold kiwi antifungal protein designated actinchinin, with an n-terminal sequence different from that of the thaumatin-like antifungal protein from green kiwi fruit, was isolated from the gold kiwi fruit. the antifungal protein, unlike its counterpart from green kiwi fruit, did not exert antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, but was active against fusarium oxysporum which was unresponsive to thaumatin-like protein from green kiwi fruit. actinchinin was isolated using a protocol that comprised io ...200415245867
2-pyrones possessing antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.the 2-pyrone sub-unit is found in a number of natural products possessing broad spectrum biological activity. such compounds are validated as being capable of binding to specific protein domains and able to exert a remarkable range of biological effects. in an effort to identify synthetic 2-pyrones with interesting biological effects, herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-substituted-6-methyl-2-pyrones. synthetic routes to 4-alkyl/alkenyl/aryl/alkynyl-6-methyl-2-pyrones h ...200415246105
an aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features.botrytis cinerea, an important fungal plant pathogen, secretes aspartic proteinase (ap) activity in axenic cultures. no cysteine, serine or metalloproteinase activity could be detected. proteinase activity was higher in culture medium containing bsa or wheat germ extract, as compared to minimal medium. a proportion of the enzyme activity remained in the extracellular glucan sheath. ap was also the only type of proteinase activity in fluid obtained from b. cinerea-infected tissue of apple, pepper ...200415256589
killer toxin of pichia membranifaciens and its possible use as a biocontrol agent against grey mould disease of grapevine.the use of pichia membranifaciens cyc 1106 killer toxin against botrytis cinerea was investigated. this strain exerted a broad-specificity killing action against other yeasts and fungi. at ph 4, optimal killer activity was observed at temperatures up to 20 degrees c. at 25 degrees c the toxic effect was reduced to 70%. the killer activity was higher in acidic medium. above about ph 4.5 activity decreased sharply and was barely noticeable at ph 6. the killer toxin protein from p. membranifaciens ...200415289549
screening extracts of achyranthes japonica and rumex crispus for activity against various plant pathogenic fungi and control of powdery mildew.methanol extracts of fresh materials of 183 plants were screened for in vivo antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea, corticium sasaki, botrytis cinerea, phytophthora infestans, puccinia recondita and erysiphe graminis f sp hordei. among them, 33 plant extracts showed disease-control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of six plant diseases. the methanol extracts of achyranthes japonica (whole plant) and rumex crispus (roots) at concentrations greater than 11 g fresh weight of ...200415307672
isolation of two aspartyl proteases from trichoderma asperellum expressed during colonization of cucumber roots.trichoderma asperellum and cucumber seedlings were used as a model to study the modulation of trichoderma gene expression during plant root colonization. seedlings were grown in an aseptic hydroponics medium and inoculated with trichoderma spore suspension. proteins differentially secreted into the medium were isolated. three major proteins of fungal origin were identified: two arabinofuranosidases (abf1 and abf2) and an aspartyl protease. differential mrna display was conducted on trichoderma m ...200415336416
1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, synthesis and evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum.a novel antifungal pyrazole derivative was synthesized. designated 1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, the compound exerted an antifungal effect toward botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum. in fact, our results clearly show that mycelial growth and conidial germination of both fungi were blocked by the compound. indeed, a 96-well microbioassay procedure was used for fast and easy evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic). the mic values for ...200415337431
fungicide activity through activation of a fungal signalling pathway.fungicides generally inhibit enzymatic reactions involved in fungal cellular biosynthesis. here we report, for the first time, an example of fungicidal effects through hyperactivation of a fungal signal transduction pathway. the osc1 gene, encoding a map kinase (mapk) related to yeast hog1, was isolated from the fungal pathogen colletotrichum lagenarium that causes cucumber anthracnose. the osc1 knockout mutants were sensitive to high osmotic stress and showed increased resistance to the fungici ...200415341655
single oligonucleotide nested pcr: a rapid method for the isolation of genes and their flanking regions from expressed sequence tags.we report on the development of a new pcr technique for the isolation of genomic fragments that flank known dna sequences. this technique, single oligonucleotide nested (son)-pcr, relies on only two amplification reactions with two or three nested sequence-specific primers. it allows the isolation of dna regions located on either side of a known dna sequence, with high specificity. dna products of 2 kb in size can be generated that all contain one copy of the same primer at both ends. sequence a ...200415349749
antifungal limonoids from the fruits of khaya senegalensis.investigation of the fruits of khaya senegalensis resulted in the isolation of three new mexicanolide limonoids containing a rare conjugated diene lactone system named seneganolide a (1), 2-hydroxyseneganolide a (2) and 2-acetoxyseneganolide a (3). two known limonoids, 3-deacetyl-7-deacetoxy-7-oxokhivorin (4) and methyl 6-hydroxyangolensate (5), were also found. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral methods. the antifungal activity of compounds 1, 3 and 5 w ...200415351110
screening study for potential lead compounds for natural product-based fungicides: i. synthesis and in vitro evaluation of coumarins against botrytis efficient, one-pot synthesis of angular and linear dihydropyranocoumarins, along with c-6 and c-8 prenylated coumarins is reported. these compounds, together with single- and furanocoumarins, were tested for their potential antifungal activity against the phytopathogen botrytis cinerea pers ex fr. the results show that furanocoumarins may be able to control the fungus b cinerea.200415382508
stimulation of the lipoxygenase pathway is associated with systemic resistance induced in bean by a nonpathogenic pseudomonas strain.systemic defense reactions induced in bean by the non-pathogenic pseudomonas putida btp1 strain reduced disease caused by botrytis cinerea. phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and the level of endogenous free salicylic acid were compared in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria-treated versus control plants, but no significant differences were detected. furthermore, no enhanced fungitoxicity was detected in methanolic leaf extracts, suggesting that accumulation of bean phytoalexins was not part o ...200415384491
bioactivity guided isolation of antifungal compounds from the liverwort bazzania trilobata (l.) s.f. gray.a dichloromethane and a methanol extract of the liverwort bazzania trilobata showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi botrytis cinerea, cladosporium cucumerinum, phythophthora infestans, pyricularia oryzae and septoria tritici. bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate six antifungal sesquiterpenes: 5- and 7-hydroxycalamenene, drimenol, drimenal, viridiflorol, gymnomitrol and three bisbibenzyls: 6 ',8'-dichloroisoplagiochin c, isoplagiochin d and 6'-chloro ...200415451321
antifungal activity of tagetes patula extracts on some phytopathogenic fungi: ultrastructural evidence on pythium ultimum.methanol extract, obtained from tagetes patula plant, was assayed against three phytopathogenic fungi: botrytis cinerea, fusarium moniliforme and pythium ultimum. the antifungal activity was tested both in the dark and in the light, using two different lighting systems. the data showed that the extract proved to have a dose-dependent activity on all the fungi with a marked difference between treatments in the light than in the dark. good growth inhibition was observed in fungi only when these we ...200415462529
the biosynthetic pathway to abscisic acid via ionylideneethane in the fungus botrytis cinerea.the biosynthetic pathway to abscisic acid (aba) from isopentenyl diphosphate in the fungus, botrytis cinerea, was investigated. labeling experiments with (18)o2 and h2(18)o indicated that all oxygen atoms at c-1, -1, -1' and -4' of aba were derived from molecular oxygen, and not from water. this finding was inconsistent not only with the known carotenoid pathway via oxidative cleavage of carotenoids, but also with the classical direct pathway via cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate. the fungus p ...200415464154
the bos loci of arabidopsis are required for resistance to botrytis cinerea infection.three botrytis-susceptible mutants bos2, bos3, and bos4 which define independent and novel genetic loci required for arabidopsis resistance to botrytis cinerea were isolated. the bos2 mutant is susceptible to b. cinerea but retains wild-type levels of resistance to other pathogens tested, indicative of a defect in a response pathway more specific to b. cinerea. the bos3 and bos4 mutants also show increased susceptibility to alternaria brassicicola, another necrotrophic pathogen, suggesting a bro ...200415500471
vpegamma exhibits a caspase-like activity that contributes to defense against pathogens.caspases are a family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play an essential role in initiating and executing programmed cell death (pcd) in metazoans. caspase-like activities have been shown to be required for the initiation of pcd in plants, but the genes encoding those activities have not been identified. vpegamma, a cysteine protease, is induced during senescence, a form of pcd in plants, and is localized in precursor protease vesicles and vacuoles, compartments associated with pcd ...200415530390
development of real-time pcr using minor groove binding probe to monitor the biological control agent candida oleophila (strain o).a real-time pcr assay using a 3'-minor groove binding (mgb) probe was developed for specific detection and monitoring of candida oleophila (strain o), a biocontrol agent against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum, on harvested apples. the application of the rapd technique on c. oleophila strains followed by reproducible sequence characterized amplified region (scar) amplifications allowed the identification of a semi-specific fragment of 244 bp, observed in the profiles of strain o and th ...200515567227
coccinin, an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from large scarlet runner antifungal peptide, designated coccinin, with a molecular mass of 7kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling those of defensins, was purified from the seeds of large scarlet runner beans (phaseolus coccineus cv. 'major'). the peptide isolated was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. the peptide excerted antifungal activity on a number of fungal species including botrytis cinerea, coprinus comatus, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalos ...200415572193
biosynthesis of abscisic acid by the direct pathway via ionylideneethane in a fungus, cercospora cruenta.we examined the biosynthetic pathway of abscisic acid (aba) after isopentenyl diphosphate in a fungus, cercospora cruenta. all oxygen atoms at c-1, -1, -1', and -4' of aba produced by this fungus were labeled with (18)o from (18)o(2). the fungus did not produce the 9z-carotenoid possessing gamma-ring that is likely a precursor for the carotenoid pathway, but produced new sesquiterpenoids, 2e,4e-gamma-ionylideneethane and 2z,4e-gamma-ionylideneethane, along with 2e,4e,6e-allofarnesene. the fungus ...200415618629
antifungal activity of limonoids from khaya ivorensis.chemical investigation of the diethyl ether extract of the stem bark of khaya ivorensis a chev (meliaceae) afforded ten limonoids of angolensates, ring d-opened limonoids and mexicanolides. the structures of the limonoids isolated were determined by comparison of their (1)h and (13)c nmr data with those reported in the literature. these compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea pers. methyl 6-hydroxyangolensate and 3,7-dideacetylk ...200515619711
thiobutacin, a novel antifungal and antioomycete antibiotic from lechevalieria aerocolonigenes.a novel butanoic acid, thiobutacin (1), 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxo-2-methylthiobutanoic acid (c11h13no3s), was isolated from the culture broth of a soil actinomycete, lechevalieria aerocolonigenes strain vk-a9. the structure of thiobutacin (1) was elucidated on the basis of the extensive 2d nmr spectral data including 1h-1h cosy, hmbc, hmqc, roesy, and noesy. thiobutacin (1) showed antioomycete and antifungal activity against phytopathogenic phytophthora capsici and botrytis cinerea and the yeast s ...200415620255
yeasts as biological agents to control botrytis cinerea.yeasts, isolated from different sources, were identified and tested for inhibition using yma-mb plates seeded with botrytis cinerea strains. a total of 42 yeast strains of 20 different species were tested in vitro for antagonism against 18 pathogenic b. cinerea strains. pichia membranifaciens, p. anomala and debaryomyces hansenii displayed the most important inhibitory effect against botrytis strains. in small-scale trials, post-harvest application of p. membranifaciens cyc 1106 to apple wounds ...200415646379
first report of a novel plant lysozyme with both antifungal and antibacterial activities.a novel lysozyme exhibiting antifungal activity and with a molecular mass of 14.4kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds using a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography on poros hs-20. its n-terminal sequence was very different from that of hen egg white lysozyme. its pi was estimated to be above 9.7. the specific act ...200515649419
identification of pathogen-responsive regions in the promoter of a pepper lipid transfer protein gene (caltpi) and the enhanced resistance of the caltpi transgenic arabidopsis against pathogen and environmental stresses.the 5' flanking region of the caltpi gene, which encodes a basic lipid transfer protein, was isolated and characterized from the genomic dna of capsicum annuum. four different regions of the promoter sequence of the caltpi gene were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) coding region. in an agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay, the transcriptional activations of the promoter deletions were examined in tobacco leaves after infection with pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, and treatment ...200515654638
expression of an alpha-1,3-glucanase during mycoparasitic interaction of trichoderma asperellum.trichoderma species have been investigated as biological control agents for over 70 years owing to their ability to antagonize plant pathogenic fungi. mycoparasitism, one of the main mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity of trichoderma strains, depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. the antifungal activity of an alpha-1,3-glucanase (ec, enzymes able to degrade alpha-1,3-glucans and also named mutanases) has been ...200515654887
quantification of allele-specific expression of a gene encoding strawberry polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) using pyrosequencing.recent studies indicate that allele-specific differences in gene expression are a common phenomenon. the extent to which differential allelic expression exists might be underestimated, due to the limited accuracy of the methods used so far. to demonstrate allele-specific expression, we investigated the transcript abundance of six individual, highly homologous alleles of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (fapgip) from octoploid strawberry (fragaria x ananassa). we applied the highly qua ...200515659106
mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the czech republic.toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from czech seed stores. fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., acarus siro l., 1758, caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (zachvatkin, 1973), lepidoglyphus destructor (schrank, 1781), tyrophagus ...200415666776
compartment-specific role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in the response of tomato leaf cells to botrytis cinerea infection.changes in aa-gsh cycle activity following botrytis cinerea infection were studied in tomato whole-leaf extracts as well as in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. the oxidative effect of infection affected all cellular compartments although mitochondria and peroxisomes underwent the most pronounced changes. apart from organelle-specific variations, a general shift of the cellular redox balance towards the oxidative state was found. it was manifested by the significant decline in concent ...200515668222
ups1, an arabidopsis thaliana camalexin accumulation mutant defective in multiple defence signalling pathways.we report the characterization of an arabidopsis thaliana mutant, ups1, isolated on the basis of reduced expression of phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase, a tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme. ups1 also exhibits defects in a wide range of defence responses. after infection with pseudomonas syringae or botrytis cinerea, the expression of genes regulated by both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene pathways is reduced in ups1 compared with wild type. camalexin accumulation in ups1 is grea ...200515703055
determination of pathogen-related enzyme action by mass spectrometry analysis of pectin breakdown products of plant cell analytical approach using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the structural characterization and assessment of the degree of polymerization of cell wall pectin-derived oligosaccharides (pdos) in three regions of botrytis cinerea-infected tomato fruit tissue is described. the pdos were isolated from lesion centers (extensively macerated tissue), the area just beyond visible lesion margins, and healthy and intact tissue of an inoculated fruit, sampled at a distanc ...200515707937
in vitro attachment of phylloplane yeasts to botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotinia homoeocarpa.the ability of yeasts to attach to hyphae or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi has been speculated to contribute to biocontrol activity on plant surfaces. attachment of phylloplane yeasts to botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotinia homoeocarpa was determined using in vitro attachment assays. yeasts were incubated for 2 d on potato dextrose agar (pda) prior to experimentation. a total of 292 yeasts cultured on pda were screened for their ability to attach to conidia of b. cinerea; 260 ...200415714235
signal transduction by tga3, a novel g protein alpha subunit of trichoderma atroviride.trichoderma species are used commercially as biocontrol agents against a number of phytopathogenic fungi due to their mycoparasitic characterisitics. the mycoparasitic response is induced when trichoderma specifically recognizes the presence of the host fungus and transduces the host-derived signals to their respective regulatory targets. we made deletion mutants of the tga3 gene of trichoderma atroviride, which encodes a novel g protein alpha subunit that belongs to subgroup iii of fungal galph ...200515746364
a novel pentacyclic triterpene from leontodon filii.a novel oleanene triterpenetetrol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of leontodon filii. its structure was shown to be 2beta,3beta,15alpha,21beta-olean-12-ene-2,3,15,21-tetrol by chemical and spectroscopic methods. the fungicidal efficacy of the chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant was also evaluated, a protective effect being found against plasmopara viticola, botrytis cinerea, particularly powerful against pyricularia oryzae.200515752627
in situ development and application of cdna-aflp to isolate genes of candida oleophila (strain o) potentially involved in antagonistic properties against botrytis cinerea.the yeast candida oleophila (strain o) presents a high level of protective activity against botrytis cinerea (gray mold) on postharvest apples. the cdna-aflp technique allows the comparison of mrna populations extracted from cells grown in different conditions. in order to isolate yeast genes potentially involved in biological control properties, that technique was applied on strain o cells growing on apple wounds. the biological control properties of 8 c. oleophila strains and strain o were ass ...200415756845
biocontrol agents of botrytis cinerea tested in climate chambers by making artificial infection on tomato reduce the use of chemical agents, that are causing damage to the environment, in the fight against botrytis cinerea, different bca's were tested for their possibility to control botrytis cinerea in a biological way. in order to investigate the effectiveness of the different micro organisms and elot-vis, experiments were carried out in climate chambers with 5 weeks old tomato plants. leafs on the plant were inoculated with drops of a suspension that contained spores of botrytis cinerea. the p ...200415756850
different products for biological control of botrytis cinerea examined on wounded stem tissue of tomato plants.for the moment the agents that are used against botrytis cinerea, in glasshouses were tomatoes are cultivated, are from chemical origin. for reducing the use of chemical agents in the future it is important to search for effective biological control agents against the fight of botrytis cinerae. the following biological products vital pasta, vital gel and elot-vis were examined in there possibility to control botrytis cinerea. elot vis was tested out in experiments that were carried out in climat ...200415756851
signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.signum, a new fungicide developed by basf, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. the product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. both components in the premix formulation combine two different bi ...200415756865
[genetic analysis and relationship to pathogenicity in botrytis cinerea].botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus that produces the disease known as grey mould in a wide variety of agriculturally important hosts in many countries. ten strains from different locations collected on different years have been isolated and characterized by several methods (morphological, biochemical, genetical and molecular). results showed that clear morphological differences exist between strains, and showing a relationship between the presence of sclerotia and pathogenicity. the c ...200015762780
[pathogenicity factors in botrytis cinerea].botrytis cinereais an important plant pathogenic fungi with a wide host range, which can make use of different infection mechanisms. although genetic variation for resistance to b. cinereahas been observed within some species, no gene-for-gene relationship has been found. the development of resistant genotypes is, therefore, complicated. any attempt to develop control strategies makes it necessary a detailed knowledge of both the fungal infection mechanisms and the plant defence mechanisms. the ...200015762781
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas.a series of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas (2) have been synthesized in a six-step, three-pot reaction sequence from readily available cyclododecanone, cycloheptanone, and cyclohexanone. their structures were confirmed by ir, 1h nmr, and elemental analysis. the bioassay indicated that some of them possess certain fungicidal activity against gibberella zeae petch. in general, compounds containing a 12-membered ring (2a) are more active than those containing a 6- or 7-membered ring (2b, 2c). in the ...200515769157
favolon b, a new triterpenoid isolated from the chilean mycena sp. strain 96180.a new biologically active triterpenoid, favolon b (1), was isolated from fermentation broths of mycena sp. strain 96180. favolon b showed antifungal activities towards botrytis cinerea, mucor miehei, paecilomyces variotii and penicillium notatum. no activities were observed against bacteria and yeasts. the structure of favolon b was elucidated by spectroscopic techniques.200515813182
the use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions.plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. this can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. we have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of uv compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of uv or (c) increased the ratio of red (r) : far-red (fr) radiation. both the uv-transparent ...200515819600
arabidopsis ssi2-conferred susceptibility to botrytis cinerea is dependent on eds5 and pad4.loss of a stearoyl-acp desaturase activity in the arabidopsis thaliana ssi2 mutant confers susceptibility to the necrotroph, botrytis cinerea. in contrast, the ssi2 mutant exhibits enhanced resistance to pseudomonas syringae, peronospora parasitica, and cucumber mosaic virus. the altered basal resistance to these pathogens in the ssi2 mutant plant is accompanied by the constitutive accumulation of elevated salicylic acid (sa) level and expression of the pathogenesis-related 1 (pr1) gene, the ina ...200515828688
spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.after harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. the most common bacterial agents are erwinia carotovora, pseudomonas spp., corynebacterium, xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with e. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, colleto ...200515839403
fungal pathogen-induced changes in the antioxidant systems of leaf peroxisomes from infected tomato plants.peroxisomes, being one of the main organelles where reactive oxygen species (ros) are both generated and detoxified, have been suggested to be instrumental in redox-mediated plant cell defence against oxidative stress. we studied the involvement of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) leaf peroxisomes in defence response to oxidative stress generated upon botrytis cinerea pers. infection. the peroxisomal antioxidant potential expressed as superoxide dismutase (sod, ec, catalase (cat, ...200515843961
isolation and antifungal activity of kakuol, a propiophenone derivative from asarum sieboldii antifungal substance active against colletotrichum orbiculare (berk & mont) arx was isolated from the methanol extracts of asarum sieboldii (miq) maek rhizomes. high-resolution ms, nmr and uv spectral data confirmed that the antifungal substance is kakuol, 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone. colletotrichum orbiculare was most sensitive to kakuol, with mic of 10 microg ml(-1). kakuol also completely inhibited the mycelial growth of botrytis cinerea pers ex fr and cladosporium cucumerinu ...200515846774
proteomic response of the biological control fungus trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of rhizoctonia solani.trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as rhizoctonia solani and botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of t. atroviride (t. harzianum p1) grown on media containing either glucose or r. solani cell walls. protein profiles were compared to identify t. atroviride proteins up-regu ...200515856359
antifungal properties of surangin b, a coumarin from mammea longifolia.the natural product electron transport inhibitor surangin b was examined for its ability to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth and spore germination in several species of fungi. as an inhibitor of mycelial growth, surangin b showed strongest activity against rhizoctonia solani (ic50 = 3.8 microm) and botrytis cinerea (ic50 = 11.2 microm). inhibitory effects were less pronounced in alternaria dauci, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium sp. (ic50 values > 30 microm) and absent in trichoderma harzianum ...200515856416
phaseococcin, an antifungal protein with antiproliferative and anti-hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activities from small scarlet runner beans.from the seeds of small scarlet runner beans (phaseolus coccineus 'minor'), an antifungal protein with an n-terminal sequence homologous to those of defensins was isolated. the antifungal protein bound to affi-gel blue gel and mono s but it did not bind to deae-cellulose. it was further purified by gel filtration on a superdex peptide column. it exhibited a molecular mass of 5422 da as determined by mass spectrometry. the protein, designated as phaseococcin, suppressed mycelial growth in a numbe ...200515864329
chemical characterization and antifungal activity of essential oil of capitula from wild indian tagetes patula l.the essential oil extracted by steam distillation from the capitula of indian tagetes patula, asteraceae, was evaluated for its antifungal properties and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. thirty compounds were identified, representing 89.1% of the total detected. the main components were piperitone (24.74%), piperitenone (22.93%), terpinolene (7.8%), dihydro tagetone (4.91%), cis-tagetone (4.62%), limonene (4.52%), and allo-ocimene (3.66%). the oil exerted ...200515868213
volatile c6-aldehydes and allo-ocimene activate defense genes and induce resistance against botrytis cinerea in arabidopsis leafy volatiles or isoprenoids are produced after mechanical wounding or pathogen/herbivore attacks in higher plants. we monitored expression profiles of the genes involved in defense responses upon exposing arabidopsis thaliana to the volatiles. among the genes investigated, those known to be induced by mechanical wounding and/or jasmonate application, such as chalcone synthase (chs), caffeic acid-o-methyltransferase (comt), diacylglycerol kinase1 (dgk1), glutathione-s-transferase1 (gst1) ...200515879447
physicochemical properties and bioactivity of fungal chitin and chitosan.chitinous material was extracted from mycelia of aspergillus niger and mucor rouxii grown in yeast peptone dextrose broth for 15 and 21 days, respectively. the extracted material was characterized for purity, degree of acetylation, and crystallinity and tested for antibacterial and eliciting properties. the maximum glucosamine level determined in the mycelium of a. niger was 11.10% dw and in the mycelium of m. rouxii was 20.13% dw. on the basis of the stepwise extraction of freeze-dried mycelia, ...200515884813
antagonistic activity of a natural fungal population towards pathogenic bacteria. an in vitro the present work, we performed in vitro testing of 33 species of fungi of the subdivision deuteromycotina isolated from water and sediment of the kolubara river for antagonistic action towards 11 species of pathogenic bacteria. of gram-negative bacteria, the species most sensitive to metabolic fluid of the fungi were proteus mirabilis, salmonella enteritidis, and shigella sonnei, while the most resistant were klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhimurium. of gram-positive bacteria, the mos ...200515889346
vulgarinin, a broad-spectrum antifungal peptide from haricot beans (phaseolus vulgaris).from the seeds of haricot beans (phaseolus vulgaris), an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kda was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on superdex 75. this peptide named vulgarinin manifested an antifungal activity toward fungal species such as fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalospora piricola and botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on mycobacterium phlei, bacillus megater ...200515896669
the strawberry gene cyf1 encodes a phytocystatin with antifungal est, encoding a strawberry phytocystatin (phycys) obtained from a developing fruit of fragariaxananassa cv. elsanta has been characterized. the corresponding gene (cyf1) had three introns interrupting its orf that codes for a protein (facpi-1) of 235 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 29 residues and an estimated molecular mass for the mature protein of 23.1 kda. this protein contains, besides a c-terminal extension, several motifs conserved in all members of the phycys sup ...200515897228
n-benzoyl-n'-dialkylthiourea derivatives and their co(iii) complexes: structure, and antifungal.n-(morpholinothiocarbonyl) benzamide (c(12)h(14)n(2)o(2)s) and n-(piperidylthiocarbonyl) benzamide (c(13)h(16)n(2)os) and their co(iii) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ftir and nmr methods. the complex co(c(12)h(14)n(2)o(2)s)(3), crystallizes in the triclinic space group p1, with z=2, and unit cell parameters, a=12.080(7)a, b=12.195(7)a, c=13.025(6)a, alpha=90.198(7) degrees, beta=95.721(7) degrees, gamma=106.426(9) degrees, v=1830.4(17)a(3). the antifung ...200515917085
nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in tomato resistance. nitric oxide modulates hydrogen peroxide level in o-hydroxyethylorutin-induced resistance to botrytis cinerea in tomato.nitric oxide (no) has been postulated to be required, together with reactive oxygen species (ros), for activation of disease resistance reactions of plants to infection with a pathogen or elicitor treatment. however, biochemical mechanisms by which ros and no participate in these reactions are still under intensive study and controversial debate. we previously demonstrated that o-hydroxyethylorutin when applied on tomato leaves (lycopersicon esculentum mill. cv. "perkoz") restricted botrytis cin ...200515922611
an arabidopsis homeodomain transcription factor, overexpressor of cationic peroxidase 3, mediates resistance to infection by necrotrophic pathogens.the mechanisms controlling plant resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens are poorly understood. we previously reported on ep5c, a gene shown to be induced by the h(2)o(2) generated during a plant-pathogen interaction. to identify novel plant components operating in pathogen-induced signaling cascades, we initiated a large-scale screen using arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of the h(2)o(2)-responsive ep5c promoter. here, we report the ide ...200515923348
sesquin, a potent defensin-like antimicrobial peptide from ground beans with inhibitory activities toward tumor cells and hiv-1 reverse antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kda and an n-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensin was isolated from ground beans (vigna sesquipedalis cv. 'ground bean'). the peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and on mono s. it exerted an antifungal action on botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola; and an antibacterial action on escherichia coli b, proteus vulgaris, mycobacterium phlei and bacillus megaterium. the antimicrobial activity was inh ...200515949629
molecular and functional characterization of a fructose specific transporter from the gray mold fungus botrytis the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea, spore germination and plant infection are stimulated in the presence of nutrients, in particular sugars. applied at micromolar concentrations, fructose is a more potent inducer of germination than glucose. to test whether preferred fructose uptake is responsible for this effect, and to study the mechanism of fructose transport in b. cinerea, a gene (frt1) encoding a fructose transporter was cloned. frt1 is highly similar to recently identified fructose t ...200515950157
evaluation of thin films of agarose on glass for hybridization of dna to identify plant pathogens with microarray technology.agarose-coated glass slides, after activation, were spotted with amine-modified oligonucleotide probes using a manual eight-pin arraying device. two probes, designed to identify two common greenhouse fungal plant pathogens, didymella bryoniae and botrytis cinerea, were hybridized with polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified fluorescently labeled dna extracted from pure culture and from diseased plant tissue. the probes easily distinguished these pathogens from each other without cross reaction ...200515958185
the g protein alpha subunit tga1 of trichoderma atroviride is involved in chitinase formation and differential production of antifungal metabolites.trichoderma mycoparasitism includes recognition, attack, overgrowth and lysis of the host fungus accompanied by morphological changes and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics. studying the underlying signal transduction pathways, the tga1 gene encoding a galpha subunit of trichoderma atroviride p1 was analysed. a deltatga1 mutant showed continuous sporulation and elevated internal steady-state camp levels. tga1 gene deletion resulted in a complete loss of mycoparasitic overgrowth and ...200515964222
isolation of an n-alkylated benzylamine derivative from pseudomonas putida btp1 as elicitor of induced systemic resistance in bean.root treatment of phaseolus vulgaris with the nonpathogenic pseudomonas putida btp1 led to significant reduction of the disease caused by the pathogen botrytis cinerea on leaves. the molecular determinant of p. putida btp1 mainly responsible for the induced systemic resistance (isr) was isolated from cell-free culture fluid after growth of the strain in the iron-poor casamino acid medium. mass spectrometry analyses performed on both the bacterial product and synthetic analogues revealed a polyal ...200515986926
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